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Congress J ona] C,r\ e cim ont . 



P R E F A C L 






^ Of The ohjeiit of thes^ ef^says is, not. to axhaust eritieisr"! of 
the fovernrent of t!^e 'Jnit3d St.at.^5?, i-iut only tr, point out ino 
nO''t oharacto r i st i e praetijaj features of the fedaraJ gysten. 
Takine Conpnss as the cent raJ an' predoninant power of t"? 
.system, thear oHj-iot. is to illustrate ^v-srythinc Uoiu r ess lonai . 
Lveryhody has s^en, and critics v*ithout. nur;>>er hav3 said, that 
our forr: -f national gove riime nt is singular, possessing a char- 
acter alto£-ather its ov/nj hut ther? is a'^undant evidence that 
• ery f ivv ha^- e seea just wherein it differs most a -^s 3i.t iai ly 
<■ ron the other t! o\-e rni'e nt s of the v/orld. Ther3 ha\- 3 heen and 
are other federal systems quite sir-iilar. and scarcely any laf- 
] si at ire or a-ir-^ inis t rat i\-e principle of our C onst i tut ir.n was 
youne 9ven when that Constitution was framsrd. It is our log- 
islati^e and a 'min i st r it iv e machine r y \^hich makes our fcoverii- 
nent assert ially di^fer^nt from, all other great gove rni.ient ai 
syster s. Vhe most stri;^inp contrast in modern poiitics is. not 
between pre s i .'ent ial aiid monarchical t ova rnmeiit s , hut batwaan 
Conrr ess ional and Parliamentary rovami^ent s . Conpr ess i onai 

f^'e rr.-'e nt is COrfitte"" f-r,"-^ r-^' "^r^ ■ '''ar]ia'"e tary ^^n-y- -> r^v '■'^nt 
i -^ o'-ernm.ent by a responsibje Cabinet Ministry. These a r •? the 
t'..'^ nriricina] tvne^ wh i ?b r'^r^Tr,* t he'^'se 1 a- •■> t ^r.r t>^e initf'ic- 



tlon of tho iiodTT/i student, of t. n^ pract, ieaJ In -'O j i t i ,j?5 : adr-jn- 
istration ^y ssni - ind'^pendont, exio itiv? atieiit.g y/ho o^ey t.ha 
'jctatior. r,r ^ lepiglat.ura to v/hioh they ar3 no^ r ? 't)oii3 i '"il ■? , 
and adnini St rat ion ' *>y axeeutiv^ agent?? v/ho ar? the aoonditad 
leaders and accoiintaMe servants of a \e ^is l^tnrri virtual iy g-.i- 
praina in all things. My chief aim in, thasT assays nas ^ti-na, 
thinfor^, an adaouat-T i i lu?;+ ra* j v^* eo)it rast of tiiosa tv.""' typis 
of c '^va rn'/ian^ , with a viaw t '■ inakine as flain as possible tha 
actual conditions of fadaral administration. In short, I offar^ 
not a eo: n'-jent ary , hut an outspokan nresant at i on of such cardin- 
al facts as may ba sr.urcas of practioai sue 6*3 fJ^*- ion. 



s»al t i-nra . J.1d.,rct. 7t,h..ir)^ 



Woodrow V^ilson, 



1^ 



* > 



U N ('. F E S S I n N A L r, r V l: H N II 1, N T . 
1 n ^ r o '. u J ^ o r y . 

' '/ ' iaws r-iae'n but, a v^ry 1 j 1 1 i r^ >vay . Const i tut o pov- 
^rnmnnt. hr.\. you pi easo , j i.f jni te 1 y tlrs groat.'jr part, of 
it must dspoiid upon th'^ ox-?reis3 of pr.\/'3 rn , v/^^i -'M ar-"? 
j-!''t, at lari:^ to thR prudTj.es and uprjehtness of iv.inir,- 
tors of stato. Even all th«; use am' potency of tne 
Jaws d^pTiids upni:i th'^n. V'jtnr.ut them ynir eornr-'.onwnai t n 
js nr. h«tt->r tnan a s.jh'^ine upoix paper; and i-.ot a Jivij-t, 
aj t ive , e r f 3ct Jve or£ an J zat i on. " - Burko. 

"ThT er=>at fault of poljtjeaj \,r.it?rs is t>^9ir f>:r> ei'-se 
adh^nnee to the forr-:s of the s^'sten of state y/hjoh they 
-appei. to be expounding or exarninine- TMey stop short 
at the anatony of inst i tut ions , and do not penetrat-> tr, 
the secret of their functions." - John Morley. 

I ♦■ \,^i] ' -^i-jen-! as if a very \,'ayv.'arr' fortiine )-iad presided o^ e r 

t -^ -jcfr.r" r.r tb.-? c^ncst 1 t ut i r.i r, f the 'Jnited states, inasmuch- 

t»^at creat federal jbarter has been alternately ^-iolate-" by 

1 ♦■ s r'rieiuls an'' defeiided by its eneries. It earie hard by its 

- sta^l i 7hrnent in the first place, prevaiilne with difficulty 

'-••'.•er the strenuous forces of dissent \.h.ich v.er-^ banded iii/.xj ^.^^ 

]t. '"hile its adoption \.as under discussion the T-ojces of 

:rjticisrxi were many and authoritative, the voices of opposition 

.--ud in trne ai.'" oninons m •^'•lume, and the federalists f anally 

triump^had oi^ly by dint of hard battle against foes f'-r:.Ddabje 

r.fy- 1 V-S ,i,iM:; li, skill. I^Ut ^ >>^ ' l.^tr, r-- v ''. " , ' r, i • . I "> t ^ - 

istoni shinf 1 y complete. ("nee established, tne ne\.' goTernment 

a^ oiii • t-^ z-al of itr: frxv.-i's tr fTar. Ij.'""'', ^^♦-r -i ^ r 
r' rr nni zat : on one hears \ery little more of the party of op- 
o" it ion; they disappear so entirely from politics that or.? is 



• iOlJned to t.hinlt. ii. Ir.r.icine hack at thi party history of that 
t jT:!'? , that t^^-jy must hav3 hTon not orJ y coiiqu'^red ^ut coavertod 
.1 Y^ail. T'""^r-» v,af5 \,'T 1 J - zii r^. urilTirnai aequ i t s o thc t in thT na.i 
ordir of thiiiCS. Not -jve ry hody , indeed, profeas'^r' hjm'^eif a 
'■ ■> 'T ral j St . ■ ut ?\->rybody cr.^.f o ri.-nd to fodara^ist praetioo. 
There v/er'J jaaiousJTs and ^ ie.c^ r infs , of course, in thi iiT„ 

'->ntr3ss of tnn /nioi.. '-^'it no party i j ne s , ai.d the dJ f f i r ".x.a ^ 
v.'hieh caused th-; constant '-ir-'\.inK and break Jnc of storms in 

ashineton's first Cabjnet v/ere of ner^oiial ratr^r than of pn- 
.itical Jrnport, HanJlton and Jefferson did not drav; apart be- 
ans? thT one had b.?en an arder.t and the othir onJy a Jukewarrn 
'■r-'=!i:r' r^r t- i ^ Const i tut io:. so much as bTea'ise t -> -? ^ \. •? r ^ sr, 'lif- 
erent in naturl '->ent axid temper that they v<ouId have been 
i 1 . ■! to disa£-rei arid 0^;.:^ to dra\,n poJnts v.herT\er or ho\;e\?r 
f-ijght jnto contact. The one had inherited warn, blood and a 
old sacaeJty, v.hile in th-? other a n9gati\-e philosophy ran 
uitably throuL-"* cool -v-eiXiS. They had not b=?on m.eant for yoke- 
'ello\.s. 

There v/as 1 ■? s s antaioXiism Jn Uoj.t re-s, ^o\. ^•(•-ir. thar. in the 
IT Cabinet I and in none of the c-nt roT- ^ rs ies that did ar.^se 
-." *"ere sho\.n any serious d j spo.=; i t j on to quarrTi \,:t:\ t ne 
onstitutiOi. itself; th^ eoiitention v/as as fi t'le obedience ^to 
"• r?..der-»d to its provisjoiis. No 0..9 threatened to \.it:-noid 
is allegiance, though then soon be pan to be some exhi^^itioji 
^ a disposition to confine ohndienee fr th'^ I'^f^'^r of t - 'j ne\. 



( ^} 

onirnandnsj.t s . and to d J scr.unt ei^anon a] J at,t9mp>t.R to do \.nat ^.ar; 
'^t plainly v.rjt.tT in th^ taMQ<5 of thi law. Tt y/a.^ r->ooe- 

i/,"i^ IS i.r lr.:.f >r :f \s^ i oi.a'-i] => f r. na^' an^'ht a{-air.st thT prii.- 
cipies of t-h'? C'-.p-s t. j t ut ion j 'ivit all m-^n er.uid i.ot b^ of on3 

Jnd, and political parMas botn-u to tako forra in anta^o^ii s t i j 
•jhools o^ constitutional eoij^; t met ion. Th-'^n :^ t rai(jhtvay a- 
rr.s'i t\;r. riial seets of noiitioal pharisf??s, -3aeh profossai.£ a 

n n perfi^et eor.fomity and aff^etinf greater "eorirnonial el?a,-.- 
liness'' than tho other. Thf? ■> o ry men v«ho had nsistad \,ith 

it:''-t and main the adopt io.. of tn--? Constitution bgeame , under 
' h^ j.n\, division of parties, its ohampioiis, ts stie;-:iers for a 
■♦■rjct. , a ri£:id and literal, '^'-•n'^ t rne t ion . 

They were oonsist-ent enough in thJs, because it v.a" quite 

atural t.'^at their '••i:3- 1 ir-T fiar of a st.ront central cO'^' ^ rrjTnfint 
s'^uld pass into a dread o-f the still furt^^er expansion of the 

o-,.er of that £o\-ernivent by a too loose coiist rue t. i on of its 

■^irt^r; but what I would emphasize here is i^nt the motives or 
the policy of the conduct of parties ii; our early national pol- 
ities, '-^ut the fact f>'.<.f o -, ir, ^i i t 1 <-, !• t. r, t^--> Un;-, c; t i t ij t. T r, )-i as a 
constitution, and even hostile criticism of its provisions, 

lased almost immediately uno.. its adoptioii, and not only ceas- 
e ' ' ut . av e place to an und i se r iminat inf and almost blind \,or- 
-•. : p of its prii.ciples, and of tl^at ..'elicat-^ dual ^ystorr. of 
so\-jriienty and that cor i'licated scheme of dot,v,j -» adr^inist ra- 
tion \.hich it established. Admiratio.. of that r...e-*' ^ - •- 



(4) 

tr.ivirs?'^ '^r.dv of lav,' hecano rsuciilonly all t.he voguo and orit ic- 
1 sm v.'as ?stopp3d. hron t.hs first, av^n d^^;n to the time imined- 
- f -> J • • ii r "? J "5 d i n( + h ■» \< > r t h "; > "' m r ' i ?? u* r> ?r? ? of t. '■• ■; G '■• n r^ t t t 1 1 1 i o r, 
Yi-^nt uncjhal J 'Sliced ; nul 1 if i cat, ion its'^lf did iiot aJv/ayg vnar 3 1 r? 
true gar'-, of jiid^p^i. ' uit stat3 sov t r ? i f.i t.y , ^ut oft^n rna'^quor- 
aded as a eons t j fit ioiial right; and tli'? most violent poliei-is 
took ear-? to nake show of at least formal defsreiios to the v,'or- 
shipful fundamental law. The dJvJne right of kiiigs never ran 
a more prosperous course than did tnis unquestioned prerogativT 
r~ r t> -> Cor.cjt j t ut j or. to {•-^^'i'i^'^ un j"".'e r r;al homage. Thi convic- 
tion that our institutions \.ere the best in tn.e world, nay non, 
the n:odel to \.hich all civilized states must sootier or later 
co^.form, could not b"? laughed out of us hy foreign critics nor 
shaken out of us by t e routnest .jars of the system. 

Nov; there is, of covirse, riotning in ail this that i ^5 inex- 
pjieabi? or e\ en remarkable; anyone can see tt^e reasons f'-r it 
and the bernf its of it v.'it':out going far out o ^' his v;ay; but 
■} point v.'hich it is interTsting to r.ote is t-^at v/e of the 

n ^ -• t generation are in the <" i r '^ t seasrn of f r "■ "> , i-.i! t c;no;; ->n . 

..re-trained constitutional critjcisr;!. V'e are the first Aner- 
■ .'c.ns to >--'}ar our '-•\,n coui*t ry:.en ask v/ret.-.-^r the (Joi;r5 1 j t ut ion 

•■ St ill adapted to serve the purposes for vvhieh it was mten'- 
ed; the first to entertain any serious doubts a'-out tne super- 
iority of our o\,n ins t j t '1 1 j oxiS as compared \; i t r^ t '- e svsteris of 
■rope; the first to think of romo-Jeiiing t '^ e adr nni st rat 3\-e 



• e^inery of t. -^ -; f -> '->raJ r'"-< t rnrnsiit, and r. f fr. reint; r.ev; f'-'Trnr? o ' 
r-'^pAH'^i^iJit. y upon Conpre^s. 

'i'ri-? •" idmt, expl anat. lo r. *■ t h i r. er'.ar.h ■> ^.f .1 1 ' j t, ^f' -> fr,\.ar'!T 
ths Const, j t.ut. ion is that, wa havo bmn rnada conscious hy ttr? 
ru!-; snoe;: o^ t.h^ war and ^y su'T-eqiiont dTvoi opinent .t of poji.^y 
^ nat t.ner^ !'as been a vast aiterat ion in thT conditions of ipov- 
=? riifnent ; that the e;^?eks and balances which one*? obtain. Td an 
:.o lonr^r Tffictjve; and that \v 3 ar-i r^alJy 1 i\- inL und^r a co;;- 
st station essentially different fron that v/hioh we havT be'jn so 
lonr \. o rs;-^ ipp inc as our ov/n peculiar and iiieorn:'arabl e possens- 
ioii. In short, *4t^ model toveriiinent is no lont^f conformable 

A 

. -it:- it.s own origii-al pattern. Vhile \.e have been shielding it 
from critic isi.; it nas slipped away fr^.r.-; us. The noble charter 
of fundamental law eivei. us by the Convention of irhJZ ] -5 stiii 
our Jo. . St i tut ion, but if is nov; our form of ^oi ernnent rather 
in name than in reality, t^e f'-.rn of the Constitution beint one 
'■•f nicely ac! justed, JdeaJ 'valances, >/rJlst t'^e actual fori.', of 
ir prese:it povernineixt is sin.ply a scheme o^ Congressional su- 
rmacy. Natiorial 1 T;. 1 si a^ io;. , of course, ta-'.es ^r.^-i-^ \\<-^\: as 
at first from the authority of the Constitution, hut it would 
T easy t'-> reckon by the score Acts of Com ress v.-ficn can by no 
?ans be squared v.'ith that great instrument's evident theory. 
' e conti..ue to t^^ink, indeed, accordiiif to 1 r.r.r - accept ed eon- 
^Mt'itjr.nal f'-'rrnli.e, and it i" stil] pol i t. i o.al 1 v unorthodox to 
er. ,irt from ol '-time phra'^eolopy in grave diseussio;.-^ o*" if- 



(6) 
fairs; Hut it ir, plain t n those who lool^ about therp that most 
r. f tho eommoiil y- rraee ived opinions er-ncTrning foderaJ cjonstitu- 
tional baianoes and adrni ni s t rat iv «? ar ranpemeiit s ar-^ many ysars 
'-ehind t. he actual prajtiees r<r th^ f ovo rnr-'-^iit a*- \"-y"^ t j-pf r,:. , 
and that we an f.irther than nr.st '•■ f us naiaze from tlr? tim^n 
■•nd th«? p'-ljjy of tho franers of the Constitution. It is a 
eomr:;on- pi ac ■} r.bs;; rvat ion of hist'-rians that in the d -jto 1 opmeiit 
^T (2'^nst i tut j C'l.s names are much more persistent than the func- 
tions upon which they were originally bestov/ed; that institu- 
tions constantly undergf^ essential alteratifMis of character 
..hil'^t ret.ainJi.E the names conferred upon then ii. their first 
estate: and the history of our own Constitution is but another 
illustration of tnis uni\ersal principle of imtitutional 
change. Ther^ has been a constant gr'-y/th of leri^^lative and 
adr iini s t rat ive practice and a steady accretion of precedent, i^. 
the managemeiit of federal affairs which have broadened the 
spi^ere and altered the functioi,g of the gove rnnent \/jthout per- 
ceptibly affectiiig t.he vocabulary of our constitutional laii- 
guage . Ours is, sc.i. rceiy 1 e - s than the British., a lining and 
<'ejund system. It -ioes not, indeed, find jts rootage so wide- 
^y in the hidden soil of unwritten law; its tap-root at least 
is the C^i.s t i t'lt i oil j but th"* constitution is now, like Magna 
.^harta and the BJll of Pights, only the san-centre of a system 
of government vastly larger thaii the stoc; f roii \.n3cn it ha-^ 



1 



'^rano^.Td - a ^lystei.i sr..M«? of \,hosra f'-'r[:;s hav9 ojii y vory iiidi"?- 
t. Jnet and rudimeiit.al hegjniiinfs in the simple substaneo of t.hT 
Cor.s t 1 1 ut. ] on . and v/nio.'"'. exe Tvj J s'^ ■-: many f uj^.e t, ir.iiS appannt.jy 
quit.9 fnreicn t.o f.ho prirnjtive propert.jes eontained in t.ha fun- 
damental law. 

Th'? Constitution itsf^lf is not a enrnplet--? syst.Trn; it takTs 
non'i 'lut thi first st=?ns in o rj^ ani zat ion. It do=is litt^n nor^ 
than lay a f '••undat ioii of prineiplis. It- provides \.ith all pos- 
sible ^n\ity for the establishment of a t;overi.m?nt ha-<'ine, i'^- 
s'^v^ral distinct branches, exe cut i\'e , l^cisiative, and judicial 
powers. It vfists executive pov/er in a single cnief magistrate, 
'■'"•r whose election and inaugurat i f.n it makes carefuiiv definite 
. rov i s i or. , and whose pri\ile£es and prerogatives it defines with 
su'jcinet clearness; it praii+s specifically enumerated p'-'V/ers of 
^?tisIation to a r epr e - ent at i^• e vJongress, outiiiiint ♦'he orga;,- 
ization of the two houses of that body and definitely providing 
'"or the election of its i.:em^-<ers, wr>ose number it ret'ui a-t e '^ and 
^ "-" e conditions of v/hose choice it names; and it establishes a 
iiupreme C'-'urt \.nth arr.ple authority of C'-'nn t 1 1 ut i oi.aJ ir.terpre- 
tatior., prescribine the m.anne r in which its jud^as shall he ap- 
pointed and the conditions o^ their official tenure. iler^ the 
C'-'i.s t 1 1, '1 1. 1 r,;; ' c; \,r,r',; <- f r, f (_■ an 3 z a t 1 On ends, and t n -> fact t >^ at it 
attempts nothinj more is its chief strenfth. ['or it, t.r, go se- 
'-.nd elerneiitary provisions v/'-'Ul ' ■- ^ ^ r. ]osi elasticity and a'- 
?tability. The grov/th of t)>.e nation and the c-'iisequent devel- 



(3) 

oprnsnt of t.he eovernnfJiit, al syst.rarn would ."snap as'indsr a eonfst, jt.- 
ution v.'hieh or-uld not. adapt, jtsilf t <-■ ths x^ov/ eoiiditious of an 
advaneinc s'-'Oiety. If it ooiiid n'-'t .stf^tori itg^if %n tm nr^ag- 
ur3 of to:; tir^i.c!, it nijest n -? trr^iv/n o^f .anH J ^^ f t 'mnind, as a 

v-fone d??v3e-5; and tn?n can, t h-; r ■; f r.rs , h? n--' quTstJon that 
-•ir C'-'Hs 1 3 tut ion ha.-s provod I.a.stinf bTcausT of its s Drnpi le ] t y . 
It is X corn^r-stom, i.ot a aonpi-^ta '-luildinc; or, ratnir, to 
r-TMirn to t'--, ^ old fDfur^, it is a root, not a porf'iet vin";. 

The ehi3f fact, thiraforfj, of our natioiial nist'-ry is that 
'"ron this vieourous tap- root has frown a vast constitutional 
system, a system ^ranehinr and exnandirif. ir- stat-!itTs and ju:-'ie- 
ial deeisior.s, as well .is in unwritten precedent; and oni r.f 
t v> -. -r.of stri:.;inf facts, as it seems to me, in the history of 
■ ir polities is that that system has ^e^'er received com.plete 
and com.petTi:t critical treatment at the hands of any, even the 
most acuto, of our constitutional \.rJters. They •\-ie\; it as it 
. "^re from behind. Their thoughts are dominated, it w-^Mjd seem, 

y those incomparable paner.T of the Federalist whieli, though 
they were ..ritten to iiifiuence oniy the yr.t^rs of 173.J, stjii, 
. ]tn a straiife, p -j r s i s t e.-.t longevity of p'-.wer, shao-" t n •. .^r.^- 
stitut Tonal criticism, of the present day, ohscurinc much of 
f^^t •-'->' ?i opmeut of c-'ii- t it ut iOiL ^,i practice \/hict>. has since 
t a',^ei: place. The Cons t i tut i oii in operation is m.anifestly a voyy 
'■!f''ere:.t thinr from the Cons t i tut lOii of the hr.o,;s . "An ohs-?r- 



( n 

■■? r v.'^o look-? at tho Ijvjnt r'?aljt,y will wrvixrigr -At t.hq cciitrast. 
to the papor dose r i pt, j on. Ho \.ill s'?^ in t.hT life much wnich 
is : -^t ii. the ^r.o'^-s; an'.' hn \. i I ] ri^^t f ■> n ■" in t, b t rr>uf'h praet. io"? 
many r'?f in'?r>3j.t s of tli? literary theory. " M j •; , t,h->rofr,n, 

f b -. dif'^-'jul* fask of on'? v.hr. \,T.\iJr' now v,rit-> nt r.. o-» -.r^,'ti.j- 
ally and orjtically of our natioiial government to iseape from 
tneorie- and attach nimsTlf to facts, not alio\,iri£ himself to 
be eonfusod hy a knowledge of v.hat that £o\ernrnent was intended 
t, r, v,a r. r led av/ay into c-^n,} ec ture s as to what Jt may om day 

oc-r.'e, nut striving to catch i t. s present phases and to phnto- 
fraph the dolicate organism in all its characteristic parts ex- 
act]^/ as it is to-day; - an un-' i rt akiiif ^^ i- * ^" no n ar'uous 

:^d doubtful of issu? HecausT it has to be entered upon without 
guidance frora ■i.r3t=?r3 of ac;:no^, 1 ed^^ed autr.orjty. 

The leading inquir^- in the exarii nat i o}. of any system of po'.. 
ernment must, of course, cor.cern nrir:~:arJly t i' e r?ai deposita- 
ries and the essential machine r" o^ pov.er. 'i^htr-i is always a 
;3ntr? of power; \.her'? in this system is th\.t centre? m whose 

irids is " Ii '■- s'lf f 1 c i Tilt aut^-r, rity lodfed.ai.d thr^-'Uth what a- 
f fncies d'-.es that authority speak and act? The answers oiie 

■) 1 3 t '- ♦•^-»se kindred quest doiis from authoritative m.anu il s o' 

oust i tut injial exposition are not satisfactory, chiefly because 
••:^ey are cr.nt ra J i c t ed ^y sei '^ - ev i -■ ent ^acts. It is said that 



" These are I'r. Ba{ehr>t's wordg v/it!> reference to the British 
onst i tiit, jonal system.. See his "LneJish Constitution" (last 

. .m e r j c an e d J t i o : , ^ p . 6 9 . 



t'^Tn is no siiiglo or ciut, rai forcT ji. our f'JdTrai soh'?m: and 
so th'in is not in th-> fr?deral seh-'^mq . but only , a haianc? ot 
'■•v.'irr; and a nici adjiistrmnt of int "5 rac t jt- i eh'Jclt^, as .\1 1 tt\t 
'■•ol;s say. Ilovt is it, ho\(Ov=>r, iii th-? praetieaJ oonduet of tho 

^^'^ral for "! rnrnolit '^ In that, unquo s t ioiia^i y , tfn •-. r -.r'r.ni i n;..t 

al J 
r.d eOi t rr.l ] ir.r fr.roT. thi e-Tiitre and source of n^r.t, ive and of 

1 ] i r=?t"ul at iv"? po\;Tr, is Uon^nr-s. y-.i i nio^ti^? of eonstjtu- 
tional restriction and .iv:"?!! rn.any '^r'-'ad prineinl3'^ of c'^ns^itu- 
tional lirnitatioii har-f? been nv-irriddf^n and a the rou^hl y- o rt an- 
iz^'i system of Congressional control sot up which gives a vary 
ru'e negative to some theories of balance and some sehem.es for 
distributed powers but v«hich suits v.ell ^/it>^ conv ej. i -r-.o -; and 
does violence to nr.ne of the principle?^ of se i f - co\'e rnm.ent eoii- 
*ained in the Cons t i t ut i Oi. . 

This fact, however, though evident enoufh, is not on the sur- 
'"ace. 1+ ^'oes not obtrude itself up'"'n the observatioix o *■ * ■ 
\;orld. It runs thr^-ueh the un-lercur rei.t s of c o-^- e ri.riei.t and 
takes si^ape only iii the inner channels of legislation and ad- 
l:.j St ration \;nJoh ,i. re i\r.t npfixi t --. the c'lnnon ■" ie\. . It can be 
iscernad most readily '^y comparing the "iiterary theory" of 
» ^ -> Cons t ] t;jt ion \,-itt^ t h -; actual maehii.ery '■• '' je, i ^ 1 yf i'--.. , ^s- 

ecially at those points where that maehiiiery repulatas the re- 
lations of Coiiiriss \; ] t .: t lie ?xec'it]v-! d "> !)ar tm3i.t s , and \iJt.'< 
'lie attitude of the houser; tr.v.ards the I'upreme C'-'urt oi^ those 
'-ccasions, happily no^ numerous, when letislature and judiciary 



(II) 

v'' » corr^.T faoT to f \a ii: d i r ? ■_' t ant a^ r.xi jsm. 'i'm "j:t,?rriry t.m- 
ory" is distirivit Tnougb ; 'Jvnry AmerJcaii is far ii jar \,ith tho pa- 
p?r pikitur3s of t.ho constitution. l\or,t proi.iinent in such pic- 
tures are f^.-> ideal jt^ec/ts and balanoos of the federal system, 

■•'.aeh may ^e found deserihTd, e-ven i ii the r^ost reeent books, In 
•■ems <5 m'^ -^ t nut i aJ 1 y the s-x: •• ri.r ti-r?^-> MFjed jii l'il<i ^" ^''ohn Ad- 
ams ir. his 1 -e 1 1. -? r to Jr-^n Tavjr. r. "Is tr.ere",says fir. Adams, 

a const i tut ion upon reeor' more eonpj seated v/ltn ^aianoe-^ t na.. 
ourr;? In the first place, eighteen states and some territories 

r^ 'balanced against the national government, -------in 

'■■■'.e secon'' place, the House of Penr e seiit at i\-es is balanced a- 

ainst the Senate, the Senate against the House. In the tnjrd 

i ". c e , t ■" -T a v r> J II t. i■^ ■ -e au t h '■■ r J t y i s , i j . s ''•r • e r"". ^. f r i "i , b a i an 'j e ' a- 

iinst the leeislative. In the fourth place, the judicial pow- 
-■ r is '-^alance' atainst the i-K^use, the Senate, t " e exejutj'--- po-..- 
er, and the State governments. In the fift'^ place, the Senats 
is baianced against tne Presideiit ixi ail anpo i ntm.ent s to office, 
and in all treaties. ---------- ir. the sixth pi ace. the 

eople hold in their hands the balance agaiiist their own repre- 
sentatives, ^y ■'->i er.i.i ai - - - - eiejtions. In the sn-enth 

; ice, f.\:^.-i legislatures of the several states are balanced a- 

■ ■i;-* tv^r. r^-,r,:,t-. 'ir -^^xtennial elections. Ir ^ '^ "■ ->i.ht'^ njaoe, 
the electors are balanced a(ainst the people in the choice o^ 
t ^ -> President. Here is a coi/;;! ^ i c -.^^t -jci refmer-ent of '-'ij ;inj e • 



(12) 
v.'hich, for anything I reoolieet, is an inv'^ntioxi of our o\,n and 
) c'j 1 i a r to us." 

A] J of thas"? balances an reekomd sssrintjal in t,h(? tmory 
r. f ths Constitution; ^ut non'^ js so quintGsS'Tnt ial as tnat ha- 
fVi'iei. t h9 national and tho Stats gove rni::rant s : it is the pivotal 

uxljty of th'? systeM, indieatint its priiijipal. v/hioh is jts 
T-'-'raj, er^ ' r > .' ^ -■ ris t ic . • 'i'h-i object of <• h j s balance of thjrty- 
^Tfr.t States "and some territories" against the pnv;ers of the 

"Jderal gov e r^.m^nt , as al"0 o" sT>-era] o-r t '- -. r, t'-;r ■^alar.oe'^ e- 
. .-re rated, is not, it should be observed, to prevent the inva- 
sion '^y the national authorities of those provixijes of ie^isla- 
Mon ^y plain expression or implication reserved to the States, 
'leh as the regulation of municipal institutions, t'^e punisn- 
?i.t of ordinary crimes, the enactment of laws of inheritance 
and of eoiit raet , th erection and maintenance of the co;.;;..on mach- 
inery of education, anr^ t h -> coi.trol of otr-er such 1 ik.e matters 
'" f social ecnomy and every-d-'y administration, h^t to cneck 
•: ' *rim. national policy or. national questions, to turn Con- 
ress hack from paths of dangerous ejic roaehr 'ent on middle or 
ouhtfui t'''C)^i'''s of J u r i s:'. ic t ion , to keep snarp v.nen it v/as 
ii.'-.e to become dimjthe line of demarcation hqtween State and 



i" 



■y Vorks , Vol. VI, p. 467: Letter to Jno.Taylor. The \.ords and se.;- 

tences omitted in the quotation contain Mr. Adams's opinions as 
^o the value of the several bal aiices , some of which ho thinks of 
- ; ' ful utility, and others of v.-hich" he ,^. i t hout hes J tat ion .pro- 
.'-.ui.ces al t o j^ -> t '- '> r pe rni c i ("'US . 



(13) 

oderal pr j^• J ] ng-j , to readjust, thfs \,oicht.s of j ur isd i ct ioii whan- 
5vor eit. hor St, at-^ or fT^^raJ sealf? thnatoned t. o kick th'? ho an. 
7h ■-> r ■• novir \,a?; any fnat, ] 1 ',v] i "c-.d t/"at. t.hi nat.ior.a] cr-v-irr.- 

■•nt wouJ ' ear? to take fron the States thoir piaiiier proro^a- 
*3\-!s, 'lilt t - -> r 1 was alv/ay.'^ a violent probability tnr-it it \,'Oul:! 

■? n and there steal a march over the borders v;here territory 
i::-.3 its OY.ii iii\ited It to api'roi'r iat ion; and it v/as f'-r ^ • :- 
tual defence of suoh border- land that the two go^• ernrr.ent s were 

"- V ♦• h 1 rirht to call '. halt upon one anot^^er. I* v.as pur- 

'"■sed to guar:" not aEainst revolution but against unre ."^t rai ned 
exercise of questionable, poy/ers. 

T^'' e-:tent to \>ie*^ t^^ restraining P'"'\.'^r '"• " '^ '" ^ St-it.-»^ was 
relied upon in the days '"■ ' t'-e CJonvention aj.d of the adoption 
of the C'-iist i tut ioi; is stri;;i..e]y illustrated in se\9rai of ' "^ "• 

Tst ',:nov/n papers of the Federalist; and there is no better 

-!ans of realizing the difference between the actual an' the 
i;'eal Constitutions than this of placing oneself at the point 
of view of thi pu'-lio men of 1707-9. They >->re discu"=^ter* wit.r' 
the impotent and pitia"^le C'":^''*^'' "> ri t j rn ^ wi^i.;''" oi-'ul;' do n'^thi,., 

jt beg and deliberate; they lonced to pet a\;ay froi; the seif- 
]S' feuds of "otates disse\ered, discordant, ^ei i pe rent '■ ; and 
their h'^pes were centered in the est abl ishr lei.t of a stronp and 
. istinf.- uiiion such as C'uld sejur-? t-it co::oert and fajiiitv o' 
eomon action in ..hioh alone there could he security and amity. 



(14) 

Thoy v.nn, ho\.nv??r, ^y no means s'lrf^ o ^ ^'^ing a'^l? to r'?aliz3 
tbeir bopes. oontriva how they nij^^'^ to "^rinc tho States toe^th- 
Tr irito a nor-* p^r-Teot, ijonf ^ds rat J oj. . The lat^ eoloiiJes had 
'lut r'?u>3i.tly betiome eornpaetly orcaniz-^d, stI f - covf? mine St.at.T^ 
..:. ' -..^r^ '^+andin£ sorn'?\;ha+ -^ M ^ f 1 y apar^, r ir'-'ip '■• f eonsequon- 
♦• ial .SOT er -! lent i^s , joalous to maintain thf?jr hlood-boufht pn- 
rotat3\3s and quid; to distrust- any po\.Tr s^t ahoi-" + '- ^rn or ar- 
ro6atin£ to it.self the control of thoir r^stivo \. liJs. I^ ., a- 
not to ■*■>? ';:;p'^eted that the sturdy, sel f - n 1 i int , nast?rfuJ rr.'5;> 
whr. had vvai indep andenen for their native colonies by passing 
throufh t^^e flamos of bat+l-? and throuih the equally fierce 
•''ir-^s of ^9 na--- Tn.ent axic! finaiiciai ruin \.''-uid readii^' transfer 
their affec+ion and allegiance frora the nev.'-made States >,hich 
\. ■''■"' thijr hones * ■■■ * he federal goverrjneiit \vhich was t r. v -> a, 
mere artifijial creation and which could be to no man as his 
hone £0"\' e rnrnent , ..s things looked theji, it seer-ied idli to ap- 
prehend a too great diminution of State rifhts: t ;- e r i \.as 
every reason, on the contrary, to fear that any union that 
c-uld b^ at ner! upon \,<".iild lac'r. 'lOth ^-jtality and the a''-> i 1 i t y 
to hold its t roTind against the jealous sel f - ar^s ■■ rt ion of the 
'•^' -^r-'ign commonwealths of its mem.bership. Hamilton but spolce 
the comjnon belief of all thinking r-^en of tne tir-e when he said: 
"It •,.?]: i.l\.ays ^^e far nor? Tasy for the Stat3 ^cx- ^ r ,.tn^nf s to 
encroach upon the national authorities than for the national 



government to encroach upon tho State authorities"; and hT r^'jo'-i 
9d to furnish abundant support fr.p t h ■• opinion when ^°< .-iH-'^h 
that "the proof of this proposition turns upon tie £r'3a.t9r dn- 
.^r?e of infiumcT v.hicn the Stat3 eov Trni ent s , if t^ey admin- 
ister thiir affairs uprightly and prudently, will gexierally 
possess over the people; a circumstance \/hich at tho same time 
teaches us t.hit there is an inhere^it axi<' intrinsic weakness in 
all federal constitutions; and that too much pains cannot he 

t -.:ej. in th?ir orga^.i zat ion t--' ei\ ^ tiir^r:-. all th? foroe that is 

■if-' 
compatible \. itii th-T principles of li>ierty." 

^ead in the light of the present day, such visws coj.stitute 
tr.e most striking of all commentaries upon our jonst i t ut ionaj 

istory. Manifestly the pov/ers reserved to tne atat^s ,.-!re ex- 
pected to serve as a very rial and potent cheek upon the feder- 
al goverrJnent ; and yet we can see plainly enougn now that this 
balance <■, f state a;ainst national anthr.rities has proved of all 
con-^t itut innal checks the least effectual. Th'i proof of the 
^'iddint. is to.e eatiru. thereof; and \,e can iiowariay '• .'->tr,,_,t j.. n 
none of that "^ifiwrong fla^'ou^ of State sovereignty which its 
cooks thought they v«er? givmt it. It smacks, rat'^ir, o <" fed- 
eral omnipotence, which they thought to mix in only in very 
small and judicious quai.tities. "From the nature of the case", 
as Judge Cooley says, "it was impossible that the po\.ers reser- 



'Federalist, :io. I 



\ 



(le) 

^d tf. the St.atas should eonst J tut e a re^stranit, upon tm in- 
er'?asB of f^d'jraJ power, to tho o::t,ont t.hat. \.;is at first ex- 
pected. The foderai loverixrnfint v/as neoessariiy made the finaJ 
judge of its o\,i, authority, and the QX'3cut'-. r of its o\.n \,i]l. 



.d aiiy '3ff"!otual check t.o tha gradual anpi i f i c-i M r, ;, nf i 



t r; 



, ir isr! let ion must therefore hn found in thT construction put hy 
thos3 adr.:inas t ?r inL it upon tho grants of th-i Constitution, and 
|; in their ov;n s^nse of enr.s t j tut ioi^al obligation. And as th3 
'rue line of division hotv.een federal and State po\.ers has fron 
the very beginning hoen the subject, of content loii, and of hon- 
est differences of opinion, it r.iust oft-?n happen that f' ad- 
'. ance and occupy sorr.e disputed ground v/ill n-!«n to t ne par^-y 
tving the pov/er to .!o so a nen natter of constitutional duty." 
Luriiit. the early years of t ne nev; natiox.al £ovb rijrent t. rnre 

\.as dou'-^tless much potency in State will, and had federal and 

to facT 
•^ate pov/ers t nen come face, boforr; Conrrerss an' the President 

A 

had had t ir:::e to o'. ereorne their first av/kv/ardness and tinudity 
and to disco-igr the safest v/alks of their authority and the 
most effectual means of exercising their po\/er, it is probabia 
that litate or -^r'-gat j ves v;ould have prevailed. Thg central gov- 
f> rrr''^r:t _ as '^•'.■ory one renernb--^ rs , d i '"^ ir* ^t first t_ i' "■ •'"'' ■> "" ^ 
• iry treat career. It had inherited sone of th=j contenpt 
..nic'i had attached to the weak iJoncress of ^ > o'r.nf e 'e rat ion. 



Coolny's "Principles of Cons*. r,av/",P. 1^3 



( 1^1 

Two of tho thirteen Ctates held al^Nof from the 'Jnlon 'int.iJ thoy 
oould bo as?5ur3d of its <?t-?,bi]jty and success j many of the 
otn-^r States had comn into it reluctantly, all \/ith a kein 
s'^iis^ of g.ierifice; and th-^r? could nf^t be said to be any very 
w id-}- spread or undoubting beiief ] ii its uitim.ite survival. 'I'm 
members of the first Congrens, too, came together very tardiiy 
and in no very cordiai or c-nfident spirit of coope rat iOii , ai:id 
after they had assembled they v/ere for m.any months painfully 
embarrassed how and upon what subjects to exercise tneir nev.' 
and untried functions. The Pnsideiit was denied formal precG- 
"!nce in dignity by the governor of Ne\; York, and must himself 
ha\-e felt ii.elined t '^ qMes^-inn the joiiseq-i ence of his official 
station when he found that amoiigst the principal quest io^.s v/lth 
which he had to deal v/ere some \ji\io:\ concTned no greater 
things than petty points of etiquette and ceremonial, as, for 
exam.pl e, whether one day in the weelc \.'ouid b^ sufficient to re- 
ceive visits of compliment, "and what \.o'ild be said if m were 
som.etir^.es to be seen at quiet tea-parties." I'ut this first 
v.eal;ner^s of tl-.i new governrient \/as only a transient phase in 
its history; and tne federal authorities did not jm-ite a di- 
r?jt in3U3 \, i t - ♦'-e otates until they had had tine t <■• r "• - .' .. 
their resources and to learn facility of action. before V/asn- 
iiigtoii left the presidential jHair tne federal government nad 

•■* MeMaster , "ilist .of the People of the 'J. S . " , Vol . I . p . r.64 . 



(13) 



nn thoroughly orfax-iiz^d; and it, fa.Tt pat he r-Td strmc^-h and 

year a f t ^-> r y 3 a r 
eonfidanoe as it addressed it,s9]f to tho adjustment of foreicn 

A 

nlitions, to ♦^■'•■> '-^fenee of th-j \<'^st-^rn front i-->rs, ai '' t r. t, h -> 
maintsnanoT of dor^.estie peae^. For t\«ent y- f ive years it had no 
>ji"ianc=? to tiiini; of t .ose qu-^stions of iiit'^rjiai poiioy \<nieri in 
later days Wiro to tempt it to stretch itr; eoiir, t itut ioi.ai ^ur- 
isdietion. The est ahl i shment of the public crTdit; the revival 
of cjor.Tmeree aiid the encouragement of industry; the conduct 
first of a heated controversy and finally of an unequal v.ar 
.. ith England; the avoidance first of too much i ov e and after- 

xcd"^ of too violent hatred of France; these and other l].-;e 
'questions of £reat pith and m'-.rnent ea\ e it too muC" t '^ d- t -- 
leai-e it tine to think of nice points of constitutional theory 
aff acting its relations with the States. 

;-ut still, e\en in those ^usy tim.es of int e rnat ioa:al contro- 
• ersy, >;hen the lurid licht of the French Fevolutioji outshone 
all ot br, (.^^ an'^ -./hen men's minds v.ere full of those fhr, sts of 
'76 \,'hieh too'.: the shape of British ageressions and could not 
e laid by any charm kno\<n tr, diplomacy, - even in those times 
isy a^out other things, there had been pren^.onit i ons of the un- 
.ual contest hGtv.-eeii 3tate aj.d federal autn.oritias. The pur- 
. .ise o' Louisiana had given ne\. form, and start] inf si^iii^i" 
cance t<-, the assertiOi of national sovereignty; the Alien and 
ediMo!. Laws had prr.vo,;ed t^e plain- spoken rjpd emphatic pro- 



(1^5) 
fJsts of KTn+uo',;y and Virginiaj and t.n^ Ernb.ar£0 had exasp? ratod 

N3V. Lneiand to threats of soeossioii. 

U / 

/ Nor v/oro thoso opon assumption?? of qu-isMona^l ■? pnropa- 



y. 



at. "ir,i;al ^r.^- T r; ' ' "! i- t. f>i -> nri-^t 9 i ! r 1 *■ j 



eant or un'iqu j^'oeal indications of an assur-'id inorsas's of f'id- 
^r\i po>."?r. ilaiiiltr.n, as S^errjtary of th^ Troasury, had taicon 
ear^ at tho very i">3einning to set tho national poliey in ways 
vytiie.- would unavoidahiy Ir^ad to an alr'ost indafiiiit.^ expansion 
- '■ tho sp^. er-; of fo-'eral 1 Tg isl at ion . Sf^nsible of its n^od of 
guidaneo in those matters of Mnanoial administration whien ev- 
l^Tiitly d^rnand3d its JnmdiatT at t Tut j '-.ii , t 1-19 fjr^t Coiit'"e'^s of 
' e 'Jnion promptly put itself ui'ider the dir-jotioii of Hamilton. 

It is I-'* H little ai.ius iji£. " , says Mr. Lodge, "tr, ;r,t.o no\, eager- 
i Congress ,vhieh had been ably and honestly struggling v.ith 
" " -" revenue, with comjjieree, ;.ind v/Dth a thousand details, i ot- 
tered in all things by the avvUvardne ss inhfirent m a legisla- 
t IV e body, turned f'-.r relief t r, t.he ne\/ Geeretary." His advie"; 
v«as as:-;ed and ta;;en in almost everyt li iiir , and his sliill as a 

party leader m.ade easy many of the more difficult paths of the 

gove rnner.t 

. "> ■ • '"■'•"' rnm.ent . l-ut no sooner h'* ' ♦^^-^ -.r,-,.'? r -^ <■■ -^ *^^<t /^egur t r, 
he exercised under his guidance than they began to i^row. I.. 
^ ^. r, 'arous report on Manufactures \,ere laid tne f ouixd it ion : of 
that system of nrr.tective duties v/hich v/as destined to hang all 



*■ Lodge's ">.^^..ander IIa;^n»-. ^..n.Sta^ .-.3.. ■. • "rie«^ n . Tr 



th"? industries of thf? country upon th5 skirts of tb.T fT "aral 
^lAy.or and to r-ia'.-. ■> -"vir'- tra'-*"! ar."^ •jra^'t -i ^ . t w^-? land seiisitiv? 
to ov'^ry wind of party that rnlc^it blow at Tashinctonj and in 
"is equally eilribrated nijort ii. favour of t.!-,.-» o st abl i snt.-^i.^ of 
a national hanl: thTr-; \va- eallTd into rsqu i s i t i oj. ff.r tn3 first 
tine that puissant doetrin'? of t h t "ir-ipij'jd po\<ors" of tn^ Con- 
st itutioii which has ev^r since been the ehi^f dynamic principle 
ir. our constitutional history. "This great doctriiie, ernbodying 
^ ^. T principl-? '-.f liberal const rnc t ioii , N,'as",in tne lantua^e ot 
Mr. Lod£T,"th3 most formidable v/eapon in the armory of tne Con- 
stitution., .i^.d \,hen Ilariilton C'^'^sp'^d ^t h-? knev/, and his oppon- 
ents felt, that here was something capable o^ conferrinf on the 
f'^'r'erai t '■•v e rijpent p'-.wers of almost ai:y extmt.' It ser\-ed 
first as a sanction fcr the charter of the 'Jnited States Hank. 
an inrjtitution \/hieh was the eentril pillar of Hamilton's won- 
derful '"inancial a Iminist r vt j o,. , and ar'-.iji.d which afterwards, 
as thexa, played so many of the 1 i f,'.it^nin£s of party strife. Hut 
t-? Bank o '^ t ;- -. 'JLit^d Staters, t^-r.ugh great, was i^.f f ^ -. proat- 
7t of the cre.it ions of tnat lusty and seductive doctrine. Cliv- 
^.. out, at ie..t_th, wit. t p. ? sanction of tne ^ederaa ..u;i r -ir-ie 
Court, and contaii\inc , as it did, iii its manifest character as 



Lo d c e ' s " yU e X arid e r Han i 1 ♦ '- " . '^ • ' '^ ''• 

Ms fjnaj and most masterly expos i 
^en in McCulloeh v. ■ Maryl aiid ^ eat on 316. 



' 1 t <3 fjnaJ and most masterly expos it ioii , by u ..■" .Marshal i .i.iay 'v 



(21 ) 

a doot.nn? of J->ci.sIativ« p n meat, j-vo , a vTry vjfnurnuT prJn- 

3, 'It o^ eoiist 1 t.ut. J oiial £ro\i*h, jt qinc-;iy ijoiin t, ] t ut -Jd Concn.-s." 
' iTi doninant. , iiay the imsirsti^]?, po\,-jr r. f t. h'j fodorai sys- 
\-!:.!, r^l^catinf soma of tb=} 'jhjef halanees of the Const j t ut jon 

^.:. Jii" i rn J ^ J ■: ai.t ro]-? i li t. h t "]it->rary thTory" of o-ar i...- 
st it. ut. ions . 

ItR -'■'"^.it upon the status of ^ '^ ^ otati"; in ^'^'^ ^-'^rai sy-,- 
f em v.a=; sev e ral - f ol r . I r. the first place, it clearly put thi 

- oi.st ] t uMoi.s o^ the States at a great disadvantage, nias-r.-uen 
as there was ix. them no 1 ika principle of growth. Their sta- 
tionary so\ereignty eoul d by no means keep pace -witu tne iiJinhi "J 
pr^'gress of fe^-'erai influence in tre new sph.eres thus opened up 
*• " i •• . The doctrine of ir-^.plied powers was e-^'idently '-•otn fa- 
.]le i.nd ] r res ist ihl e . It e^aicerne.' th? nr, i t t i .,> ^t j 'iser-itjr.n 
of the iiatDOnal legislative p^.v/er and could, therefr.re, elude 

-, . : '-.'--+ -I,: i e-; of judicial interference; for tne Suprerr-> U'^-Mrt 
■ ery early declared itself witnout aii ♦^ .►^.o r i t y to question tne 
Legislature's privilege o^ 'etTrnmiiig the nature and extent of 
its o\,xi powers in the choice of means <or Liviiig 3ff3ct to its 

- ons t i tu t ioxia.l prerogatives, and it has long strod as an aecept- 
.'d canon o "" ^u'icial action t h •:, f .-udf ? -^ sbr.u].' be \ f c- slo. • 

' ppose treir opinloiis to the lecislativs v. i 1 1 in eases lii Y/hicn 
i*- • — : ' * '-^ ' -. -'^- '"iiSt rabi y clear that ♦'--,- . ^ 

jolatjo;, nf some unquestionable const it uf ional prine^ '• r 



•ft 



/ 



Tho follov.inr pa5?sat"^ frorr. Vllllarn Maelay's "Hkatehe'^ of JJi- 
>^it.e in the First Senat.3 of ths United St, at. 'ig" ,( PP • ii'^^'- 31 , 1 1 - 
lust rates how eloarlv the roiults of this v.=»r^ for3oa55t hy sat* 
aeious men frori the first: " Tho system laid down hy these law 
tiemen (the Federalists) v/as as follov.r;, or rather the deveiop- 
inent of the desitns of a certain party: The general pov/er to 
carry the Constitution into effect hy a constructive interpret- 
ation, v/ould extend to ev i ry ease that Con cress rna'/ deer-' nec- 
essary or exper'ient. The i av/s of the 

'Jnited States will ho held paramount to all* State "laws, claims, 
an 1 even constitutions. The supreme po\;er is vvitn the Gener- 
al Governr^ent to decide in this, as in e^- iryt ^.inf else, for t ne 
States ■'ave neflected to secure any ur-'pire or m.ode of decision 
in cas^ of difference "hetwee.. them. Nor is thori uny point in 
the Constitution for them, to raliv under. They may giv^ an 
opinion, hut the opinions of the Oeneral Go-^ernmen* must pre- 

r-ail. Any direct and open act would 

be temed usurpation. But whether the gradual influence and 
encroachments of t.he Oeneral Goi-ernment may not gradually swal- 
low up the Sta+e go-«- 9 rnment s , is another m.att'^r." 



(22) 
trim T\-pli.jit. or,i;.q t 1 1 11 1 1 r.iial Ti r r<\ j'lioj.. c f -^ne rr>aenn3i.t, f; upon 

tit. T as v."?ii as of Oiio r'-'ae h.rneiit, R upon f^d'^ral po\/'^rs t, h? f^d- 
-. r . ] ' •' » >-i,o r J t. io s am, hr.\,OA'?r, 1 ■ r, -f .>ir--,r. t ■ -, r. ; jy ati'i in 
\il eas^s t.ho final judges. ?h3 States an ab-^oiu^Tjy deham' 
"?■' ■in from any effoetlv? dif'iiieT of tti'^ir [JiLiiii pr -j rr.^ * ^ - -> -• 
jausT not tl-=?y but the national authorities an oonniss ioned t'-. 
■Tt3rnim \<ith daeisi\o and uziehai i -^gfJd a'ltbf' r j tat. j v^ness what 

t-\t-> pr,\,-!rs s^a]] b^ n jr, j;ai z^t' in ?ach eas'^ of eont^st or of 
jon^ijjt. In short, or.^ of the prjviiee^s v/hieh the State- 
,,.,,.-, r^-^igned Jnto the haiids of t " ^ f^diral ^n^-^i ruinent is th^ 
.1 i - inci us ivn prJTil^Li of det^rrninint v/hat they themselves oa-i 
'o. Fed?ral or.urts can annul Stat? action, hut State courts 
jannot arnst the p^ov/th of Uon^ res s J onal po\,'e r . ('i^^*"^' -^ ^'^ 7^-^ 




is is or.lv the doctrinal side o -^ the case, sinpiy its 



■tatenent \,it.v, an "if" and a "hut". Its practical issue Jllus- 
* rates stiii rri'-. re forci^jy the altered and deciinine status of 
t >- ^ States in t - ^ eo:is t J t ut ional system. ^y,^ y-'.r-y .-irictical 
issue has heen to hrir.o the pov.er r.f the federal fovernrnent 
"r,--= to every rrian's dror as, no less th.in n i s o,,.i >;tat^ r'"''''rn- 

ent , hjs immediate ove r- 1 <-■ r^-l . ^f c-urse e"\ery ne\/ province 
into \;nich congress has '-^een allured hy tne princapi:; of impi:- 
"!d po\.ers has required for its admini st rat ioii a greater or Is.ss 
enlargement, of 1 1-. •? natioi.al ei"* il-service, v/hich now, through 

j t c: 'n 1 11 . d P e r? t >. r, ' ; r; ;i • , •! r. -T T i j "> p S .j ;i T T i "> "^ T ,t r< ■>•".■•-> p V C '"•^ •• ' iV i t '-• r, T 

^ r.e land a sense of federal power, as the pov.er of po\;ers, and 



(23) 
Mxes the federal authority as it wen in th-? very habits of 
sooioty. That is not a f'-.'-^-i.r' '^'it -.x fviiJitr air! r>r.. -; s t j j 
, o"". 9 rnineiit whos^ o ■f f i o i r is yur mxt-dr.r.r liei^hbour, whos^ n- 

r ^ s-'int at i vo s yoii deal \.Jth ev"jry day at th-? post-oft'ic? and 
* ■.^'i oust om- house ; v/r.os? eourts sit iii your o\,n otate ai^d S3iid 
t h -J i r marshals into your own county to arr-^st y.ur o\/n f^aio,;- 
<• o\vnsr;-!an or to oali you yovirsolf ^y writ t.r. t, • ■? i r \. itne-^-s- 
stands. And v/ho a an help respecting officials \,-horn he knows t<-> 

- ■; '--aoke--^ '-iv t. b ^ authority ai.;? evTii hv th^ r)o\,'i c of the yjT.l'i 
..atio.. ii: the p e r f o rinane e of tn^ duties in v/hieh he s^es tnem 
-• -^ ry day engaged? V'ho d^-es not feel that ^ i- -> --arshalJ repr?- 
s^nts a greater power than the sheriff does, and that it is 

ore dangerous to molest a n.ai 1 - oa r r i ; r than to knock dov.n a 
.•ol ice-man? This personal contact of ^very citize^i with the 
*3''erai gov errj-nent , a contact which make ?; him f?el himself a 

jl^jze.. <-• '■ 1 fc^ ter St.\.t=! t'-a. th«. t \,i-'ich coi.trols his T\ery- 

ay contracts and probates nis father's will, mori than offsets 
his sms^ of dTpendent loyalty to local author it i2 s jrextin, 

1 sensible hond of allegiance to what presents itself uijp.istak- 
ably as tm greater and mor-* sovTr-Jign •p'-.\;->r. 

In most things 1 1- i s bond r, f aliegiance does not Mnd him op- 

">rTssively nor chafe him ,1 i s t re ss ing j y ; but iji some tnni^^s ir 

IS drawn ratner painfully tight. vriist federal post-m^gt^rs 
an ' aluad and federal judges unices i tat ingi y o^^eyed, and \.::ii^' 



^ Try f'i\. pTon]-; r-^aJizT the vvsiE^-^' <^ ^ e'lst, orns- dut, i^s , and as 
T\. , p-r ap?5, '-'^t '''i<-'t ' lioTnr3'3 t.iAis ■■n ^^l-Jskiy and tv.'-ijoo, 
M'^ry'Hody tv'?.'? rat.t^or uii'^asily t.hT f^d.?ral sup'3 rv i ?50 rs at, tm 
pr.lls. This in prof?irnnGnt 1 y a country nf fr-^quent f?] le t 3 r.n- . 

nd f9v; States ear-? to iner^as^ thT fr)qu--?ney hy sTparating. o- 
I-'otJons of StatT fror^ el-iotioiis of national f unc t ionar i t 3 . Tm 
'^.'■>ral su. or-' i t- r , er>nf5 t ciM^nt J v , v/hr> o"'- "? r-^^ ? t s t h 3 haji'-'tinc 
•" '■■ r Coiit r-j ssrien praetieally suofj r i nt-'Jnds th-=? e]?ction of Stat-; 
r.r< jcirs also: fnr St at --5 off le^rs and (Jong rr; ssmon a r -> n^ualJy 
■ ofid ^f.r at or-9 and th^ '^amo t imo and plae^, ^y ^aiJots 'lear- 
■* :ir in eonnon an eiitin "party tie .^t" , and any aut no r i t at i"v'> 
crutiny '• f thesf; haliots aft^r they have b^^n east, or an;" 
-ir^n.ptory pov/or of ehail engine thoso who off?r to oast tmn. 
rn'!'--t r,pirat-> a.'^ an J nt -j r f 3 r ^i;'j o \; J t h Stat« mo less than •.. i t n 
'-3deral ^l^etioris. The authority of O'onrress to regulate the 
■ ..ner of ohoosJiw, f'i'eral representatives pinches \.h-' it i- 
a^'e t'-ns to include also the supervision of those State elec- 
tions Y.-hJch are, by i.o implied povv^r even, ,.it.-.in tr\i sp..";re of 
'■3deral pr t rr.j^at ive . The supervisor represents the very ugli- 
est side of federal supremacy; he helon£s to t'^'e lea-^t iiked 

ranci" of t >-' 3 j iv j i - ^ -. rv i c 3 : '"^ut his existence speaks ^ery 
the 
jl-!ariv as t--' preneiit balance of powers, and r^js rather hate- 

A 

' I ^ ' r ^ ■ T J -> r -> '• • n ". f ');."''' I' t '^ a n p ^ T "> i . t s \' S t t; t r, f 1 . . "» i"I ? J ? t i O J . S, 

result in inpairing the self-re- * Stat^ '-•fficers of 9i9C- 



(2f^) 



t. ion by brincine home tr, thorn a \ivid sQnfn of suHordinat ion tn 
A vory different and i;nie!~. lart^r sidf r,f f>in.i pf^domin- 



t ►^ ■-» pr.vvTr<5 at, V.'nr^h 1 r.r^ '■'■' . G(^i-%^ 



1 1- 1 -» 



Is to '^0 s'?^!. Jn tho ". j-sf'-.f ^'f the poiiey of iiitirnHj i?-^- 
• ro\'^ments . I naad not axpound th .t pojjjy f^ori. It has be^n 
r.ften eiiougr. noot^d ai.d loni_ ^nr.ut n understood t<-. ne^d no ^x- 
'lanation. Its praotjeo is plain and its pTrsistenc^ unq'jos- 
tiona^l?. Put It^ hearings upon th^ status and th=? p'-lieies of 
t'-e Stat-^q ari not alii.ays clearly seen or often distinctly 
'ointed out. Its chief results, of course, ha\"e been that ex- 
pansion of national functiox^s \/.'-ieh \,a^- necessarily involi-Td 1, 
^he a.iplication of iiat?onal fui.ds by national employees to tne 
clearing of inland \,ater courses and the inpro^ er le^it of :^ar- 
-ours, and the establishment of the very quest ionahie prece- 
'eiit of expending in favoured localities moneys raised by ta;;- 
ition w'^icn '->ears v/ith equal incidence upon the peopie of ail 
-^ectiriis of the country: but these chie^ r^sul^s ^y no means 
.- or s t r't '1 1 3 t h -! sur-^ of j t r; li.:fluence. ilardJv 1 ■-> r; --; si)- i^ leant 
XI.-' rill for instance, ar? 'its maraJ effects 'iii rendering State 
!.di.:3i.i o*- rat io^is l^ss s-if- reliant and e f f i c i e..t , ies-^ pr-ii-?nt 
.. ' t [1 r i f t y , by accust oT/ine ^'hem to accept inr subsidies for ir- 
ter..al ii n rov SL-ient s from the federal coffers, to 'epeiidiiie upo;. 
t h e V nat ioj.al r?v"!nues, rather than upon treir o\,ii e::-; .• nd 

enterprise, for means of de'^- tI op jnc those re-ources v/hich it 



(26) 
'ihr.ul ' b-j tlT^ sp3eial proviniJ"! of Stato arir ■] lii s t. rat in. ^ r, mako 

v^aila'^I^ and p rr. f j t. aM ■^ . 'V^nr'i c: an . I up fio -^ -» , H -? 1 j t, t, i i 
doubt that, i^ is due to the moral influences of this polj^jy 
that t h -^ ;'t,at'>^ .^r^ n<".\, t.Mr;-ir.f t r, t h.-T .'or^i'"!! f r>\ -> pj n"?!. t f <- r 

lid in s'leh things as ed\ieat ioi*. txpeetint to ho noip3d, tn3y 
\. i 1 i not '^elp t hensel V e*:: , Certain jt is tnat tnere is more 
than one State which, though abundantly able to pay for an ed- 
■ijational system of t!'. e [reitist e f f i j i enc y . fails to do s--' and 

-'ontents itself with imperfect temporary r .:u:e sni f t s bTcau-^e 

♦■ )^ e r e are immense surpl'ises every year m the national treas'irv 

which, fmniir a;.::! uii ^u t h--. r j z ed prr.r.ises -say, may ^e distributed 

am.ongst the States in aid of educatioii. If the fe.'eral govern- 
ever y 
--"■r.^ V, ere more .areful to keep apart f rom. ^s t r i c 1 1 y lo^ai sehei.ne 

of Im.prov ement , this culpabl--? and der.ioral i zing State policy 
joulc" scarcely liie. States would cea.se to \/isri b = ,jause they 
'..<-.uld cease to hope tr. be stipendiaries of the government of 
t .'^ e 'Jnion, and \»r.uld a 'dress them.selves wit;-; di^icenee t a their 
f'rr.per 'uti^s, \/ith much b-}j,->rit, '^r.rr'. to t hei.";seiT- es an. I t r. t.ne 
•ederal system. This is net saying that the policy of int.eri^a; 
i:;.,: r'-" ^ment s either avoidable, uiicon.s t i t. u^' i on.al , or uir..- ■> ^"^ : '^'it 
only that it has been carried too far; and that, whether car- 
ried too far or ii^^'t . jt mu';t iji any case nav? b->eii ., :ia,t it is 
no\.- seen to be, i big weight in the federal scale of the bal- 
ance . 



(27') 
Still ot.hTT pov/'^rs of t,he federal t;o'^ >? rzimont \/t">ic:;h h i.v e so 
;jrov,:. s^yoji ' t, h ■? j r first p rr.po r t ioi;?; a-s to havT marred v'iry 

■jriousiy t. h.e symmetry o^ t. '^f? "lit. irary theory "of our f 3 'oral 
'system ha\9 s t rf^nf t, h^ne-i und-^r th? s^iado-,, of t, hf? jurisdiction 
'■' f Congress o-* or cor moroe and t.he maint. =inan'3e of t. rn postal s'>r- 
' io"?. ^or instane-T. t.h^ Supr^r.n Jr.urt of the "Jnit'id States has 
d'^elarad that t*")e powsrs ^rantod t r. Uontrei^s ^y th"? C'-aistitu- 
tion to r^fuiate eomrnerer; and to -?stablisr. pos* -offices and 
.'ost roads, "ko^p pace with the progress of the country and ad- 
f apt themselves to new developments o^ tim.es and e i rcum.stance s . 
T^-?y ■'xten! fr'''r.': the '^'-rs'? •.,• i t r-. its rider to t}'ie staie- coach. 

r'"'m. the sailing •^ressel to the steamer, f rr^r?. the coach and the 
-»i. ^ f- t r, the railroad, and from the railroad * '■ * "^ ^ teierraph. 
\s the-:e new agencies ar? successively ^r'->utht into use to m.ee* 
* -• 'em.ands of increasing population and \.ealth. They are i x:i- 
tended f'-.r the ?_ o\- e rijnent of the business to \/hich they relate, 
vt all times and under all c i reum.stances , As they \i=ica en- 
tris^e ' to +he t.'Ji.eral £ovTri.mQn.t fr.p <•»'-> ^00 ' o^ t t^-^ natioi., 
it is nr.t only the ritht hut the duty of Congress to se-; to it 
that the int e r c^'Ur se '^etv/een the States and the transiii -sion of 
intelligence ar-j r.r.t obstructed or unnec e ssar ii y encumbered by 
ntate lei_isl ition. '" is emphatic d^jisioi; v.a-; iiit^xided to surj 



* PensaC'la Tel. Co. v. V'e s t . '/ni r... , u: '/.C.I.l. (Ouoted by ."1 
Cooiey in his /Principles of Const it "-A JUiiv^. ^ ) 



(23) 
-ail. t.h? rJc>">^ ff a t,oJ'5eraph company ehart.or^ri ^y on-? Ht,at,« t r, 
rui; i^s lines al'^nt all pnst, rr.ads in nt.mr iJtat.T*?, wit'^^'it t '^ -> 
.•ons9iit, o^ t.ho<5^ ot,at,g<3. and even against, tmir will; ^\xt it. in 
nai-.ifest, that many other oorpo rat -; conpanie?! u]it_n*', 'jni'.^r tm 
-anetion of this hroad opinio:., olain similar privileei-; in de- 
spite of Stat'? resistance, and that such deeJsior.s go far to- 
-..ards makir.g Stat^ pr,^,•^^o of in j'-'roo rat ion of littl« \/r.rth, as 
jom.pared with federal po^,^^s of er.ntrol. . 

Keeping pa.je, tor, \.ith this ^rov.th r.f federal activity there 
has been fror.-". the first a steady anc^ unm.ist akabl e £ro\,th of 
nationality r,f sent ii:;er.t , It vvas , of course, the \.3it'''t, of »,ar 
■,.nich finally and -le^isively disarrane^d the balance between 
State and federal powers: and it is obvious that many of the 
■r.st strj;;inc manifestations of the tendency towards central- 
ization have made th?msel\es seen since the \;ar. Hut the rjs- 
tr.ry r.r the ^,■ar is only a record o^ the triump:^ of the prii^ci- 

Je of national sove re i£;nty . The war \,as inevitahie because 
that principle crew apace; and the \.ar ended as it did because 
t - >,t principle had become p re-^ominant . Accepted at first slm- 
rily h^eause it v/as imperatively necessary, trie unioii o^ form 
and of law had become a union of sentiment and v.as destined to 

e a unioi: of institutions. That sense of national unity and 
cor.iriunity of destiny \-bi,j)i Hariltoii ha.I so:i,ht to foster, but 
which was feeble in his day of loiie distances and tardy ir.ter- 



. ommunicat ioii , v/hin thi nit. ion's pulso vyaR as sir.\, as the stac-- 

.T. aeh Ml" f he post -man, had hioorne ■^t, roiit ^TiiOutH to fiio ' >""? 

0):t. Jn^nt. v.nsn V'shster dr^d. Vha war hotv.^ei; the States v/as 
th"? supr'^me a;.d final str-jccl'"^ bgtv/'^en t.iio.s?? forcns o ■' dininto- 
' ration which stil] reuaimd in the hl^.od of th? hodv politic 

:\d tho-^e '-■thor fr.rc^s of health, of union and arnal gam it ioi. , 
,.nic'^. had h-^^n Gradually 'TUJlilinr up that Sody iii vigour and 
•^r->ngth as t-.? system passed from youth to m.aturity and as its 
.constitution harden?' and ripened \. ith ad^•ancine age. 

The history of that trenchant p'-'liey o f " reconst ruct ion" which 
foIio\;3d close upon the t e rniinat Ion of the war, as at Ox.ce its 
logical result and significant commentary, contains a vivid pic- 
'ure of tne altir-^d balances of the constitutional system, v.'hicri 
is 1 -r.rt r. '• exaggerated m.jniature, falling very little sr.ort 
of heint a caricature, of previi-'Us constitutional tendencies 
mi federal policies. T'^e tjdi of federal aggre^^sion pr^.-o^hly 
reached its highest snore in tne legislation \<hich put i^ ii.to 
t :e pov.er of the feleral cr.urts to punish a State judge for re- 
'using, in the exercise of his official d i sc ret ion . to impanel 

egroes in the juries of his c^'urt', tnd iii those st itute'^ v.nich 
rave the federal courts jurisdiction over offenjes against 
.'•tate lav/s hv State officers. But that tide has often run ver" 



*I3 rtat., art 3,330. See V.x . arte Virrinia,ICr 'J.S.,339. 
^ Sect , r.r.ir. ,P3v . Stats . see V.x parte Siehold.ICC '/. S . . 371 . /^-,, 



~3 fcul<JU % ^v^-y^^^) 



F.qua-ly '?xt'9iis ive of f-jj-iral power*^ is that "J'^fai tender" 
decision (vTuilliard vs . Gr=»eaman) oT f'aroh 133'* v/hioh artu'^s thT 
f^xistenee of a rijht to iss'.i*> an i r rf^deor-^ahi e paper eurrei.cy 
fro'" the Uonst itut ion* s grant of other rights chan,c;t eri st le ^* 
sov*J re i rnty , and fron the possession of a siniiar ripht Hy 
othor povernr-ieftt s . But this invol^•es no ras t r i'3t ion of State 
powers: and perhaps ther) ouc ht to h^ offset against it that 
other decision (several cases, ret. 18 'J 3) which 'lenies const jtu 
tional sanction to the eivjl Fights Act. 



!> 



(3r) 
^ifh, and, hov.'^Jver f i uetuat, ij;^ at. t, irnr>R, h ir? i onp Htth xv^ii- 
;.i6h i r ro s i s t. I'll ? hy any dyk^s or ijons t, ] t, ut loi.rii L-Jf^t, * .if]' Ji- 
M^i sr. tnat. vluc't "^ Cr.r.iey oa.. say without, foar of jont. rad J et io.-i 
Mvxt "ThT =?f' Tetual ehT'Jks upoii th-i tiii^ roaehmoiit s of fol^raJ up- 
on Stat.r? pov.'jr iiust '-^e iookod for, xiot ii; Stato po\.Tr of n- 
slstan'3^, 'TUt in the choice of r^jpre sent at i ves , Senators, and 
"nsJdTnts h'-'i-'Mir just oOi.s t i t ut lonai \ie\;s, and in a f-?'^rai 
-uprene court with conpetont pr.\,er to restrain all departments 
in' all of^ie-srs \<it'~jn the limits of their just authority, so 
'ar as their acts nay Heeome the subject of judicial copi.izance. 
^ Indeed it 1- quite e\i(^ent that, if federal power ^e not 
'1 t r.fTthe r i rrespons i"^l e , it is the federal judiciary which is 
*"e only effectual '-^al ance- v.'hee 1 of the whole system.. The fed- 
-•ral jud£es •'■■I- ii. + >' ^ ■; r 'ands t ■-> fat^ of Ctate po\/er'7, and 
^:-."!irs is the only authority that can draw effective rein on 
^ ■ "^ ,ireer of (Joncre^s. If their po\,er, then, he n^-'t efficient^ 
^re time must seem, sadly out of joint to those who hold to the 
"literary theory" of our Constitution. P.y tne \;ord of t.pe/v.'u- 
,rem.e Cr.urt i.:ust all legislation stand or fall, -o ion. 
is respectei. ilut , as I hive alre.ady pointed out, there is at 
iiaTt r,; ^ lar{ e p r r,--; i n ^ "• '•■ ■f ^ m r i ^d i c t i oii i;nr,i, v.hlch, though in- 
• ited, and noss ihlyr^jj^r i'*- i 1 e^'^d , to appropriate it, tne buprema 




C'] r t ^ 



->^ r^r-+K^n 



f--.r';r.->,-' t r, -> *">r rUl"^ ^" T"*^'! 



^ "Principler? of Coast i + ut io;vil Law", pp. 1^3 



(31 ) 
■int ■> r which it, has civen ovor -ill attempt to (.uard om o^ tnn 

principal, riasia.st, and Mo-^*- "-''-vious roa-'^ * '■■ *'-"!(I'?ral sup r-JMaoy, 

It has d^elargd itsolf v/ithout authority to Jntorff?re v/ith tha 

i jolitieal discfstioii of ??ith. "^r ^onins^ or t'lr? Tres i d-'^iit , riiij 

has d?el ined ai i effort to ooi. strain ti'-3r!3 its c-'O rd J nat q dT- 

partrmnts to the p'^r f orrnano'? of any, ^v-ji; the most eonstjtvi- 

tjoi.ally iinp'3rat iv'e , act. "V^h-3i., ind3?d, t 3 I'nsideiit exceeds 

his authority, or usurps that \.hieh belongs to orie '-^ f +'^.? '-itmr 

d ■? par tT-^ ->r. t c; ^ j- rrdor-^, e<->nn-ni's, '"• r N^arrant:^ nr'-'tiot no or.e , 

and his afents ^eoome personally responsible for tneir ajts. 'I'he 

cneek of t i-*. e e'"urts, t -^reforo, consists J ii ti-.ejr ability to 

iceep the Exeeutj\e \.jthin the sphere of his authority '>y refus- 

Jr-C to give the sanction of lav; to \,-hatever ne may do beyond it^ 

ind ^y holding the agents or instruments of his unlawful act. ir>. 

directly 
to strict accountability." But such punishment, iiiflictec not^ 

tinr.] t It ^ oh JT^ '■Tfej.rMr '-ut ^ i c ar i '■■us 1 " upr.n h i '^ ager.ts, can 

come only after all the harm has been done. Ti^.e c-.urts cannot 

'orestail * " "* President and preveiit the doint of iiischief. v*^"*" 

have no pov.er of iiAitiative: they must v.ait until the law has 

>^een brolien and voluntary litigants have made up tnejr p^ea:- 

ings: must \.ait nov.adays many months, rft.en many years, ur.tii 



*' Marhury v. Madison,! C ranch, 13 7. 

^ Cooley's " Principles", p. I r. 7. 



(32) 

f^r.?!a rilnadir.r'^ ari nae'^Td in t.h'? r-'?rular omirr;-> of .jl?arinr 
^ fwdod rioek'^t . 

HfJsirlns, ij-i ordinar'"' ^T'^ns it ^ - ii^t, ff-r^ M^ -; tx ">■•!*"'■' ■> «• -, •. t 
'•he most dane^rr.us eneroaehrnrant s aro tr. ^o appnh^nded, Th.s 
',T^- i si at uro is th3 afxr^ssiv^ spirit. it is t.iii noti-"? [.>o\;or 
-f the t:ovo riimsnt , and unless th? judiciary ean eheek it, the 
.'f-'urts aro of eornparat ivel y little v/orth as bal aniio-v/hee J s in 
th^ system. It is the siihtile, stealthy, almost in;ve rce pt i^l e 
■"i.o roaehment s of p'->liey, o^ political aotini^, v.'hJeh constitut-? 
the precedents upon v/hich additional pre rocat ives are G'^nerally 
reared: md yet these are the very enc roaehnent s with v/hich it 
is p.ardest for tie courf-s to c^al and conce ri.ii.t MiiJcr., acjor - 
in£iy, t-^.e federal courts h.aye declared thernsel\-es unauthorize' 
to hold any opinions. They have nauEMt to say upon questions 
'^ f policy. oongress must itself judge v.'hat measures m.ay legit- 
imately ^e used to supplement or make effectual its aeknov/iedg- 
""d ju r "i '^'■'' "i ct ion , what n.r-' *■ e 1 av/s ":n.'essary a/iri prr.pTr fr> .j v r- 
ryinc into execution" its ov/n peciliar pr-v/e rs , " and all other 
'ov.ers A«ste'-' '- " " the " L'oiis t i tut ir,,. ji. f ■; ■? i'lr.\ -^ r, j.:=int -■ ■"' * -^ -> 
United States, or i ii any department or officer thereof." The 

O'lrts are very quick and keen-eyed, too, tr. Mscern preroea- 
■ ives of political d i sc r -»t i on in legislative acts, and exceed- 
ingly slow to undertake to discriminate between what is and 
.. '■ it i s no t q^ \' 1 o 1 at i on of 1 1^ ^ t , i r i f r, r f >> -. (j r > c- f i t m ♦ " ■ . <■■ . - 

ress m.ust wantonly co ver" far outside of t'-e plai.. and unques- 



(33) 



tioiiable rnoanjne of th^ Cr.nst it. ut. ion , nust. hun.p it.g h'?ad djr- 
Tc + Jy a^aiiist a] J rittit aiid p r ? jed-'^nt. , must r.icK ataiiist tno 
\-!ry prJeks of all vv-'J 1 1 - 3s t ahl i.shf3d rulings and int ^ rp ret at. ions, 
'^^fore the Sizpran-'e Cnurt \;iil offer it any di?5tjn'jt nbuk'J. 

Th=!n. too, thf? Supnrn^ Court itsilf, no\/ovf>r upright and 
i mp roaehahl -? its :nemhers, has genaraily had and v/ill undou'-'t- 
Tdiy ooi.tinu'? f <■ .^^a-"-^ ■' distinjt •;"-. I j ♦■ i oal oo^ipl sxiori, ■•■ ak'^n 
^ ror;i the colour of the times durint v«hich it^ rr.a^ority v/as ehos- 
e:i. 7he '-^-Mic:: over ■„.'^.i,'n vJor.n i'.arshall presided \,'as , as every- 
•-'ody knows, staunchly and avowedly federalist in its \ie\vs; Sut 
durinc the teii years w^ieh follov;ed 133?") federalist ^;ustiees 
y.ire rapidly displaced by democrats , and the viev.s of t r. -i Court 
chatit'^d accordingly. Indeed it r.iay truthfully ^e said that.tak- 
ix'.g fiur p<-'li+icai l^.istf.ry "'^y '.nd large", t'^e .> r r <? t -i t -.t i •- • a ; 1-- 
t e rpr et at ions o *" the Suprer:e U^urt have changed, slo^<ly hut 
noiis the less sureiy, with *-ne altered relations of pov, ^r "-•- 
twe^n the national parties. Ttve federalists v/ere hacked by a 
federalist judiciary; the period of democratic sunnivxcy \.it- 
..essed the triumph of dim.ocratic principles in tne courts; and 
repuhlican predominance has driven fror the highest trihunaj -' 
t '^ "? 1 a:id all '^ut on"^ re •) r ■> -^ e : t n.t 1\- e r> f d ■»; <->,j rat le loc^rines. It 
':as Heen only durinf eom.parat ivel y short periodr- 'cansitjon, 

■., ^.. "•"'-^I 1 ,' op inion wa:^ pass inj ^--.p rp^. r ■• '^]^;. . j r -> -> -■ 
to ai:iother. that the dsci.«?iono of t w -> f'id'ira.l judiciary have 



leon distinctly opposed to tho ()rineiples of th*? ruljiu; polit- 
ical party. 

Put, h'^siuTS and above all this, tha national courts ar--j 
' ■ M-ii most part in t\\e powsr of cont: r-3?;r? . Lvji. t r. j ouprina 
Court is not n-iyond itg control; for if is tlr? legislative 

ri-<.-ilepe to ine r'^ase , whenR"" t r tm 1 =?^' i si at i ve v;ii; so pleases, 
tr.e number of the ;iude'3s upon the supnrn'? henen, to"("'iiute tne 
Jon-^t i tut ion" , as V'-^hst^r onee piit it,"hy cnatini a court which 
shall coi.'-tru=i a\;ay i t -^ provisions": an'' ti^is on om r^-^r^r, rahl -? 
^•ccasion it did choose to do. In Decembe r , I 369 . the Supnne 
Jourt decided against the constitutionality of Uoner3ss's pet 
Legal Tender Acts, and in th^ following March, a vacancy on the 
'-•ench opportunely oceurrine, and a ne\, justice-ship harinc h-;-«,: 
jreat'^d to meet the em.er£ency, the Senate gave the President to 
:nd-;rstand that no noninee unfavourable to the debated acts 
Y.r,,].^ v<^ ^^nnf i rr-sed , two justices o -f t '- -; p r ed'-i-^inant r.^.rty'?^ way 
of thinkinf were appointed, the h'-stile majority of the c^urt 
v.as outvoted, and ^ '■ -> ohnf.xi'"us decision reversed.' 

The creatioi. of additional just ice- ships is not, however, the 
only means hy y/r-ich Congress can coerce and c^-.-t rr.j t, n ? .;U7'r^ ^ 
-'■'irt . It may forestall an adverse decisioii by summarily de- 
priving the c-.urt of jurisdiction nv^r the case in which such 



■*■ For an Incisive account of the vhole affair, see ar. articie 
^r.t it i Td "The Session" .IJr, ./j.t. r-^ev. , Vol .CJ7I , pp. 4 3-1. 



(3^0 
-X d-^oisJon was t hroat, ^nod 7' ind that, ^vfin v/hJl9 the easT Js pT..d- 
iiig: for oi.ly a \ery si;all part nf t.h-? jurJsdietJon of ov^n th^ 

;; H p f -T"! "^ U * " ! r t is d 2 r J ■\" 9 d d ■* f" '""■'*■] " f r''" < t l ^ .-» ;j r, ; ;■:; t i f- ■ ■ t i r. ) . f ' r. •? t 

of it. is founded upon tht-? Judiciary Act of I 7T) , which, beine 
<i Tier? aet of Con£r'^s3, nay ' - nnialod at aj^y tiri? tnat U'-'i.i- 
,-,r'i'5s chooses to repeal it. 'Jpon thjs Judiciary Act, too, d-3- 
•"end not only tt^.e pov/'^rs ^-^ut also tli'^ ^'^ry ex i r;t ence of the in- 
ferior courts of th3 ^Jnit?d States, the Circuit and District 
Courts; and their possible fate, in ease r,f a conflict \,-ith Co- 
rr";<5s, is s if nif ieant ] y f r. r ■* shP.r?o\;ed in that y'.^et of n302 by 
Y/hieh a dsir.oeratic congress s\;ept away, root and brano ' , the 
svstirn of circuit jr.urts which had been created m t *^ -; yr^ :• - 
ous year, but which was hateful tr, the nev.l y- succe s sf ul demo- 
crats '-because it had ^••een officered wJt;- federalists in tr.e 
last hours of John Adams's adinii.i s t rat ior.. 

/ This '-'alanee of Judiciary against legislature and executive 
..'■■ul''' se en , t b e r 1 f f r ? , t r. '->? an''ther of tb.'"'S"; ideal balances 
v.-hich are to be found in the bool;s rather than in the rough r-?- 
aliM^'-; o *" '-' + "al practice: for manifestly the pr.wer of ' 
jourts is saf"! oaily durJng seasons of political peace, v/hej. 
partjes are n'"'t ar^^'used to passion or tempted '-^y tne co.'.uiaiu' '^ 
i rresistibl ? n.ajori+ ies. 

As for sor.:e of *■ < other constitutional balances enunerated 



* 7 V'al . ,f.C6 



it ■ 



■■■( ^ 



(36) 
Jr. that. passaf.T of t^.o Jotter to John Taylr. r which I have tak^iii 
a-^ '\ text, f^^ir present innfficacy 13 quitn ton plain ^ '■■ ;>^'* 
proof. Th^ const ituone io s :nay huve Imn balanced at ainst th<iir 
r -^p r -^ ^-int at jr-^ s in I'r. Adams's day, for tnat N.a- ..'".t v day of 
prirr.arJGs and o:f strict jau-^us diseiplin'?; thi legislaturns of 
the St at 3 s , 1 00 , rvay havo been able to e;;?reJse sofve appreciable 
influence upon the action o :f the Senate, if those v.'ere days 
when policy v/as the predominant consideration which lieterrnined 
elections to the Senate, and + *- ^ ]e£i3lativo choice wa?; ..^-^ ai- 
\/ays a matter of astute manaeement , of neri pers-'-nal \/ei£ht or 
:'arty ixped i ency , aiid the presidential eiect.ors undo';' + -> -" i,y d: 
have at one time some freedom of choice in liamiiit the chief 
magistrate, but before the third presidential election some of 
them, were pledged, before Adams wrote ti. Js letter the majority 
<"• f theri \.--?re wont to obey the dictates of a C'' nr re ss ionaj cau- 
cus, and f I"' r t h» las* fiftv yTars tpey '- --v "^ ■:!jr"'j\' r "^ >" J - 1. e r "• ' 
the will of partv conventions. 

It is i.ot e-,,ort hy that Mr. Adans , possibly because '^ -? '^.ad hi •- 
seif been President, describes the Execu^i'". e as coiis t i t ^t iiu 
only " in some daeree " a checl; upoii Confress, though he puts no 
suoh limitatioii upoii the other balances of the system. Inde- 
pendently of expe r ience- howeve r- j t mJt:ht reasonably have baan 
exnecte ' thi.t t h -» nrer'"/ .^t i •<.■-> .^ r. f t. '" •■» Preni'lent \,ould hare bae:; 



'/"^ 



7"r- 










s-^'-^ 



1^ 



v<^ 



-^ > 



r <:? 



9 / / 



MANUSCRIPT ROOM 

MiiTCM s. mmm library 



on^ nf t, h3 i.iost ^ffootual res t, rain t. s upori t, h ■? p'-<\;Tr of Uoiigfisr?. 

' -> \,.-i,.s ijons t J tut 9d oiii of t.h'3 thrio gnat ooor'inat,^ '^raneh'ja 
of the govGrni.ient ; his functions \jin mad'? r,f the nifhest dic- 

i t. y ; his prj\iiae^s many and substantial - so ir'iAt,iii6.ii'i(i, 
•■ -at it "I as pleased ti^.i faii'jy of sorn>T \,rit-?rn to parad*? t tT»n as 
■Txeeedine thos-:? of th-j Britjs'^ ero\,n -; and th3r3 can h^, iittn 
d'-'Uht that, had th-? p r-?s id^nt ial 'j'air always bssx-i fiiJid by 
Tx. of eornmandixie onaractTr, of aekno\.l -^dg^Jd abiijt.y, and of 
''^^r^'i4:h politjeai trainiiit, it \.«",uld ha-'.e eontinuTd t '■■ '-^"^ ■'. 
'■ sf3at of tho hi£hest authority and eons ide rat ioi. , the true e^ii- 
t r-i of the federal struet\ire, the real throne of adiiini s t rat ioii, 

-nd th3 frequent s'"'uree of polieie^. ^'ashin^ton and his Cab- 
inet eorncianded the ear of Uonfress and gave shape to its de- 
liberations, Adams, th'->uc^> often crossed and thwarted, gave 
eharajter t <-. the £ov e runent ; and Jefferson, as President no 
lerjs than as Secretary of State, v.-a'^ 1 1^ -> real lea-'er r. r :-. ■] ^ p\r. 
ty. But the prestige of the" presidential office has declined 
vvith the character of tn^ Presidents. And the character '■• f trie 

'residents has declined as the perfection of selfish party tac- 
tics has advanced. 

It was ine\'itable that it should b^ so. After independeno 
of choice Oil ti'.e part of the p r es id<9nt i al electors had given 

•lace to the choice of p r e i 1 r'eiit J al candidates bv part-- conven- 
tion •, it became absolutely necessary, in the eyes of politic- 



(3 '3) 
ians, and rnr.re and rnoro iioeessary as time \,"?nt on, tn make ex- 
P'^dJ'iney and availability the only riile?^ of s^i ^et ion . Af5 qaeh 
party, when in convention assembled, spoke only those opinions 
whieh seemed to hive reeei\'ed the sanction of th"; te^^T^i voicT, 
eiref'iily suppressinc in i ^ s "platform." all unpopular poiitieal 
tenets and scrupulously 0Kir;Ti 1 1 ing mention of every doctrine 
that might be looked upon as eh iract e r is t ic and as part of a 
r-ecuiiar and original programras; so, when the presidential can- 
didate came to be chosen, it was recognized as imperatively nec- 
essary that he should have as short a political recird a^ pos- 
sible, and that he should wear a clean and irreproachable insig- 
nificance. " T.ent i em.er;" , said a d i s t ing'-i i ^■"'•'^d Americar. public 
m.an.'I \.ould make an excellent President, but a very poor can- 
didate." A decisive career which gives a man a wei I - unde rs tooJ 
place in public estir?.ation constitutes a positive disability 
for the presidency; because candidacy must precede election, and 
and the shoals of candidacy can be passed only by a ligiH boat 
which carries little freight aiid can be turned readily about to 
suit t h e i :: t r i e a c i 3 =; ^' f the passage. 

I am. disposed to t .*-> iiik , howev e r , that the decline in the char- 
acter ^ '" t t^ --> 'Vesidents is ii'^t. tne .■■lUije '-^m^ ^r.J"' t »- -> accompany- 
ing manifestation of the declining prestifi of the presidential 
office. That high office has fallen f ro;.^. ifs fjrst estate or 
dignity because its po\. er has waned; and its power has v/aned be- 



(31) 
v^auss t.h'i poY."^r nf Cone '"'^ss ^^^s hToorni^ predominant,. ThfJ ^arly 
['residents w ? r 3 , as I have sajd. men of such, a stamp that, thtjy 
wo'ild und^r anv e i r aumn t aner? r^ h:i.T'<? mado t h -» j r iiifliniiei fTlt; 
'^ut th^ir opportunities \/Tr'? exceptional. V'hat with quami- 
1 iiit a-nt' 'i-ntlni \/ith r.nclf^nd, buying I,nusiaiia and Florida, 
'^uildinc dykes to keep out t.h^ flood of the Krenjh HeT'^i nt 3 on , 
and extrioatint the jount ry frr.i.: eeasless ^rr.ils \.itii t.."- South 
/aiieriein r epu'-il ios , the govornm.ont was, as has been pointed out, 
constantly husy, during the first quarter century f. f its exist- 
ence , with the adjustment of f'^^reign relations; and \.itn for- 
eign relations, of or.urse.the Presidents had everyth.ing to do, 
•^ i n _ e t^^-?jr<5 was the offaee-"'^ i.eg'-, t. jat j o^. . 

f!o reo-\-e r , as regards hom.e pojiey also those tines were not 
like ours. Congress \,-as sor.;ev,'hat avikv/ard in exeroisii.r it^ un- 
tried p^-'wers, and its machinery \/as new and v.-ithout that fine 
adjustment v/hich has since made it perfect of i^s kind. Not 
::a-v ing as yet learned the art of go^-erning itself to the hest 
advantage, and ^eing v/ithout that facility of legislation which 
it af t -• r\/ar:^s acquired, the T^eg isl -i + u f ■? \/as glad f r. it ,,,ij_ 
ance and suggestions --.f policy fr^.m the Executive. 

Rut this state of thinL"^ did n'-'t last i oj,^ . Cr.ngress v/as 
\ e ry quick and apt in learning v/hat it c^'Uld do and in petting 
in*'-, thorougr.ay good trim to do it. \f \-iry early uivadid it- 
leif oiito standing comjnlt t ^ts v.hici it equipne' with very con- 



(401 
prihensive and t. hor>-iueh- ^o inc p riv i ln£^3 of 1 f^gisl -it iv e iiijt,]- 
it i-v 9 iid ooiitrol and sot, itself throu£h thes'^ t,o a!nlnis t ^r 
th"} t~ov2 rnrmiit . Uoneross is (to cadopt \\r . Rag^hot, 'n d^serjp- 
tioi'i of Par J iarneiit ) "nothinc less than a hig rns'Jtin* of moro or 
I'isi idlo peopl-3. In proportjr.n as yr.u £i\'e it po\/-»r it \< i 1 1 
inquire into 9\- -3 ry th in£ , settle e\3rythin£, rmd^'Io in "i-'ory- 
thin£. In an ordinary despotism, the powers of th'? despot are 
lii.'ited by his bodily capacity, and by th-? calls of pleasure; 
he is ^ut on3 maiij - th-^r^ are but tv«elve hours in ^is day, and 
h-3 is not dispose'! t <-■ employ more than a small part\in dull bus- 
imssj - he keeps the rest for the court, or tne narem.or f i*' r 
"O-'iety." i'ut Uongress "is a despot who has unlimited time, - 
who has unlimited vmity, - v/hr, nas , or Heiieves ne has, unlim- 
ited com.prehens ion , whose pleasure is in action, v/rose ijfe is 
\.'-'r,i." Aecordinfiy it has entered '-•^■--^ and '■'•r-^ intr. t ^- -> de'- 
tails of adm.inist rat ion until it nas virtvially taken ii.to its 
o\,:i nands all the substantial powers of £OV e rniJien^ . It does 
not dor^ineer over the President himself, but. it makes his Sec- 
retaries J t ?; hum'-^l e servants. Not that it would hesitate, uno;: 
occasion, to deal directly \, ith the chief maristrate him.self; 

•It it has fev; calls ti"- do so; because our latter-day Presi- 
,'->; *r 1 i' -^ ^y ;'r^.xy: they are t--> Exe^u*i' ■> in thaory, but the 
:jec ntar ies ar? the Executive in fact. At t'^e ^ -^ ry first s-^s- 
sion o' Conere-s steps were ta',:en tr.v.ards parje^^i.^i out execu- 
tive Y/ork amoncst several departmant s , according to a thqn suf- 



• fioJTut.iy t.n.orraich division nf lah>-.ur; and if the I'nsidTiit r,r 



t - 1 



♦■ dav Vi'as n*"'* a^W r? t r, ' i r "> ■,• t a.'; >i n i ?^ ^ r .it it- -» d ,t f. .1 i 1 ", , r. f 



r.iirso the I' res id Gilt of to- lay is infiiiiteiy less abi ? to rjo rso^ 
'iid i.:u3t content hiiis-Tif \.'iti^ suoh t;eii-3rai supervision ' " " "! 
ay find time to exerpise. He is in all everyday eoneerns 
^ elded hy the responsibility of his subordinates. 

MM^ 1 1. eaniif-t be said that th.is ohange has raised the Uabji.et 
ii dignity or pov;sr; it has only altered t'lejr relations to 
t ^-i -> so'""*'"? -"■ f t o\'ernrnent. The rv-jiibT r"3 r, f t - ■-> President's Cab- 
inet have alv/ays been prominent in administration; and cTrtain- 
ly the early Cabinets were, no less strong ii- politi^^aJ influ- 
ence than are the Cabinet- of our own day; biit they were trien 
only the President's a'visers, \,-hereas they are it'-w ratr.er the 
-'resident's ooi i eag uo s . Tt^.'^i President is now soareeiy t'^s tx- 
■•juti^e: he is the head of the administration: he app"*<ints the 
^xeoutji-e. '^f ::ourse t-js js ni-t a legal principle; jt is only 
a faet. In ie^al theory the Presidez^t can control every oper- 
-' ♦ ? ^ • '■■ -^ erery departne^.t of *" ■" executv -» ^rauc"-. of t ^^ -> i r,- - 
^ rnm.ent ; but jn fact 1^ ic, not practicable for him. to d--' s'-'.and 
X ii:.;3tation of fact is as potent as a prohibit. ]r, -^ 1 w, . 



Hut, tnoufh fhe neads r 



xecutjv*? deparf ^ ' 



,- -. t 



counsel 1 o rs 
:.o longer simply te . i nu i i o ■ •» t- ^ p f> '" f t ' ? !'r es ident , hav inc becom.e 

A 

in a very real sense members o <" ^ • i_xe cut j-v e , t eir c'-iidine 
ov.er 5n the conduct of affairs, instead of advancing, has 



(42? 
steadily d ir.ijuish'sd; ""J-jaus-; while th3y wtt^ being, rnadT int.o- 
t r li parts of tir? nachjjiory r.f adr lijii st r it, j on , Ur.nc r "^s.s \,a'^ t>:- 
t^ndinr its o\ai sphin of activity, was csttint into tho na'iit 
--■f JrA-e!^t i r at jnf and manaeinc ev^rytring. The Lxooutivs v/as 
.or.slnr ar.d vjr.r.rns;^ raininp weiint; and the station to whien 
Ja^inets fjnaiiy attained was a station of dininished and dirn- 
i: i^^^inr pov.'^r. Th"»re is no dJj^tjneter tendency in Conr r -i^- 
sional hJst'-. ry than the tendei:ey to subject even the detail r? o' 
a. 'I. 'ini St rat ion to tr.e constai.t supervision, aiif' ai i .'Oiijy t r, 
' • ..atehf'il Ji.t erveiit j oxi, of the Standinc Conni 1 1 e i s . 

I am inclined to think, the re fore , that the enlarged powers 
^ C'-.n^ress are the fruits rather of an irmnensely increased ef- 
•'iciency of oreaniznt ion , and of the redoubled activity conse- 
quent upnn + e facilit^' r.-f actioii secure ' ^y sui' r, r f an i z it j o;; , 
than of any -definite and persistent scheme of conscious usurp- 
ation. I* is safe f- say that (J'-.nLress uv.ay-s '^ad ♦ ^ "^ .. ^ ^ -, „ -. 
tr. have a hand iii e-\ery affair of federal eo\ernraentj but it 
\. ir, only by decrees that it found means and opportui^ity tr. grat- 
j f ■ • ^ hat desire, and its activity, extending its hounds v/her- 
ev -" r perfected pr''eesses '■•f (Jongre ss i onal work offered favour- 
1;.; p T'- -5 :■ -> j; t s , ►^a'^ '^ee; eni -^rred s '"■ natnrej" and so slientiy 
that it almost always seem.ed of normal extent and cas nevor, 

, . ,_ , •■ . -. .- 1^ , . . „ ■ • : r i n (_ o - e "-. r t ', , «'■ '-i r i ■> *" '•!""''•. d s of -» x * f" ^ i"' ''■'"' .- 
ary political disturbance, a[);'^ared tr, reach i '^eyond its 



r 



(43) 

^kn'-'wl '?de'5d ennst i t. ut, ional sphon. 

It, i ;? oni ^' iii tha ^xareis'* ^.f f, ho53'3 functions o *" :'M''J:c and 
ornial consul tat, ion and cor.poration \.it)-i tin Pr-;sid?nt which 

an th"! peculiar offices of the Seiiate that the p<''\ver of Con- 
P -. -, ^ 1,,,^ ,^,-1 '^ s t t^ 1 1 f r, r f V si-' -; t, r, popular conceptions of con- 
Mtutioiial prnpri>Tty, heoaus? it is only in the exercise of 

•"-" functions that Cr.i^i cifis is compelled to '^n r,v3rt a,ii.' '"e- 
^ns t rat ii.-e in its .jlairp.s o^ o\"? rl ordship . The House of Pepre- 

■Jiita^ives has rna'e ^'^^y fev/ r.oisy denonst rat i ons of its usurp- 

f 

t:! rifht of assendency: not '-because it \,as difirlent or unan- 

A 

l*icus, ^ut. because it could i.'^intain and exterid its prir'-'Ca- 
tj'Ts qiijt'> n,^, sat i s f .i.-J t r, r i 1 " \.i t. :- r, ij t. ni" Js"^; \,-h -; r ■?a'-: t. >■ -> apfrTS- 
sive policy of the h^enate has, in the acts of its "executive 
^"!^sions" liecessariiy '^--"^n overt, in spit" ^'■'' t -> '>ir.sii:f of 
' e doors, hecaus"! \,hen acting as the President's council in 
'■ '.^ ratification of treat?es and in appointments t "^ offiee its 
- '■•npe t i t i on for pcwor nas been more forrialJy and direct!^' a 
'-ntest \.ith the Executive tha.. were th'^s'? really more signifi- 
. i,nt 1 e r i s 1 at ■;•>• T ajt?; '-iv \:hi :■' , ij. .jr.r. ,""'n,o t i r,;, ',.it.h the ''oust, 
^t has habitually forced the heads of the executive departments 
fr r.%-7 -. r-,, -, ♦'.n ^, j ] ] r,-r Uonrress at ever}' ij-iportajit tur*. of poi i- 

'. Hence it is that to the superficial view it appears that 
'i - " '^nate has been out ra(_ er.us in its enc roac ..;.:ant s upon 
executive privilege. It is not often easy to see the true eon- 



(4^) 
.-^t, i t ut J r.naJ hiarJiiL <''f strictly 1 op j si at. iv? a^jtion: hut it 13 

■ ' .-1 f ■> n t •■ T "! I ■ f r. t h -> i "! a T t r, '•><::■> r'^ ■ a ! f t 1^ a t. j j , t ■ -> - • ,.f r ->. c <"• '' ' '■> - 
poiiitnients to of fie;, for instance, Senators hav-j often outrun 
th^ir l-?tal rijht to Giv3 or v.jthhold thoir assent to appoJnt- 
'■! ^nts by insist inr, upon hain^ first eonf^ult^d oonc";rninf nom- 
JnstJons a? well, and have thus made tl-nir constitutional as- 
sent to app'"'lntrnent s dependent upon an unconstitutional control 
of nominations. 

Th i ?5 particular usurp 'tir,; hi.c; ■i^--?j: put up''oi a v t r " solid 
'i?.sis of lav, by that Tenure- of - o ff i ce Act which took away from 
!'r?sidei\t Johnson, in an !-rur '■• " party ^ ^at ;'.n;l passion, that 
independent power of removal fron office with which the Joii- 

stitution had invested him, ^ut \/n icr. ne had use.' jii a way that 

o\.'n 
exasperated a Senate not of :^ i s way of thinkinc- But thouch 

A 

this tiasin£ po-i/er of tne Senate's in the matter of the f^d^ral 
pn+r'-nare is repugnant enouH' to t m or J final the-^ry of the Co;\- 
stitutioii, it is li'.ely to h-^ quite niillified by tnat poi icy of 
.r " ^ - ^ -^ f' j . "> r -^ r r. r ■ ■ ,- ^ , i vi. s Falned so firm, and mayhap so 
iaot3nt,a footirig in our xiational legislation; and in no event 

. ' coiit r'-a '' ■■ • pat rraia^.e by ^ ;nate na"' e un^al- 

xnced the federal system more seriouslj/ than it may some ria;/ 
unbalanced by an irresponsible exert io^; of that body's sem.i- ex- 
ecutive pov/ers in repard to the f'^reipn nolic" ' ■-••^ '»^r.- 
-.ent. More than one passage in ' ^ aistriry of our foreign re- 



(4n) 
.atjr.jis il Jus t rat,f?<5 t.hfi danCT. iJiirinf: th'-J sjnrl-; cnnr n ^s ion- 
■1 session of 1369-1, for 'jxampl t , t.h ? t, r?at. y-inar r int ?r<\.f! r of 
t.hs Sanate was fjx??rt.9d in a way that, na(Js the eornparat. jve v.'oak- 
. ass of t h. "^ Lxeeut i\ 3 very tjojisp j euous and v/as ominous of vory 

■^r"''-''ic: r-^suJt.-^. I »■ '^o\.Td t^■^ LxTon t. j^■ ? in ♦'.'"'T ^if^t. , hut 
"n>ijT and 3 r r^'-;olut ^ , tn-j S^nat^ rnast'^rfuJ trr-nf.'' 3 i'l ^ *"? v/ronr 

3nrnar;: hati '^^^n as':ed t r, part n; j t >^ + •- -> island o" r.t . v^-nrias t r, 
*n-; '/liitTd States and had at fjrst nfused ai j tsms. not only 

"^eaus-? sh-"? ear=?d 1 i *■ *• i ? for t r. t prie";, '-^ut aiJ^o ai; ' pr]..o3pai- 
. h^oausT such 1 sal? as that propos'^d was oppf-s^d to the es- 
ta'^ljsh^d policy r.f the powers of '."^striri: Europ-^, in v/hose fa- 
V"ir J -Jn'-r:-: \,ished to - 1 and ; ^Tit fiiialiy, hy str?r,s of per- 
■ist-!:.t and irvp'- rt unat e ne£otJation. she had b^en induoed to 
■iTld; a tnaty ad been sJt^-^ti and sei;t + "> -^i-e Senat ■■ * 
■ eopl? of St. Thomas had sifnJ^"i-5d thejr consent to the cession 

y a forma] rote; an' tp.-; island had 'leen actual jy t, r iii • f e r red 
♦^ o an authorized agent -"'f '"■ur government, upoii tne faitn on the 

art of t e Danish ministers, thi^ our representative--; v/ould 

o^ have trifled v; i t n them, ^y entering upon an im.p'-rtant Su- 

Jness transaction v.hich thsy v/ere nf-'t assured of tnejr ability 

t r ,"-. 7 J J 1 1 ' -> . n M t t 1^ -> f -> ]-i ;^ t -> J -• t- t h -> f. r "> 1 1 V ] i ^ T^. e r J e 1 -> d in 

"its cor -r:-!! ttee- r'-.r,r ! the limit of time agreed Ti:"-.n ^'-•r i'->nf7rm- 

-■•■-' p.ssedj the ], anish gov e ri-imer-.^ . -t lant '-». ^ '<■'■■ '•:;..• - 

humil i It ion 

•" ; . • ^ ridicul'-us ■^■■■ ■ > ,> . i up <» that would follo\/ a failure of tb? 

A 



(<t6) 
'^•jsinnss at that stag-?, axteiid^d the t jne and even sent over 
'";.'" o '^ i t r; T'O'^t ^r-'i r,-»r,t riji^tar'^ of ?5tatT t r. 'irf t thi nTf'^i- 
ation >iy all dienified niea/is; but the Senate eared nothiiit for 
..Liiis. f-ioliiit" and ooul' i^'^ord, i^ »houtht, to despi^'se I'n-i- 
ilent Grant and J^r. FJsh. and at the next r3-?gsion re^e.jted the 
*r';aty aiid iTft the Lanes to repossess t r.ense I ^ es of t :^ i jsl i.. ' 
which Y.-e had ooneluded not to buy after ail. 

It was during this same session of 13V,1-) that the Senate 
teased the Exeent j-v-o by thro\;jn£ every possible obstacle iii the 
•, ^y of th-T eoiif j mat ioii of the much more important treaty \.ith 
■;reat !-ritain relati-" -? t r, t. m iilabama eiairns, nearly marrjne 
"■ r good and all one of the most satisfactory successes of our 
reje:.t f'-'rei£j. poi i ey ;'*' b\it. it is not iiecessary to d\^eil at 
length upon these \,-el 1 - iLnov/ii incidents of our later history, 
inasmuch as these are only tw"- of innunerabi^^ instai.ce?^ \;hic^ 
r-.ake it safe to say that .fror/i v/hatever noiiit \,e vie\v the a- 
.atj'-,j_c- r, *■ trie rxeciiti-«e and the 1 eg i si at'i r e , it i .s evident 
tbit t.hT pr.\:-->r r.f t H -> ]at^'?r ''vr; st'^adily i iii r -> a-^ q ' at th^ ex- 
pense of the prerogatives '•.f the forr:er, and that the degree 
1 1. '..I'.ij;! the o;-^ of t n:^'. i^C'-iif braiiChes of go\9rj.ment is bal- 
anced a>.ainst the ot^^er is a \ery insignificant degree indeed. 
V r. r in t *- e exercise of 'in pr.wsr <■> f y^tr,^ v/hicn is of jours'' ^ 



^" For a brilliant account of the Senatorial history of these 
t\;o treaties se-» *he article entitj-jd "The Sess ion" , No . /vm. Hev . . 



')>l 



(47) 
ond ai i er.nparison his most '"r.rnidabie prerof.at. Jve , t^-; J'resr 
'Tilt, ajt. s v.'''^ as the Lxecut. jv'? hut. as a thjrc^ ^^ranj 



/■ f f ■ -> ' ■> 



is-iatiiri. As '"iJvTr llisv.r.rth sand at t h "? first ssssi'-n of 
^h? Senat-;, thi Presi'l^^nt js, as refards th^ passaf'? of SiiJs, 
'It a part of Uoncrassf and hT can >n an ^iffJoi^n*, irnpT rat i\- n 
mS'jr of th"! 1 e£; J si a+ iv ■^ syst^r,^ only in quiet tjrms wh^n par- 
ti -3 s ar:; pritty iv^nly halane^r' and th-;r? an i.r< indor jta^lo 
a^o rjt j-Ts to o\3rrun o'bnoxJ<*'Us \'?to'?s. 



FvTn this rapid outlim sksteh r.f th? two pjotuns, of tm 

'r-»<-ry and of th-; ajtual praetjois o ■' tm (J'- ns t j t nt j on, has 

' "J^n suf f i 'J J ent , t "'^ T r "> 'f-' r ■> , t r, -^ r,,. t -j most r 'i,rkf?d pr.iiit.s r.f 

'ifferiiiO^J hetv/r?^n tn-i two, and to justify that ear^fui study 

Jont r 1 s T '-...ai j r,\ ^ r.u- :3iit , as t ^ "; r^ai t^-v ^ r..r.nOiit '•• f tr."> 'J. - 

ion, Y/hieh I an^. ab'-ut to und'^rtak'^. The balano'is of th-T CJon- 

onl y 

•:titutir,n ar? for th.:^ most part, idoai . 1' o r al i prajticaj pur- 

^ 

. osTs th3 national covfjrnrmnt 'is supror.m 01 3r th-T Stat^ [lovirii- 
• Ti.ts, and C;^'ntf'5^f5 p re dominant ot' .^ r its so-oali^d i^oordinat? 
'> r \j.o h e 9 . 7'Vi 1 r -. ii, s (Jonj r ^ -^ s a.t. fir-^t r.i- -> rs '"' ado\;id n-'itr.Tr Pr"!si- 

'3nt nor fsderal Judiei-ry, it no\.' on occasion rulos br.t^ witn 
"Jasy nastory and \/Jth a 2 t_h hand; an-, \.' jr^as Ta^-h St.it -^ Oi.o"! 

uard^d its sov^riitn pr?ro, tivT^! v.ith j^alo'is prjd^ and abl i 
' ^n not a fTv/ pr^fTrred pr.ijtical advaneomi-.t und ^ r t ; tj'"^'^ '^'"^" 

'ents of th? cf^at cor.-u lonw-^al ths tr off jot und.^r tha n -^v/ f^d- 
"tral Cr-nst i f uMon . siats in. Stat-? liiislaturTS ar-? now no ioi.t- 



(4-3) 
^r t;rvot.=>d TXO'ipt, as po-isih]e approa^-'hes t, r- s^ats in Coner^^s, 
>. ' -"ven eo-'^rnc rs of St. n*'^- ?^Tr?',; liTotani. to t hT nat, jr.nal " -» - 
it,9 as a p roMO'^ ion , a r-?\/ard f'-r t.ne nuinbj'?r sirvieas tn-jy n 
r/ndor3d 1 1^ 3 i r loeai {jov i r .mnf s . 

V'hat makes it. thn rnon irnijortant t, r. und-^rstand t.m pn<5-jnt 

aecanism of national govGrnm-jnt and to study t m mthods of 
Jor;f ri •^s ioz:al rul i in a ii£;ht cl^ar and uneloud-^d by tmory, ir; 
' 1 •■ tbori is plain evid'^iiO'? that tho expaiision of f^.l^rai pov.- 
^r is to jontix.ue, aiid that tinrT exists, er-iis^qu -Jiit 1 y , an '5\i- 
■ "• t noeoosity that it sl'.ould bs icnowii just v/hat to-do and how 
- ^ d--' it when tha tine eorr.93 f ''■ r [)u'^lJo opinioii to ta;;? '.^r.ntroi 
-' f tne foTj^s whieh are ohan(iin^ the oharaet^r of ^'ur Constitu- 
tion. ThTr^ an voices ii. th^ air v/hieh eaiinot b^ rnisund-jr- 
:^.*r'r.cl. Th^ tinr^s seirn to favour a eent. ral i zat. i oi; of goT-^rn- 

eiital functions sujh as jould not hav? sutt-st3d itself as a 
•■^■ss ibi 1 i t y to the framers of t.i Constitution. Sinj-^ t'-.^v 
fxvi t. h=>ir v.nrk to th'? \,orld th» Vihoie face '■■ f triat \.orid rias 



/» H ^ 



nf^d. The Constitution was adopts?'! v.hTn it v^as six day.' 



^ n \r r; • 



*".ard traveiiinr fror- Ne\/ Yor',; to Boston, whon to eross Last H:\ 
Tr Y/as t '■• v'^ntur'} a perilous voyage,- v/hen men w? r ^ t anrifu^ for 
Yz-jTicly mails; v/heii th^ extent of * hn country's eor.imere-} was 
r^jkomd n'-t in millions but i:; thousands of dojj.ars; wn^n tn"> 
j'->.u,itry ',;i;e\. <" -!\,- jities and ha^! but b^f un manuf a.2 tu ra s , Mhnn 
Indians w^ n prflssjne upon n«iar froiiti'irsj v/he.. *'^'^^-^ v.-^r-* no 



•^■jj^praph IJii-^s and no noi^st.Tr er. rno r 1 1 j oji-? . 'JnquTst, ionahl y , 
*■ m pn-'siiij. prohlnns of tm pn^iint. r.T'r-'.oiit nr-'iri t.)r'f r'^ruia- 
t ioii of our A-ast syst "^rns of oominarc? and manufacture, t. hi con* 
^rnl of giant, oorporat. ioji^^ ^ t h -> nstraJnt of rnoi.opol i 3 s , the 
;-?r^ lotion of fi^joa] a r ranc"?n'!i. t ?; , th-> f ao J 1 J t at j up r>^ ^j'-noni^ 
T-. j"hanG'3 s , and many othir Ij;:^ national concerns, amont^t- v/hich 
:.-;ay pos'-'i'^ly '^ .uii^er-"? ' + *^ "> qu-i r; t i on of rr.arrJarT and di'/orc!,' 
ind the greatest of these prr^]?ns do not faii v.ithin even tn 
■iniart'd sp.'^'Jn of tii^ federal t r.\ 3 r^jae^.t ; some of them can be 
Trnbraced \;ithin its jurisdiction by no possible stretch of co;.- 
■ truetioi., an" the majority of them only by >.restinf the Con- 
-tit.uti<-.n to strange and as yet uiiimagined usts. otilj t !-■.■; r t 
is a dJstjnct movement in favour of national contf-i of ail 
que>tjr,ii-; of n >- ] i c 3/ \;hich m.anifestly '"ler'jrr.f' uj. i f -^ ri.n ty r.r t re it- 

ent and po\,er of adi.'.inist rat ion such as cannot be reaiizid by 
*■ ^ "■'parat-^, u...onc^rted action of t e States; and jt seems 
^'robabl-; t.o many that, v/hether by cons t i ttit ional amei^.dm.ent <■, r 
"--y stiii furtror fiigh.ts of coiir; t rue t ion , yet '-> ro;i..-' -> r t->rntory 
V. i i i at no •'•ery dis^aiit day be assif:nei to the federai t''vern- 
m^ . It becomes a matter --f th.a utr.^.'-.s* iiip'-. rt axiC e , t h ■? re ^r, re , 
oth -f <-• r tbr.-:;-* v.ho s.^ul^'l a r r "> ^i t this t end-'ri'-"' ar ' ' ose \.bo 

sjause t'-ey look upon it v/ith ailowanoi if iiot \.ith positive 
♦"■"^ur. ^.ould i?t J^ ruji "^ *■ r jourse, * '■■ -> :: v ■" : . -> • -^ ■> » •> caJ i y ^ '" '' 
, 0-. e rij »i-.t upon which this ne\v \/9i£ht r,'' responsibility and pov.- 



{5r) 
'r ssons liic^ly to be oa??t, , jn ord^r that Its capacity '^r.t,:^ fr,r 
t ■; ; ■..'-.rl; jt n'^Vv' dnas and for that v.'hJoh it may b^ oaii'id upon 
t r, do may >^o d^finitnly a.^t iiiated . 

Judf]"; Cool TV, i:i '^. in adi/i rabl ■"! v.'"-, rl; r,n "Th3 PrinoDpi^n of 
..ni3ri'jan Constitutional Lav/", after quoting I-^r . Adams ' s ^i.uii-jra- 
t ion of th^ ■j^-'eeks and balances r,f t,]^-? f-jd3rai system, adds tni^ 
eonn^iit upo]-. I ' r , Adaip.s ' :^ eoneludrmF s t at -Tr:=;i.t , that that system 
is an inv^ntioii o^ nur ov,n; "Th^ invent J on , r:T^- -> rt he 1 ? s s ,Y/as 
lucs^ste'' '-^!' th? r.ritish .j '-•r.s t i t m'^ ion , in \,"^^ij'-^ a <^'"^t-.r, cjr r.-^t, 
equally elaborate v/as th^n in for-j?. I; it,?; outv.ard forms that 
-^yst^u stiii nr;ains; but thTro has b;j-?n for m.or^^ t-^an a cen- 
tury a £radual change in th? dinetion of a concentration of 
i -Jt isi at i^,- -3 and executive power in thi popular house of Parlia- 
r.-ient , so that the tovernmnt iio\. is sorietines said, with no 
. nat 'Toartur-! from the f a^'t , to ^-^ a Government by the Mouse 
<"' ' Cornrioi; s . " i-.ijt I'^udr "? Cor, j->v i''.r.-^,':; j.'"'t r??"?!^ t r, c: -> ■> _ o r _ i f he 
-^ees.does not em.phasize t. !-. 3 fact that our ov.n system has b^^n 
^ardly less subje.jt to "a gradual change ir. t -> direction o; a 
jonc ent rat ion" of all th"» substantial po\.Trs of gov -; rnr-ient in 
t'^e hands of Congr-^Ts; so tha* i+ is nov/ , though a v;i.'^ depart- 
ure from the form, of things, "no great de.'artur-? fror • fac*" 
to describe ours as i- gor e ri.ment by the Standii.i Cor.->j 'i t toes o t" 



^o,.f- r- 



'i' ' 



'- i -^ f a ,• t 



'o\, ei e r , dedue i ^J e fron ^•^rv nan" pas- 



ages n*- ju^G^ Cooler's o\,i. \.ri tings; for he i- by no neaiis in- 



?9iisJMf '■■'' t.h.it. expansion of ^m pr^.^c^ r r t.m f-^dorai povTrn- 
n^nt and that, crystal 1 i zat, joi; of it^ r/i^thods v/hjoh hav •? prao- 
t.ioally mad? ohsoJitT the ^arly const J tut. ionaj thir.rj'^s, and 

'!\?j. t h T nr,difi->d ti- ->r,r" \,hich i^a h i : ; i ] f titi'?; t r, nr.id. 

11^ ha.s tTsted tir? nioT ad ju-? tr-i^j.t '■■f th? tmr. rftical bal- 
w.:^" '-"v t .^ -. actual facts-, u.d has careful i- "^* fr, -t- t - -. r?- 
=:uits; ^ut h-3 has nowher"} brought those results togeth'Jr into 
a "ii-ri"' conp r-^heiiS iv e view v.-hicri r'-ight seri-e a?; a clear ind 
satisfactory deilnaation of tno Constitution of tf-.-r'ay; nor nas 
■'' e or any other wrjt'^r of capacity examined mixiutely and at 
1 enrth that internal organization of Cnn^rer^s \,hich determines 
its met ho''.<5 of lecislation. \/nich shapes i t g means of govsrninc 
t • -• ■'xecut:^-' e ' \'"'a -^ t--?,.t s , which contains in J *■ +he \.- -"le r-iech- 
inism v/herehy the policy of t!ie country is in all points direct- 
ed, and \.'". ich is therefore an essential '^ranj- of c ;.s t J ^^ u M on- 
al study. As the House of Cor^mons is the central object of ex- 
am.inat Ion ii. every study o^ ♦ !" e English cons t i t ut i rv;. ^ «5a «;^nTiid 
vJoiiC '"•''s s be in eiery s+u'y of our o\.n. /-iry oxxe \.h© is unfamil- 
i a - witn w'at Uoncress actually does and how it does it, \,itn 

ill j^n 'M^-i^^ -... ■• ;xi J if^ '■■C ■-■'•p 1. 1- i r.j.s , \.' i t l- n. J i T f. n d e^' 1 C e T n' 

rnanar ement an-* resources o'T pov/er is T-ery far from a rinov/ledfe 
r^ f -. .> ^ ; - ♦ it. ut j oiia^ ^., „»-,,, under .■■':• t • ii- ■>; a:.-" ♦^ -.-«•-. p" 
'••ne who knows tp.es** thinfs that knowl'jde'^ is very n'Jar. 



JEZL 



T H 1'. n r '; ;• i' ^ k f l p p t r; f n t .■. v i " 



"No rnoro vital truth \/as 9v?r utt^rrad than that fr'?'?- 
doiT! axid frng institution?? cannr.t Jont bT raaintaii\Td 
^y aiiv por.pl 3 v^h''. do nnt un ' t rf5 1 an;' thn i-atun of 
th-jif ov.n £0V3rnrn3nt." 

liiko a vast pi^jtun thront'Od \,ith figuns of 'jquai p roi-iin'JneT 

vnd err.Y/d?d wit- -^la'^orate and o''^t r'js ivT d-T t ai 2 s , Conr rerjf? i r^ 

ar-' tr, se-? sa+is^aotorily and appr?e iat i-> ? 1 y at a sii:£lT ■^i'iyj 
uir' f T'-.Tp. a sinrl'^ ^jtandpoint. Its ,"-■: 'f 1 i j -^.t ? ' fr.r\'-; -v; r^ Hj\-er- 

if j?c struotun eonfus3 th^ v ^ s ion , aii:! eoiioeal th'J fsyst'^rn 
\. ■> J h ui-.d3rli3s its eorn;"''S i t j o.. . It in + ^ f' (jriipi";^. ■^ ' '■ "• v-t.- 
'^fst'-od without an ? f f o rt , v;i •■ hou+ a en,r-^ful o^ncT sys t -jnat i e 

f.e-'Jss of analysis. Uons Tojnnt 1 y ,r -> ry f'^v. pTopi^ d'-. Ui.dir- 

• t and it, and its df-'Ors ar? practically shut a^.xiiist the join- 
r?h3nsion nf the puMie at lirf?. If Uoiig^'^ss had a f3\. au- 

t '- - r 1 1 1 1 ji- -> ] ^ n,'-' -> rr; N/h*". s > f j p u r ^ s \,- -> n v -» r^' ' J s t, "i i .-j t a; . ' "-^ r" 
-'onspieuous to the ^y? '•■f the w-irid.and v;hr. could repr'i'^eiit and 
St in-' ^ r r t^^T liatjonal 1 t c i " 1 '"'-^ 'J r*'' i^- ■*■ ^ "^ +*^''Mghts r> *■ t >^ ^ «• • -» r ■ 
u Tf'Us.and withal \ery r espec t a^l e , c 1 ass of persons who must 

* " . s I' 3 c 1 ■f 3 cal 1 y and in concnt? f'-.rrns when tnsy thii./; at aii^ 
thosi persons who can make s'-rnethinr out of rnei:i '-lUt very Jit- 
tje r.ut of intangi'^l"! p e. "s rai i /at ions , i t would ^e quiti v.ithii. 
♦■^e npjr,:. r,r pr, s s J ^ i J i t j e s f'^-r th^i majority of tho nation to 
'ollow the course of legislation v/Jthout ar^y -^ sry serious con- 
••<r:ir. r.r f -...,,,;. f _ | o - , , ■ ■ r. ^ ^ t h ■ t alr'.ost flvery^odv w^o Just 



(2) 
ii'^Y.' fiv3s any hsed tr> t.b-> pr.ljoy r. f Oreat. 1' r j t,,-i j .. , \; i t,h nrard 
even to t h? nfr. n^ of t r ? franehisT and othor ill:? Ttriet. iy 
- T^ j s J at i\'^ qu-T.s t, ions , t, hiiiks o^ Mr .Oi adfst. om and nis eoilTa{.u-?n 
rat'^^r than of th^ IIoust of Ur^rirnons whoso servants thoy ar*;. 
■' -? question is not ,V'nat v/iil Pari J .-ir - Mit do -''■^ut .V'nat \;ii.i fr. 
'lad St on'? do? And thTn is ^von less dou^-it that it. js Tasiir 
:.d non natural to look upon th-3 legislative designs of rjo r- 
iny as I'-'Ok^d up >->ehirid Bisrnarok's heavy hro\/s than t r, t. nink 
■'" thern as dependent upoii t'^e determinations of the Peionstag:, 
.♦'■'ough as a rnntter of faet its consent js i rid i sp ensa'-^l e even 
+ '-■ the plans of the imperious and domineerine Chaneel ]r,r. 

^ut there is no pVeat minister or ministry to represent 
' -^.e \.il] and tieinc of Uoncress in the oomT:>on thoiaeht. The 

:)eaker of the House of Penre sentat ives stands as near tr, lead- 
ership as anyor.e; hut his will does not run as a format i^-e and 
imperative pov.er in legislation much ^-^eyond the appointment of 
the ooru.it tTes ^/ho are to lead the House and -V. its \;ork for it., 
and it i s , t n e r ef ore , not eiitirejy sp.t i sf aet o ry tr. tne public 

ix.d t'-> trace all legislation, to him. lie m.ay ha\ e a joiitrol- 
linr hand in startljig jt; hut '• e sits t^o still i x. h. is chair 
..d is too e-v-eidentiy i.ot on the floor of the body over v. n ] c n 
e pre'^jdes to make it seem probable to the ordinary judgm.ent 
that he has much Immediate concern in legislation after it is 
' no e set :^.fr.r,t. ]' er"br,;^v k- '■''>.s that be i r; a -^itauncb and a'^'ov/- 
ed partisaii a..d that '- e likes to make smoot h , wheneve r he can. 



' 'VT 1 3C i ■*5i a-^ iv <; path i j g party; 'Tit, It. door? not. naein likely 

that, all inportant rmasurq ; orJcinat-" >,'ith him or that ^-j i .-? 
t h -• n,Mt»-r, r r, f ->^ ->rv ' i •^ t i i . ,_> t, n'-. Ji>v. Arifi i r. fact h? 1 -^ r.nt . 
Wi is a pnat party 2]i i ^ f , '--ut th? "iT^deine e i r.jurns t an«i3f; of his 
offiol.il position as pnsidii-i; '■-^^■ie-^r privjnt his pTrforr-^inf 
' "'.e part of active l^adf^rship. H^ appoints th^ leaders of th'3 
Hous'^/iut ho is not hirnsoif its loader. 

I Tho l^ad?rs of tho ilouse are th-? ehairmn of t!^-? prin':3ipal 

f Standine Uonj.ittg^s. Indeed, to 'b'; exact jy acjurato.tho ilouso 

is as m.any lea'^^rs as thors ari su^-ijeets of 1 ec isl at ion; for 
thTre are as many Standing Uoiiral t tT?3 as tmr? are leadinr 
classes of 1 ?ei s 1 at ion , and in ^■h'i eons id^ rat i '■•i , r.r ov^ry *r,,,T,2 
-^ '-business th-^ IIous'? is guidod ^y a sp^eial loader in th-? p3r- 
son of the ehairrnaii of the Standing iJor.ir.it t ee charged \/ i t !^ tho 
•'ip "! r intend enc e of measures n f the particular el ass to \/hieh 
t nat topic "^eloncs. It is this multiplicity of leaders, this 

any- headed 1 ^ade rship , v/h j ch makes the o rc'',Xii za-t ion of the 
House too complex to afford uninformed people and unskilled r»S- 
s e rv e r '' i t >^ a r ' ' easy clue ^ ''■ i t '^ r ^ -> t >-■ r. '-'' ^ r. f r ' i ] i . For t. ■"> e 

hairren of the Standing Co:.!; li 1 1 les do not constitute a cobper- 
Ltive body like a ministry. They do iio^ -''iisult ex.: j-'i.cur in 
the adoption of hom.o Ellis'"' us and mtitually (^.elpful iieasure^; 
t'^Tre is no th'-'Ugnt r. f act in,- j j-i coi.cert. Lach Utt: '.i 1 1 ^ -> goes 
its o\.n \.ay at its own pace. I* is im.possibie to disco-^er any 

aitv r, r method in trie disconnected and therefore unsys t emat ic , 



(4) 

jonf US id, and dssult.ory aot, jr.j; of t,hf? lIousr»,or any corninoii pur- 
■o'^e in t ho measur'^s v/hioh at.s Coriirnj 1 1. ots from tarvj to t Jin'? ro- 

And jt i?5 not, only to t, iv? ui^analyt, ic thought, of the eor:irnon 
nbs^rver v.'ho looks at thi Houst fron th? outside that ]f ■ --Ir.- 
Jne^ s3f?m h-jl t-T r- sk=?l t ^ r and \/Jthout eompr'? hens J '^ J i rui^; it in 
..ot at one-? easy to understand thorn whm thsy an so rut in J zori 
in their daily headv/ay throuch open session hy one who is in- 
• j ^ "> the House. The newly elected memhe r , ent e r Jiii its doors 
""or the first tine and with no more knowledge of its rules and 

justoms than the more intelligent of hJs constituents possess, 

expe r ieiices 
-. Jy/'i^'s a i nd great di^^jjulty in ad^ju'^ting his pr ec-.i.c e i-\'ed 

ideas of Congressional life to the strange and uniooked fr.r 
jonditions hy which he finds hinseif surrounded a^ter ^ -■ '^as 
■^en sworn in and has become a part r, f t, '^ e great legislative 
'machine. Indeed there are generally many things cor.nected with 
^is erireer in Washington to disgust and dispirit, if n^-t to ag- 
grieve, the ne\.- member. In the first place, his local reputation 
'-e- nrit foilov/ him to ♦ ^^ ^ <"e'eral capital. PosslMv t'^^ r-inrn- 
'ers from his ov/n vState knov/ him and receive hji:i intr. full fel- 
lov/ship.but nr. o;.e else kno\/s li im , exc ept as ai; adherent of this 
--. r that party, or as a nov.'-com.er frori this «■• r t-at State. \in 
•'inds his statjo.. iris i pni f i cant ai: ' his identity ii;d i s t i^.c ^ . 

ut this social humiliation which he axperjences Jn circles in 
\/hich to ^e a Congre'-sman does not of it^^elf confer '' i s t : nc t lo.. , 



it;aus'» It, is only t.o Hr> ©jjo anioiiB many, Is prr.hahiy nr,t. to '^^ 
Gompared v/ith t.h^ ebagrjn and disappointment which come in c<^m- 

■ - ; 1' \ i t >^ t h -» i n"?''' 1 ^ ^ '''' J (^ H i r; ^j r, ' > p V t b it ho j S *? O IJ :i, 1 J V \, ] M^ r. U t. 

\.iiCht nr t j t ] :} to eons i d** rat ion in th^ ]!ous'> its=;Jf. No man, 
\.h•^i. ehos-?!! to tno immba rsh 3 p of a h'-dy i)0ss'')ss 3 hl {^aa.t po\/er." 

nd exalted p r i ro^at i vos , 1 ik^s to find hi? activity npnssed, 
and hir-.srjlf nuppr-issed , hy imn^^ati^"^ rules and pr^'jedents v.'hieri 
333ir. to hav 3 besn framad for the deliharati purpose of ma'/;ine 
us=?fuln3ss unat taina'^1 -•? '^y individual mem'^^rs. Yot sue^. the 
.."Jv, ! "> ■*T-''i-'? r ■'' J n'^ s tba ruls'^ an"' p r -"o '^d--? j.t s of th^ Hou"^"? t '"> he. 
It m.i.tters not to him, because it is not a])par?nt on tne fa-.-e of 
things, that t;-.os"; rvile-; and preen dents have {/rov<n,not ou^ '■• ^ 
set purpose t -■• curtail the prir jle^er^ of new members as suen, 

ut out of the plain necessities o^ business; it rei'ains the 
"ict that he suf^"ers under their .urb.and it is W't until "cus- 
1 01 '. hath made it in hirr. a property of easiness" tnat ne submits 
to them, with anything like £ood grace. 

:>'ot. all new mem.bers suffer alike, of course , un.' e r this tryinr 

'iscipline; h^eause i^ is n'"'t e^=»r'" ne\/ T"=fr-''^ir that cones to 
is sea*^ with serious purposes of honest , earnest , and duteous 

.'■r,;. There ar ^ numerous tricks a. ' su '^t e r f u(; e s , soon learned 

and easily used,hy neans of \.hioh the most idle and self-indul- 

r ead il y 
gent members may aa« i 1 y m *.ke sueh sho\/ of exemplary 'ijifenca 

A 

s will quite satisfy, if it does not prsitiveiy del i(. ht , con- 
stituent '? i,. Buneomhe. i'ut the num^or o^ cv.nt ressm.en who de- 



(6) 
i ihT rat.'=?l y court usalessiiess and eoiint.g rf e j t, v/^l 1 - do J nc i f^ prob- 
a^ly small. The prsat. majr. rjt. y dou'->t J ess hav? a Ictjii enough 
9Ti'^"' r, f t, )- -» i ]- f]vit, y and a suf if" i e J "Jiit 1 v uni^ f??^ i t. n, t. i .,f- d-»r;]r'; to 
d*^ it.; and it nay saf'^Jy ^'j taken for £;rant,ef"! that, tt^e zfjai of 
new members is generally ;-.ot, and insist.Tnt. If it b9 not h'-'t 
to he gill v/ith.it is 1 il:'? to heeorne so hy reason of friction 
.~t the Fill es , h^eause such men must inevita'-ily h^ cnafed hy 
the hond^w^f' restraint drawn ahout them hy the inexorahi^ r.h- 
servanees of the House, 

r.^ten the ne\< memVier coes to V'ashintton as the r-jpre^enta- 
tive of a particular line of pol icy , hai- ing heen electel.it may 
^e.as an advocate of free trad? or as a chanpioii o '^ protection; 
and it is naturally his first care upon enterinr on his duties 
to seek imr.^.ediate opportunity for t "e express ioji of his views 
and immediate means of gii-inf them definite shape and thrust- 
ing them upon the atteiition of Congress. His disappointment is 
therefore very keen when he finds '-^oth opportur.ity and means 
'■'enied him. He can introduce nis hijjj hut that is all he can 
dr. , and he must do that at a particular time and in a particular 
manner. This he is likely to learn through rude expe r ience , i f 

e he not cautious to inquire h/^forehand the details o "" prac- 
tice. He is likely tr make a rasl"'. start, up on the supposition 
that Congre-^s ohserr^es t):'.'^ ordinary rules of pari i an.entarv prac- 
tice to which he has h^eom.'} accustomed in the dehating cluhs 
familiar to his y.uth and in the mas s-m.ee t ings known to his 



(7) 

later exp*? r i '^nc'? , His ^ill J ?5 doiiht. J er5?5 r'^ady for p r'»'^ ent, at ion 
early in the sess ion , and , sorn-? day, taking advantatQ of a pauso 
in the p roc^sd incs , v/hon thor'? sT^ns to Vn no busixiesf? b'^foro 
the Hous^.he ri.sTs to read it. aiid iiov t its adoption. But ne 
f jnds fettjnc the floor an arduous and precarious undertaking. 
There are certain to he others who v/ant it n..-^ vveii a-^ ■^. e : and 
his indignation is stirred hy the faet that the Speaker dcis 
r.ot so much as turn towards him, though he must have heard his 
call, but reeogniaes someone else readily and as a matter of 
jourse. If he be obstreperous and perFTistent in his ories of 
"I!r . Speake r " , he may get that great f uiic '^ J onary ' s attezition for 
a moment - only to be t ol d , howe^^e r , that he is out, o^ order and 
that, his bill can be introduced at that stage only by uiiaxiimous 
consent - immediately there are meehanieal 1 y- ut t e red but em- 
phatic excl am.at J ons o^ ob j ec t ion , and he is force.; to sit down 
confused and disgusted. He has,\/ithout knoy/ing it, obtruded 
himself in the way of the ''regular ord.er of biL^^iness" and be'?n 
run over in consequence , \;i tbout bein[ quite claar as to how the 
accident occurred. 

KJored '•'" th'' laii, an'~' d -i q .> '-.j--;f j t n ^ -. r.f thT~ fir'^t ex;ierience 
to respect, jf not t '■■ fear, the Pules, the new member casts about 
'iy study or inquiry to find out.jf possibie,t^e nature and oc- 
casion o^ his p r i-"- il eges . He learns that his only safe day is 
Monday. Cn that day the roll of the states is cali^ and mem- 
bers may introduce bills as their States are raa.hed in the 



(3) 
eali. So on f'onday h'^ essays another hout with the Pules, eon- 
fldent this tine nf being on their safe side: hut mayhap indis- 
creetly aiid uniueiiily ov e reox.f ideiit . For if he* suppr.ses.as he 
naturally will, that after his hill has heen sent up to be read 
by the Clerk, he nay say a few v/ords in its behalf , and in that 
belief sets out upon his 1 r,ne- eons id ered renarks.he will be 
knoeked dowii by the Pules as surely as he was r,n the last oe- 
easion when he gained the floor for a brief moment. Vne rap of 
Mr. Speaker's ravel is sharp , injnediat e , and peremptory. lie is 
eurtiy informed that no debate is in order: the bill ean only 
'^e referred to the appropriate Conjnittee. 

-■ T'^-is i^ indeed disheartening; It is his first lesson in 
'2omnitee go'^z e rrinent and the m.aster's rod smarts; hut the s'"ion- 
er he learns the prerogatives ar;c power'^^ of the Standint Com- 
I'itteis the sooner v/ill he penetrate the m.ysteries of the Pulas 
and avoid the pain of further contact with their thorny side. 
The privileges of the Standing Committees are the beginning and 
the end of the Fules. Roth the House of Representatives and 
the Senate conduct their business by what may f igurat iv e 1 y , but 
hot inaccurately, be called an odd device of disintegration. 
The House virtually ^>oth deliberates and legislates in small 
sections. Time W'Ul' fail it to discu-s all the bills brought 
in, for they every session number thousands; and it is to be 
r'oubted whether, even if t im.e allowed, the ordinary processes of 
debate and amendment v/ould suffice to sift the chaff from the 



./^.eat in th3 bushels of ^ilJs overy vvfsek pilad upon t,h3 CiirU'rj 

d^slc. Ac JO rd incl y , no futile attempt, is rnaci^ to do anythlni of 

the kind. Th? \.'or;i is parcel l^d out, most o *" it to th-; fortv- 

s=3VTn Standine (Jornrnitte^s v/hjeh c-nst i tut-? the ragular orpanl- 

zatJoii o :" th? House, sono of it to select e or.ii.T i 1 1 ^ ^ d appointed 

for special axid temporary purposes. Each of tm almost numhe r- 

les- 'lills that oome pouring ir. on Mondays is "read a first and 

by its title 
seoond time"- simply perf unetor ii y read, that is.^hv tiie clerk-, 

a..d passed hy silent assent throu£h its fir'^t formal courses, 

'or the purno-;e of brinein£ it to the proper sta^^ for eo/-ii:iit- 

eiit - and referred v,ith'-«ut debate to the appropriate Standing 

Uo'- ]ttn. Prae t ieal i y , n'-' '^ili escapes comnitment - sa\'e,of 

eour-;e, hills introduced by (Jomnit tees , and a f e\j v/hich may nov; 

ind t.'3n be crowded throufh under a suspension of the Hules, 

to be m.ade 
ranted by a two-thirds ^'Ote - though the exact di spos it ion ^of 

a biii i<5 not always de t ^rr^ii^ed easily and as a matter o^ 
course. Resides the rreat Comj-; ittee of V'ays and Means and the 
equally great Corn: lit t e t on Appropr iat ions , the re are Standing 
Jommittees on Hankint and Cur renoy , on Claims, oii Coi:'!ine rce , on the 
'.'u'^lic Lai.ds,on Post Offices and Post Poads.on the Judiciary, 
on Public Expenditures , oix F 'anuf actures , oi. Ag r i jui t ur f , oii Mili- 
tary Affairs, on Naval ^iffairs.on Mines and I'inine.on Education 

md Labour, on Patents, and on a score of otiver branchas of loe- 

t op leal 
islative concern; but, careful and differential as is the^div- 

ision of the subjects of letislation which is represented in 



(in) 
thf. t i 1. 1 3 s of t me L'orp.r-'i 1. 1 er? s , J t ir, not always evident to 
which Comrnitteg each - part ] oui ar bill should e *"' • Many hilis af- 
'■ ^ : * Tu^j-r^cts \.hich ma" ''^-' r -^ , xr'-^d a^ lyinr i " prop=?rl:' v.-itni. 
the jurisdiction of on-^ as of anrther of th3 Commit te ?s : for iio 
'^arcl and fast linss s'^parat'? th'? varjous classes of business 
y/hich the Co::^r:'.i t to'? s are eoi 'J.iis s ioned to take in charge. Th?ir 
Jurisdiction- overlap at many points, ai;d it must fr^qu-Jntly 
-app^n that hills are r-->ad v.hieh cover just this cotnion ground. 
Cv -i r the corimitmex.t of such hills sharp cind interesting skir- 

ishes o't-'-. take place. Theri J -^ acti-'/e oonne t i t j r,n for t *-. er^ , 
the ord inary , quiet routji.e of matter-of-course reference being 
interrupted '^y rival motions seekint^ to Ri-^'e v^ry ilif-^'r-" f di- 
rections to the disposition to he made of them. To whicn Uom- 
"'jtt->o should a hjll "to fix and establish the maxir-^.um rates o' 
fares of the 'Jiiion Pacific and Central I'acifac Pai i - roads " b« 
sent: to the Co:.:r-:i 1 1 e e on Commerce or to the Com.mittee on the 
Pnoi^ie Fi j 1 r<-. ?• '■'•^'> S^-o-.,l(' a hjll which prohibits the m.aiiinf 
of eertain classes of letters and circulars ^o to the Committee 
on Post Offices and Post Foads because it relate- * >■■ + ^^ -> '^e ■> 1 ^ , 
or to the Committee on the Judiciary heeaus? it proposes to 
'lake any t rai-sGrfJ^s ion o *" itn prohjhition a crim.e? Vr.at is thi 
proper dispositioii of any hill whi .-h thus seem.s to lie within 
tvo distinct committee jurisdictions? 

T^^e fate r.-r b i 1 1 -^ eo; I'itte'' is renerall"' i.ot uncert 'i:.. As 
a rule a bill com.':itted is a hill doonod. Vhe.. it goes from. 



th-" Ul^rk'-^ d-->sk to a Uornnit t n -»- rnnii it. crosses a pari J ainent ary 
^ridt"* of signs to din duiieeons of siJ^nu^ N/rr^n-^ it wili n'^vi r 
nt'irn. The means and tif.? of its death are uj\kno\/n , '"lut its 
'"rjej.ds never son it again. Cf course no Standing Co'^r'jttee is 

riviJeced to ta!:e lipoid itself tne full powers '■■f the House it 
r 7 ■- r ■•'=;■'; t c: and ■'"orinally an'' ' ee i <? i"<'e 1 y r "; t e c t. a ■>-> i 1 1 r'jferrel 
t '-. it: its disapproval,!^ it disapproves .must, ^-ig reported to 
t::e House in the form of a reeomi-^endat ion that +:"'■• bilI".-;o not 
pass." Rut it is easy, and therefore eoi.ynon , t »■• let. the se-^sion 

arjs Y/ithout m.akln£ any rep oft at all upon hills deemed oh joe - 
tinnahle or unimpo rtant. , and to suhstirute for reports upon then 
a fe\.- '-lills of t"e c;oi;"«mitt ee ' s ov/n draft, in?. : so that thousands 
of '-'ills expire \,jt'' t. h^ i.pjratir.n o '' eao'^ (J'->nF r e •=; s , not havmr 
"^len re i eotad ,'''^ut having haen simply neglected. There v/as not 
t" ^ to repr.rt upoii tnem, 

C.^ course it g<-.9s \/itMout the saying that the practio-il ef- 
' e 2 1. of this CJor-j.^.i t t e e o rgar.i zat ioii of tne iious ; is to c-^nsitii 
'o eac" of the Standinc Comrnittg^s the entire '-lirectir,, o^ leg- 
islation upon those suh;;eets v/hloh properly eome to it.s eonsid- 
^ratjon. As to those .su '-i;; e c t s it is entitled to the initiative^ 
md all legislative action v/i t h regard to them is under its 

^•'- e r rul J : • m i 'ance . It g J ' es shape an^' cm <-•" "> t r, t h -i ^i -. t -> r- 

hov;ove r , 
inations of the ilouse. In ore respect, its initiative is 1 in- 

ite'. Lvej. a Standini. Co:-Ti::i 1 1 e e janj.ot rejiort a hii^ ^r'os'* 

suhj<?o t-mat ter has not been referred to it hy the House, "hy the 



(12) 

ruliF! or ot h-3 r\i j s 3 " : it, earij.r.t. v ol uiitr? or advic? on ouaRtioii.'? 

;pon which its a-ivico has not. booii asked. But this is iiot a 
s •'? r ] nu?; , not. even an op'^ ^'i^- 3^'^ , I a;.'.3 1 at ion upon its f uiic t j or.<; o' 
surpestion and leadership; for it, ir; a very siriple riat^Tr to 
-> t r->'-»rred to it, any suhjeet it vvishes to int ri-'dMo i to the 

^t t aj-,t. j oi, of the House. Its cnairman.or oiie of its leadiriC 
^embe rs , f rarnes a hill eo\'erint the poii.t u;'On v/hieh the Cornr^it- 
t-- -..JsheT to subtest legislation; brines it jn.in '-' J '^ 2apa.j:'t-- 

\s a private member, on Monday v;hen the call o^ States is made; 

■ r- r- jt re'-;rre^' to his C'--m';i 1 1 ^ ? ; an-l tbu" se^^ures an opportii..- 

jty for the rrjakinc of the desired report. 

autho r J t y 
Tt is ^y this im.perious pr ii,'r> y of the Standing Comr.-ii 1 1 e ts 

t.'^at the new ner.-^bar is stayer' and thwarted v.'henever he seeks to 
f take an aotjve part in th^ business of th'e House. Turn v/bieh 
^•ir 'w -> T-TT •' c^ r.v -> "■ r i\' j i e te r. ^ t '^ ^ C<^* '■ ■* t »• = ^ --; s t ajT^' s in b j s p n t '"^ . 
T^.e F'lles are so frai.-ied as to put ail business under tf^eir nan- 
-^t^'-Si^tj and Oiie of the disjo\-^ri?s \,hi.j!i ta^ n^v. /aernber is 
.sun to make, albeit aft?r rvmy trying experiences and sobering 
idventures and as his first se'^sion draws to\.ards its 'jiose,is 
that under their sway freedom of debate finds no plaee of al- 
:owanee,and that his 1 onc'"<'« 1 a.yed speech niist remain unspoken. 
:or ^r-"^!. .--). 1 ont' Con( r "> -^ "^ i o , ■• ] se'^'^iori 1?; tor, sb^.rt tr af^'ord 
time fr.r i full eons id -^rat ion o^ all tr.e reports of t tv-» forty- 
seven Co i ^ ♦ "• ■» s , and debate up'"'n t'-'em. rius* "^ "" f" ■" , "> '"* "^ ''•'"^ 
jf not altot'^^'her excluded,: "" any considerable par* *h9 nee- 



'ssary ^usinss-? i-^ to "^ri gn+ten through \.ith ^ofor-? arl journrn^nt,. 
^■) n ar'? son'? su^ij^ots to v/hioti th.o ;iouse riust alv/ays ei^''' 
ronpt attention: therefor;? r'^portn fr'-m the Uomr-!? t t eos on 
rjntint and on Elections ar-^ aiwavf^ iu ordor; and th^n an 
ST.; ? s'rnj-!ot;5 t r v.hijh oar-ifiil eoi;:-- i d ■> rat j on ; -i.st ai\/ayr! s -> ae- 
oorded: th->r = for3 th-T Conriitt'jn of V'ays and I'!eans and th-i Corn- 

' •• ^ ■" "^ '^ : .'-pp ropr iat ions an elothsd 'with TXt rao rdinan •ri-'-ii- 
^,_?s,aivi f^venue axAi supply ^ills may b^ nport^d and v/iil or- 
'ii.arily ''^'3 eoiisidired at any t iuo . Hut t;-.es^ four ar^ thi o..- 

^peeJally lioensed Corunit tens . Ti"'."* r^st riust ta;;e t h -j i r 
turns in fixed otd::ir as tnoy aro eali^l on "by t»->.3 Speaker, eon- 
t-?ntjnr t hens -^l-""? s wit!", sueh eruTn'-»s of tine as fall frori the 
ta'-^le- of t^"'e four Cornnittees o f hiphest prerogative. 

Senator Iloar.o^ Mas saehuse 1 1 s , \.h'-. s e lon,_ Coi.^r'3 "S inn:\l ex- 
^rience entitles hin to speak with aut 'lor j t y , eai eul at es ' t hat , 
■ supposing the t\.o sesnions \vl"iieh nake ur' tin life of tne ilous^ 
* '■' last t=>i. months "' ,nost of the (Jonjnittees ha", e a.\ their !js- 
posal durinc eaeh Congress hut tl.o hr.urs apieee in which "to 
r^pr.ft upon , :'ehat e , and dispose of aJ i the su'^jeots of penera; 
-ecislation eomi:!ltted to t ..Tir oharte." For o' course nuch 
ti -" i- V. a'jte . i'*-' Conpress rets Jr vied i at li ;■ to \,r.r'-. up'-.n it-; 

irst assem^line. It has its officers to ^J^ct.and aftor their 
"•."•jtjr: - r • -< ♦-■ -> 'J • t ->lapse bifor"" its o rf;ani zat i o:. : - -^ i ; - 



1 1, an article ent it 1 «jd»The Conduct of IJusinflss in Concres-^" 

Jo . An. Pev . .p. 121 1 to v/hieh I am indebted for n \n-' detail- - *" 
e sketch jii t -t text . 



lily onrr^pl-Ttqd hy tho a;>po intrmut, of th-T Uor.a:'. J 1 1. oe s , It, ad- 
jr.urns for hci J days , too , and Eenf?raJJy span;^ jt-^Tif J onr s J t, - 
*■"']■ . \ Be s id "5 s , t. h^ r •"? ar^ r laiT" t>-inps t. r, i,t?rr''rit t. '^ -« oa]] of 
-i^.T (J orp.n i 1 1. 9 9 s upon whioh most of t,m >iusin'5.ss waitrs. That, 
jaii jan projood only clurjnt; tho i,iorn:iit iTours - tn^ hours ^jUot 
aft^r th9 reading of th^ Joun.ai - o:. Tu ?sdays .V'fjdiissdays . . 
T>"ursdiys; and ??vin thsn it may suffer postponement because of 
t -i unfinjsh?3d husin'^ss of th-3 pr^^-ious day v/hieh is srititl-; 
to first eons idorat Jon. Tho jal I eannot nroee-Td on Mondays 'le- 
eausT tho mornJnt hour r,-r ^'onda^'s i-^ d^^nt^' iv vr j -a''->l y to fM 
jail of the States for th3 introduction of ^^ilJs ai.d resolu- 
tions; n*-' r on Fridays, for Friday is "private bill day" and i -^ 
\l\/ays enrrossed by the Uomjnittee on Claims, or 'Hy ot>=?r fit'^.ers 
'•• *■ "^ills vvhioh have tone upon the "private ealendar." On Sat- 
urdays the House seldom sits. 
jjV^' The reports made duriiif th9v:e soant mornine hours ar-? or- 

; -. r ^ ' t '■• ^3 prJnted.for future eons n de rat i'''n in their tur:.,and 
I 

* ■ -' 'ills intr'-'dueed by the Committees are assigned to the 

• ff.i'jr calendars, to ^? ta.en up in order at th^ proper time. 

a morning' hour has run out the House hastens to proceed 

,.ltn th^ business on the Speaicer's taMe. 

These are so:.:e of the plainer pojnts of t h t Hules. They 

-■r^" full of com.pl exit y , and of confusion to the uni i. j t j at ed , and 

.the coi.f vns io].'^ r,f prao-t-ioe are {jr'j-^.t-^r than the joi. ^ us i o:: - of 

the Fules. For the re^^-ular order of busines 1^ constantly be- 



Uii' ill* ■! r runt. •■>;' ^v t. h? ii t, rr.du.j t, j oii of resolutions off Trod "'-ly 

nanirr.ous ooi. sent ", and o' bills 1 rj t in undor a" suspension of 
♦ ■ -> rulis." St.iJl.it i-^; ••?^ jd'i.t that, f.r^r-i is r. ■> priioi;)]'? 
...'.ioh runs thrr-ueh ^vary stairs of proc? 'ur'? aiu! whjoh is n'iver 

, disalloved or a^roeat-^d : the prjiici;.]-? that th^ Corirnit t ees 

I 

shall rul 3 v<it.hout let or hJ/idrane-T. And this is a prJiioiple 
<-• '" extraordinary fr-mative pov/^r. It is the mouI;i of ail 1 e^- 
jslatior.. In the first plaee.tho speeding of busiii'?ss undor 
^ f^ e direct] or. of the Uoiiirnit t ees determines the .jharaeter and 
t-e ai'-vir.t of t '-. -> d J s o:M!t^ -: r.i. to vvhieh logislatJo:. shall be sub- 
ject e:i. The House is eonsejous that tine nres'-es. It kno\;s 
^'">at, hurry as it rna.y , i t \. i 1 1 ^^r'l'' : et thrr.uc'" \. 1 t •" ol^^- => j rh+ '^ 
<- f the business laid out for the se ss ion , azid that to pause for 
lengthy --"ebate is to alloy/ the arrears to a^jeuinui at e . i-esides, 

ont of the menbers are ind i"*- idual 1 y axiAJeus to expedite actio.. 
01. every pending measure: 'eeause eaeh member of the House is 
a rerp'^er of one or \.\<--v-i of ty^ Stan;Mng Uor,;! li 1 1 ees and is quite 
naturally desirous that the bills prepared by hjs Copjniti tees , 
•.,'; m \/hJeh he is o T course speeiaily int^re-te-' vv rea^'-'n o "" 
'he partjeular attention v.hioh he has been oompeiled to five 
t er.-; , sho'jl :'> reao^ a nearJxit ■^"'■'^'^ '^ vote as sooi^ as possJbie. It 

u -^ t , t fi e f ""o r e , in^-ar J abl y appen that the (j'-rin J 1 1 ee hojdii^i the 
^l^or at any particular time is the CoMr.iittee \,hose propo'r\i3 
the nacority wish to dispose of as summarily as c i roui.rstancBs 
Aii allo\..in order that the rest of t-e forty-tv.o unp r 3v li aeeri 



or:j:iitt93s t. o \vhieh th-? ma;]orit,y h^jlong rnay gain th") '3ariier 
iid t.hg fajr^r e'larue of a h^arJuL. A report jnt: Coiur' J 1 1 e-* , So- 
;i 'Ts.ii funeral ly as clad to ^a puslied as t.h'J majority are t,o 



isn it. I *• proba^tly has s^^eral bills matured and v/ishes 



t o 



f-* -» -» f n -> * 



'jspos'! ' of '^■'f'-. re its brie^ h'^'Urs r. r n ijpo rt 'ii,i t v ■ are 



is sed and goiie . 

(JoiiS 3queat 1 y , i t is the established o'lstori of the blouse to 

•jeoTu the floor f^r one hour t,o t.he rasmbe r of t.he reporting 
J'-.,.j:"ii f t ee wr.o has charge of the business under oons i de rat ioii, 
ii.d that hour is inide the chief h.our of debate. Tie reporting 
joi::init t ee-nai: seldom, if ever.U'^es the whole of the hour nii.-.seif 
' '-. r hi^ op-Tninf rer^arlis : he uses p;'.rt of it and retains control 
o^ the rest of it;- for by undisputed privilege it is his tn 
■MsposT of , whe h.her he himself 'le upon the floor or not. Nn a- 

endment is in order duriiig that hour, unless he coiisent to its 
presentation; and he does not,o^ eourne.yiel ' his tine i..dis- 
- rir.inatel y to any one v/ho v.ishes to speak. H"? {f,i\ es way in- 
deed, as in fairness he should, tn opponents as v/ell as to friends 
of tb-* nei.sure under his .-hargej but generally no on^ is ae- 
j©r!ed a share of his t in.e \/h« has not obtained his previous 
promise of the floor; and t'ose Y;ho do speak must not run be- 

•^- No Cor'ii litt e -} is «nt it i ed ,\i,hen called, to occvipy more than tha 
ornini hours of two successive days \. i t n the measures v/hi,'h it 
xs prepared ; though if Its second mornii^g hour expire y.hile the 
louse is actually considering one of its bills, that siiigle 

. easure may hol^' over from morning hour to morning hour uiitil 

it is disposed of. 



{I ') 

yond t.h9 number of minuter; he has agned to aJio\; then. Uo 
Ic^Tpr; th^^ oours"? both of dTbat^ and of amondrnent thus car'^fuJJy 
uiidor hJR o\vn sup^ rv is ion , as a c^od t ac t le ian , and bTfon h^ 
final iy yields th'? fl<''or,at, thr> expiration of hJs hour.m is 
sure to move the prei-jous que'^tion. To neglect to :o sr. -..r.uld 
-i ^ r, los? all jontrol of the business Jn hand; for unl^-^s thi 

on 

pr^A'ious que-'tion is ordered the debate nay run at \/ill,and nis 
UftrnnittaG's ohanee .''or gettint its measures through slip quite 
a\yay : and that, would b? nothing less than his disgrace. lie 
\;oul .'. be ail t^^e riore bl amev.ort hy beeausT ne had b-:t to asli for 
f i-^.e pre\ious questjo.; to get it. As I have said, the House is 
.3 eager to hurry business as he ean be , and v, i 1 1 consent to al- 
nost any linitation of discu?=:sion that he nay demand; though, 
"' rr.habi y , i f he \,eri t'-- throw the rejns upoi:i its neck, it would 
run at large from •'.ery v/antonne '-js , in scorn of such a drj\-er. 
The previous question oiicje or'ered.all amendments ar^ pr-^cluded 
aii.' '-•lie hour r-jnain" for the suni-iing up of this sane privileged 
jomnit t, ee-man befr. n the final vote 1s taken and th? biij dis- 
pose'! of. 

o 
These a,ci the custom.s which baffle and perplex and astound 

the ne\/ nenber. 1 1. these precedents an" usages, wnei. at I'^iigth 
he cr.rnes to understand then, the no''. ice spies '■•ut the 9.;plan- 
ition of the fact, once so confounding and seemint i ,' inexplJc- 
i''i-!,that when le leaped to his feet to claim the floor other 
members v<ho rose after hjn \/ere cooly and unfeelingjv preferred 



V I ■' ; 



Vtnfor-! him by thi Spaali-r. Cf '::ours-> m i ?5 plain inourn now 
that, Mr.i;p?a.:^r ;;n9\,- b j f o r e.haiid to \.tioii tm r 7p r ; :j ^iit at iv 'i of 
' r -spcr t. iii^- C or^r : i 1. 1 ii » had ajjre'^d to yieJd tho fl'-'Or; and it 
v.as no uso for aiiyoni oIsg to jry out for neociiit ion, V'hoev^r 
wishod to spsak, shoul d , i f poss ibl 3 , hav^ made somi arrang^mnt 

1th the (Jomxnitt-ie '^Tfore the business canie to a hearing, and 
'=^"'.'^'!3d hx-ve taken ijar"" to iirMf-- ? 'r . Speai^e r tha+ '^ "^ n-"- * <-■ '^>? 

ranted the r 1 <- o r for a few monei.ts. 

^Tnque st jor.a^l y , this , 'e s ides being a very i^it e res t int . i^ a 
• "Jry novel a.i ' signifieant method of rest rioting? debate and ex- 
pediting legislative a,'tio]"i: a method of very serious innort 
and obA'iously fraught v/ith far-reaohing ^^oiist i +. ut j onal effects. 
' le practices of debate \,hich prevail in it s 1 eg isl at iv -^ assem- 
bly ^TT manifestly of ^^.^'^ Mtrost j;-pr)rtance tn a s el f - go'^. e rn- 
ing people: for that legislation vvhic^ is not t hor'-'Ug !^1 y dis- 
cussed '-" *he ]?gisiatinf_ body is practically done in a joriier. 
It is Impossible for Coi.gr^'s itsejf to do v.iseiy what i r. does 
rjr, -iirriedly; and the coiis t i t uenc ie s cannot understa.-d v;aat 
Congress does not itself stop to consider. The pr e rog -, t iv is of 
the Cor.v. it t e es represent som.ething more than a j^ecf. convenient 

i'' isioi: o -f la'our. There is only one part of i t -^ business to 

Tich Congress as a v/hole attends: that part , namely, which is 

ee House i.ev^>r accepts the proposals of th? Com; i 1 1 -» t of Vays 
■n' Means or of ths Cor.u.iittee r.i. /^p.-'f -• tio*.s ..it. -.-it lue de- 



( 1 ^' 

.!'->:? rat. ion; '^ut. it al]ov/?^ alr.io.st. aiJ r> ^ it.?; ot. hor StaiidiiiC i-'orn- 
1*t9?s \jrtuaily to l-3t;islato f-^'r j t, . in for!\ t. hT Uor.ii.ilt, t ■? is 
o:.i y dif'St. t.h<^ \-ario'.i.s matter iiit rodue'^c! Hy individual rn^smhgr'? 
ai.-i pripiri i t , w 1 1 ^ ear^^i and aft-ir tPorouth invest ij. at ion , fo r 
t '^ -? ^-irial j^'Hs idirat ion and action <■' ^ t.h« hous^); ^'it,3n r-jaiity, 
t Ty dictate tho e oars'? to he t aken , p reso r ih inp thi dieisionT 
of t ne House r.ot oniy hut nieasur inf: out aeoordint t <■> tneir ovvn 
iils its opportunit i3s for debate and deliheration as weJI.Tne 
an^e sJts^r.'^t for serious d i s euss ion , hut to sanation tne oon- 
^.lusir-i^s o "" i t r; Uor iLii 1 1 ee s as rapidly as p'->s s i'-^l e . It le^is- 
- it IS iii its eor.unlt t ei- rooms ; not hy the de t e rmlnat ion-:? of rnaj- 
'■• r i t ies , ■'^jt '--y t.h.-; resoIutioiiS o ■" spe e ial i y- corpj.iis s ion'' ' '^in- 

rities: so that it is not far from the truth, to say that Con- 
£ress in sessioi.. is (Joiitif^'s on puh] ie exhibition; whilst Con- 
re ss in its commit t ee- ror.ins is Congress at \.ork. 

Habit ero\;s fast, e\ en upon the un'^onvent ionai Ame r i can , ai'id 
'■e nature o^ th.e House of representatives has by I oi;L custom 
eeii shaped to the spirit of its Pule-. Fe p r t s int at ji- es h.^.^■e 
■attained, hy ri£OMr'->iis -^ e i ^ - ■' i t c i pi ine , t r. t)^.'> n -> r f -> .- 1 ^^tature r. f 
t^e lav/ under v;hich thsy 1 i-v e , n.iv ine purf^d their hearts as 
jom.pl etely as m.ay be of all desire tr. do that vvJiicp. it is tne 
:'iif object <-.f that lav. tr, forbid by gi' j., r,- er a vaixi Just 
^* ?r puhiic •! is cus ^; i on . Tn": eiitire absence o ' the instinct of 
'^^ate am.oncst them, and their apparent unf ami J iar i ty with the 
Idea of comhatint a p ropos 1 1 i m. hy argum^iit ,was recently iiius- 



(20) 

f r -' f '^ ■ ^'' ' ! i . •' i '' ^i » \.b -i .J ^ \. a - q m i t > p-i i ; ,-r -i ] , ■• w 'Us J i.fj . Thrj 

Democratic ma^or3^y o"" th'? House of t.ho f <-. r ^ y- ? ight h CoiiEress 
'"^sir-3i' ^ ■ ' iiiU-i^d iat •^ pass.-it ' '" •' i'J...si"i- )>3i-i -"^ f rat. h^r ,'' r- 
tintous propo r t j ens j ^^lit t.ho PipuM aoan rnii-nrit.y disappf'vod of 
t.'V" ^ili \,' i t n craat f => r\o r , ai.ri , whTn it. was inov'>d ^y t (^ i'sus^o: 
vJornini 1 1 -; -> . 1 at e om af t. -? rncion in a thin IIoust , that the PuiTs ^3 
suspended and an sarjy day S3t for a consideration of t h'^ biii, 
thT I-'opuM i cans addrf^ss-^d thTTnael\es to do t ■•? minsd and psrsiot- 
•■?nt " f j i i '-^ust ? r J nc " t.o pr^v^nt action. J-irst tr'.^y r-^fiis-od to 
^ "! , J "JaT- ine th"" !.?r-iocrats \,ithout a^. ac+in£ quorum; then all 
r.ight lone they kept the Hous 3 at ro] i - eai i injj o^. dilatory and 
obs t rue t i-\- « mot ion-? , t h ^ dreary dra^L-^ng of tiie t im.e beinf re- 
iieved occasionally by the amusement of hearing the excuses of 
members \/ho had tried to slip off to bed, or "^y the excitement 
'•■:'' an anrry dispute between the leaders of the tv,i*' parties as 
to the responsibility fr. r the dead-iojk. Not till t''-.^ returii 
'■• "■ ''r.mJnt brought in the delinquents tr. r^crriit + > ■ -. '^... r^t j ; 
ranks did 'husiness advance a sincl'^ step. Nov/, the iiote.,orthy 
fact about this r ^r '.arr:.! -^i e scn.e is, that the r.iij.r.rjty \,ere not 
m.anoTuv e r ing to gain opportunity or t ir:e frr debate , in order 
that the country might be informed of the true j^atur^ ^ » 
obnoxiouf ■^ i 1 i ,'^ut v.ere sir\'-»iy fight int; a prel jminar ' ''.. 

Y/ith s i 1 ent , doEged o'^s t ru jt ir.r. . /-.fter the whole nir * "'n 

s n e . t 1 • r; * aj. ' ■> n r r>ii t ar > i n^^ t ac t j r.;, , t " -> "Tr. n ?: "> i '^ s i 1 1' ■ • ■ 

• ii. "in no m.ood for tne t hi r t y. m nut e r^ '^Sate aiiov.-ed by the 



(21) 
"•■1"'"' , .. ■" liirti \ c, t. f ■' . -■ , ■' ■- .. ».i-,r<' or f,.'i .•; 

I^ Y;as aasi'^r and nor-? natural , as Tvjry'oody sa\/,^o rljno^ at - 
' ^i.tion to th3 quTst ionan] T jharaat^r of wnat \.a.'3 n^ine attoupt- 
9d ^y th** majority '^y or'?atii;t a sornov/hat scandalous "s^'im'' 
'■ *■ which everyone wo'il ' talk than ^y inakii»£ spT9eh'?3 \/hJeh lio- 

--•dy \;r.nl ' n a''-" . It -..as a nota^J"? .iOMi^Tiit a rv r,.. t,hT chvra'i t "; r- 
lartic m'lthods of our systii-i of Jon^rfsss ionai gov-i ri*rmnt . 

r 

f r •>■ - -V r ■ ' . r. t -> . r. r- 1 ]-. " '' ? s u i t '"• '" t ii j s s y 3 t sii ' ^ " ^ ''■ ■' i <■ f t -> ? 
^atr=? of d-THat? up^n 1 etiisi at ion from tho floor of vJongr^ss 
*' ' ■' ,-.. ...y ^f t, n 3 .j^'ini:iit t ? 3- ror.ins . Proi- ii.-* a ' i ii..* x ti :'^.. 
whr. r?Jad the Associated Press despatches iii their irrniiie pa- 
pers as they sit over their ooffee at hrea.-;fast are douTtiess 
often very sorely X'^i^zi^.tl ^y certain of the itirns \/hich sor^e- 
ippear in the hrief tTlT£raphie notes fror? "ashington. 
■.i^ r^ t h j <:; , f r r j i i'- t.) ;i „> -> ; "T^'e ilou'-'? Cjo;-'!' 3 f > -? e 
Cornnerje to-day heard arfunent s from ♦he C'oncress ional dsj- 
•"' M^'- " ■""'■ ' s'lC" :..' - .; ■ "" ■^-^- " ii. a''\ oeac" ^' a,').' r--. p r i - 

* ions f n r ri^•er and har'hour ir.iproveneiit s v.hich the t- 

siri incorporated ii» th3 Pi\er ai.d Harbour App ropr lat lOiiS i^l"? 

ey proSa^ly do not under-tai. t it y/oul-' h een useless 

for nei.Ser~ r.^ t of Jomnittee on (Jorineree to v/ait frr a:."/ 

o p ;-.T, rt ij,-. j t •• t r, r.-; t " -; i r sn, . "^-tion'i on thi fjoor of C^npr ■ 
■^asur v/hio ' to nake aridjt 

'I ■ -» r ' . ■ 1 t '■' c -- i f ' ' - - '-. f t h ,-» : ; r.i -ir i f t . 

' i.sequei^t i y , • jouid gai; liXL ©ni y ' ' ourteoii<5 



(22) 

^\"3 r is t. n s ^ nuRt. hi dr»m hy r, r t.hrou(_h thT Cn: ; itt^i. 

It. v.r.ui.' s"!^' t •■ ^ ;- ^ -- - ;■ • ,f , J. I i^.j t j ..' li i y .Coi-i^nrsa - or a* 
any rat.o t.h-T Ho'js^ o <" F?p r ■>" ^litat. iv '=»s - del<?eate!? not ©n] ' n t. r? 

- "*C J si ^^ i"\'^ "^ut. also jts dil i'">orat. iv3 fui^etion?; t.o its St.and- 
Jr-C Connitt-33s. The litt.1'3 pu^iie d-?hat3 that arJsTS umd 3 r th"! 
stringent and urgent rul-is of tb-? iiou-a is formal rather than 

' ' ?o t jr- a , and Ir ir? t i- -; rl i sen-^ '^ i r.i.- v/hioh ta",;? p]a.j-» in th^ 
Coi.'i;it t ^es that i j\ -i forn; to 1 e^. is 1 at ion . 'Jndou'->t edi y thes3 
•-^'^iiigs '■■■' 1 ^c i si at jT- ■> quest ioii- '■^'z thi ^rr^i -i * ♦ -> ^ ■^ ^ - ^ r. ^ 

'eat T '.iue ii. Jiia'-)ling the House t '"' <-.'itaJn "undarkenet* eoui.- 
-el" ax..: lilt -t1 J j ^^,.t, "Mi,^estjcns frT; aut h^. r J t at j^- ? sources. 
Ai i so^e r , purpose ful^- bus iness- 1 ike talk upOi. questions of pub- 

- ^ pol J cy .whether it taV:e plaoe in Congress or only h'iore tne 

itt<»3s of (Jr.n(;ress , is o^ great value; aii'' the eont ro\ e rs i e"^ 
"ieh spring up in the oornrni + t ? ?- rr, r.rns , '^ot h anongst the ciornriit- 

:tt«os as ad>oeates of special measures , eannot ' contribute 

■' 'JieHrness and definite .'ons i g t ex.'j y tr- ' ^ report- -••- 

Iftad t. ^ ^ • House . 

Then ar e , howev 9 r , sev e ral very o'n ious reasons why 
' orough canvass o^ ^usiniss ^y the Uomrn j 1 1 ees , an ' • ;- 
austivQ aiid discriminating djseussion of all its ' ils in 

' -> -i r ,---, r.r -q ■ -. r, » ' ■ ► • > '■ f" ' 1 J f "• i * ' "" ' : s -> ■ o "" am end - 
^Zit a. -ngress m open se ;s1r, . ' • ■ first 



(23) 

inof^.the proo 'ladings r,f tra coiii.'n t, too.*? an prjvat, <? anr? tn.«]r 

discussions ujipu^l ished . The chlrjf.and unquont ionahj y the most 

T <^ ■ ■>! t. -i a ] , r, '-.; T ,.- K r, T ^.]] c! J S J U S S 1 r. 1. Of O • ' 'K J j .' ■> 1 1 r- i ;•>'■; •: i -• !>-(-» 

■?nJ if^ ht. fj linen t. of puhi io opinion; and of jours"? , s inc t it, cannot 
VI r ' ■ -• '^hat-is of thi Coi :■ :i 1. 1. a-? s , th-3 ii.vtjoi: ]s net, ai't *- ' ■; 
ij':^ instructed by th^rn. rnly thT L'or.-'j'^.it t ^-js an enlightened. 
.'.^r? ?s a -onelusive oh Ejection to th-^ publication of tn^ pro- 
eeedin£s of the Coi-'j^iit t 333 ^ yzj-, ieh is reeognlzed as of course by 
all pari iameiitary 1 av/yers , namel y , that thr.s^ proceedings are of 

^ 'ore? t. 1 ] ] c o ii f i rr ". ■> r' b y t. li 1 ; To u ,s •? . A Co' 'T " i t, t ■? '"i i ?; c rir-Tn i " - 
s ione',' , n'^t to instruct the pubi ic , ■-'Tit tr. instruct, an^"! guide t hi 

Indeed it. is not usu il for tb^ C oi.-irr; i 1 1 e e s to open their s3t- 
■"•incs often t r, those \.no dosire to b? heard wit:^ r-if^r +0 pini. 
ing questions; and no one can demand a marine as r, f right. Oi. 
the cont rary , they are privileged and accustomed to hold Mieir 
sessions in absoiutr? secrecy: it is m.ade a breach of orJer for 
any member to allude on the floor of the H'-'Us e to anything that 

■^ t;i •.;->: n 1 -1 1^ e il- CJr>r 'T j t- t -; .3 ^ " UIjI g S 3 bV ' \, r 1 t t 1 T'^ r, ft ^ ;1 r C - 

' loned by a ma,iority r. f t '-; -j Conr.at t ee " ; and there is nr. place 
]i t"^ rigula- --'^r - ' -us } x. ; s ■< *" r. r i i;ot]oi. t s ♦ ric t 3 j. 
Comr/ittee to cr.nduct it." in^e st. ig.Ht iom v, i ♦ b open doors. Ac- 
r']ngly,it is only by th^ concessioii of tha iJoi ^ ' it 

rgumonts are made before theri. 

Vhen thev do suffer thenseives to ^e app roachid ,ir.o move r , 



(24) 

th-»v nmr.ilJv '?xt.-;: ' thT i^avT t '"• others H-»«?jdT«? th-? i r f'^iJnv.- 
L.>.rif rflssrnen. The Coi.'j -i 1 1« "; oj. Coi; -»rc"» jf-i^aents to iis^'^ii to 
f' 'inen*- raiirna'' o f f i *-• ial s upnr. t ^ -• '^u^j^jt r. f t, n ? r tin. 

of fr-'Jipht eharpes ami fans; and soore?; nf iiit^nstod p'! rsons 
' T J 3 {J rap!"! inqMJrj^s to th^ enaJrnri.i. of ti ? (Jr^r 'j m t t r> -> i- f ■•-i,"" 
and Meai:s as to t.hfi tine at v/hioh thoy arr? to bo pfirnitted to 
resent to tn-^ Coun.jtte'? t'^eir views upon th« r^-visioi. o' fn? 
tariff. Th'? speoehes made hefor"; tho Uonr^. it t o««; at th'JJr op^n 
sessJori" are , th? r "^f on , <?earo3l y of sueh % kJnd as woul':' '-19 iii- 
■5 t r-i.j t 1^ ■? to t >- -^ pn'^l ie , ai.f-- '■• ■ that aeeour.t \,r,rt!- pnMishinG- 
Thsy ar^ as a ru] 3 the pleas o^ special pi e;iders , the ar(.ui;ients 
' ' ad\oeates. They ha-v-e a'^out th-?n none of t h t s^.i-r. ini-.orit- 
ieal , il i uninat ing eharacter of the hi£her order rf parliam9nt- 
ary debate, in \.hieh nen are pitted against eaeii other as equals 
and urged to sharp jontest and masterful strife by the Inspira- 
tion o^ pf-.^itieaJ prin^iipie and personal ambi t ion , t h ron£h the 
:' li r'' of parties ai.d t^.e eoripet i t i on of poii'jies. They re- 
resent a ;;oust betv/een antagonist je j nt er est s , not a contest of 
:"'.r j r.e J pi e " . "pv--;" .jould scarjely either ir.<"'-.i-' <-. r ■>]-!•< .ti pu-^- 
-}j op inion , e^•el. if thsy \/ere to obtain its hee'i. 

For t '^ e J i.^- 1 ru J t ^r ;. ai..,i ;ie\-atioi. - " -n'^lJc opinion in re- 
j.rd to national affairs there is needed sonethinr rio r ■ ' ^n 
■peejal pleas for spoeiai priviiTfes. Ther-> is meder: pueiJc 

iscussjon or a peeviliir s'-rt: 1, discussion ^y the sorereign 
legislative body itself: a discussion Jn v.hich every feature of 



^'- 



■«»# 



..r> 



(25) 
>a.'h. rnr.ct.^d point of vrAicy shall ^■>3 d i s f, ii.e f. 1 v hroucht. out,, 
vnd f^v^ry argument of s ifni f icanee pushed t,r- tno fartpo^t point 
--^ ' ins i 3 * TH'j =3 , '^y rgeo£;ni z.id l^adTr.s in t riat 'n&dy; and.a^ov? ai i 
1 discussion upon \,hioh sorn9tnin£ - scriothine of ijit-^f^-t ©r 
iinpo rtanee , sori.T press in£ que-^tioii of adr.iini s t rat inn or r,f ] a\.- , 
f^^ fatT of a party or the success of a c^nsp i ju<-.us politician 

- 9^•id'^ntly d'?pends. It is only a discussion of tp.is sort 
Miat tho public will heed: iio other sort \jilx impress it. 

There could , the r? fo re , h^ no i.-;ore unv/e i c^r :e revelation to 
one who has anything approacninc a st at esr lani ike appreciation 
of t:~;e essential jonditions of inteilifent sel f - f ov ernment than 
jvist t'-at ^/hich nust iiievitably be made to everyoxie \.h'"' candid- 

y exar-ines our Uonf; ress io:.ai system: namel y , that , under that 
'■ ys t -ir; , such -.' i scuss ioi: is irnpos t i bi e . Ther"; are, to -^ef jn v.ith, 
.hysical ajid architectural reasons \,hy business-like debate of 

u'-'lic af''airs by the House of Pep r es ent at ^v es is out of tne 
question. TT' those who \' j s i t the C'^ii'5'"^es of tiie represeiita- 
*ive chamber durijif a sessioii of the House these reason- are as 
o'-v'i'-'us as they ar? ast oni sh int • It v/'ul'" ^e liatur-i. to expect 
trat a body which me?ts ostensibly for consultation and deii^- 
■! rat ion should hold its siftjij^s iii a rori.> si^ali -jnou^h to ad- 
. it of an easy interchant"? o *" riev.s and a ready concer* of ac- 
tion, we re its members woul ' b^^ brought into ci os ■? , sympat ne t j j 
-ontact; and it ir nothiiif les*: than astonishing t <^ find it 
"pread at i.irte tiirouth tr.e vast space- «f sucn a cnai.'j'^er as 



(26) 

the jial J r> f t. h-? Hou<^-! r, f '' ^ p r t^ ent, .^ t i v? n , w>i« n t^^^^r-j an iia 
closo ranlts 6 *" eoopsrat, inc parties, hut -^ach rnernhor has a roony 
Tsk and an ^a'^y rovol\ int o a i r , v/h ? r i hf.ad aJsJea sproad and 
streteh t honsel ve s , w^iar ? ample sof t. - e irpatod areas li": a^otit. 
tha spacious desks of t.he Speaker and J 1 t rks , y/Ii3 r"? dnp tailer- 
ies roacjh hack from the ©ut,?»r iiiijts of the v/id^ passaces v/hien 
li3 h-;yond "th^-^ bar": an ir.irnense , eapa^j ious ehan'oe r , d i spos Jng 
its £.iant dimensions freely henoath tho treat leva! lacunar 
ceilint through whosT class panels the full lifll^t of day pours 
in. Th? most vn-jr! impression the visitr-r gets In loo,:lnr ov i r 
that vast hall is th-^ impression of space. n. speaker must 
needs have a voice like ' Connel 1 ' s , the practi.jai \'isit'-.r ?s 
apt to think as he sits in the gallery.t--. fiii even t. h-. silent 
spaces of that r'^om.,hoY/ much More to overcom.e the d i s*-- rde rl y 
noises that buzz a:.d rattle firoueh it v/hon the representative- 
ar? assembled: a voije cl ear , sor.o rous , dominant , 1 ike the voice 
of a clari'-.n. One v.h'- speaks there with the ^•r,ice ai.d lunfs of 
the ordinary mortal must content himself \,ith the audience of 
t'^'-se m.embers In his own Immediate nei ^hhourhood v/hose earr; he 
rudely assails in ■> eh.emeiit eff'-rts to cominaiid the attention of 
thr.ge beyond them, and v/ho th.erefore cani.r.t c.-.'-'oae 'Ut hear him. 
It is of this mi^nitude of the hall of the representatives 
that thos-. ne-ws teiet.rams ar-? sir.iiflcant which speak of ai. i..- 
terestinf or v/itty speech in Concress as having drawn a^out f.ho 
speaker liste..ers fr'^m all parts of the House. As one o' our 



{27^ 

OS* iiOt.>"»w wit.s \.'-)Mld 5?av,a m.ir,ib3r nns*. nf?Td'; ta;.'? a oahhat.h 
dav*!? joiirmy to fot vvjt.hin oasy Mearint; dist.ano'? of a «5p'»akTr 
\. !' "• is ad ci rs s s Jnp ♦ '^ "» ^rr, -i '-; -. -r p r- , f ^ t ^, ^^ ,, ^ -j t -. ^ i j r» r, f t '■• 7 ha J i .' 
'or ^esid^s th^ spaee th^ri ar? t.hT noJs'is J nt. -^tt- eninp , tho 

" "^ ' :T s of lou' tilkii-t: and of the o]appii.t_ o *" hands rr,r t-e 
pat'Ts ,r"<\kine tho task of the member v.ho is speaki^iL "v'^ry 1 ik^ 
tryinc *^^ address the people in thi omiiibuses from the our^- 
stone m frojit of t!^e ilstor House." 

Rut these physical limitations to debate , thou{:h serious and 
real, are ar.ongst the least ii.i;;o rt ant , 'v^ oaus e tney ar ^ ar'oiif-r^t 
'h-; leas* insupe ra'^l e . If effective and bus ine ss- 1 i*;e public 
'iseussioii were cons ide re-.I indispensable by Cont^re .ss , o r eveii 
de s i ra'^l e , t he presei.t eham.ber ■-"-•ul 1 readily be tlii-ided into two 
nalis.the one a eoi;rnodious readiiiC room. \,here tr.e members nifnt 
chat and write at ease as they no\v do jn the House itseaf.aiid 
'^ " e other a sm.aller ro'-'i.-'. suitable for debate and earnest busi- 
ness. This, in faet,has beer; se\'eral tirves proposed; ^ut the 
House does not f9<»i t'^at there is any urfeney a^out providinp 
fuilj+ies ff-'f debate , 'lecaus e it sees no reaso, t r. r•>^.r,^r-> an 
increase of speeeh-niakin£ , in "<ie\, of the fact that , notv/i t h- 
"tandinf al i tr.e lir itatiom novr put upoi. d iseuss J on , i t s ^usJ- 
..ess m.o'-es much too slowly. The early ConGresses had time to 
•ilk; Concresses '^f to-day have not. Before that win; -- *" • -e 



*'^uot9d from an exceedincly life-like and picturesque descrip- 
tion of the House which appeared in the N.Y. Nat ion for /.pril *. , 
1878. 



Capjtol was >iTiilt in whieh thts r opraseiit at i ve ehamher nov; in, 
t.li3 llousg 'ised to sit. in th? r-iuc^. snuilier roiaii unv/ '^rnpty savo 
for t, h T statuary to \,hoso !?xhiH i t ] r.j, It i ■, drir r.t ert ; aii'^ t "• t n 

;on spaeeh-makinE vont on from day to day: thon Ualnoun and 
f-'an;!'-- J ph ar.'' '"^'^stor arid Clay woi^. ♦h''"''- '■ -"put at i '••^ '^ * -^ -tit-.^- 

^n and orators. So earnest and int er'^st int. \.9r^ tn*? de^at«js 
of tnrs? days , ind^od , tr.at, t r ^ ;>rjn.jipal speeches d3lJv^rTd in 
Uoncr^ss seem to ha\'f5 ^^?n UBuaJly prinf^d at length in t h ■» - 
metropolitan Journals. Cut the numher axid lenfth of t'M speech- 



es v/as ^^■^n then very much deplored, and so early as 1323 a 
v.'rit3r in the North Aine r i o an R e v i -3 \; ijondeinns v/hat h^ calls "the 
^a'^"!* of Cone r'?s s i onal de^atin^:" v/i^^" + ^^ "* "^ ■" <" <"• " '"'''-'' v/hr snea'-cs 
against some abuse v/hich averyoite ac'/UiOwIedees to 'n a iiUi?;anoe. 
:.3V3-. y.-jar- lat^r a contributor to "■ "■ ^ Der.ioc rat Ic Hevie . '•^- 
clared that it. had "been gravely charged upon" Mr.Saraviel Cush- 

m.then a member ©f tm t\.ent y- f i f <• h Congress fro;; Ne-,.- Ham.p- 
s •" i r T , " t ha+ he moves the previous question. Trul y " . cont inues 
^'^e essayist, "he does, and for tbat vrj^-y sTrA'ice.it ne nad ne^-- 
•r done anythin,' else, he deserves a moi.umerit as a public bene- 

aetnr. ^n'^ man v.'ho can arrest a ted ious , i orig-v/inded , fact ious . 
t i:- e- ',:: J i i. r debate, js '•■ r ^ for+y w'^'-- en ;«r'-.' <■,:■_-' r. r ■.-•>-> n on"* 

: . If requires some moral cou r;i.f_ i , some s p i r i t , an';* sor? e tact 



*• No . rjn . F ev . . Vo 1 . ;;:r , p . I e 2 . 
^ T d . , t h e s ar i.e article. 
I" "Glances at Congr e s s " . L em. f'ev . , 1 "arc h , I 339 



of- 



I i s o t. r. r lo^ "* * ^'^ '• ^ r 31 -i r. 1 1 ■ p 1 1 • -? t i nn , ari'' ^ '"■ >'■.■'"> i f _ t '■r, _ . f , r ■« - 
-is-jly the right pr-int. r.f t. ii.:? . " 

Ti'^iis ardei.t and geir^rous dfjf uij-? of i :r . >Jus '^naii ri.L'i'iii-'S ^ tM3 
odJAus ac'iusat. i oji of rn'->"' inc t..hT previ'^ns qufj-^ *•, io:: v/r.iil'-! douSt - 
i39? ^T exqu J s i t, ->1 y anusJnir to t. n?^ enairnan r> f oii-^ of t.m ot.and- 
jnr (Jor-'j-'.j t t, 3 3s r.f th'? f o r t. y- e if ht,h Cnngras^.to v<horn th'i pre- 
' ir.'iF! qu3stioii seems one of the eornrnonest necessities of ijfe. 
'It, -.'t->r all, he ought r:Ot t. o jan^h :).-t the inr enur.'i :^ e s - i v : 55 1 , 
■-> r that \.-as not the i.eyday of +he Rules: they then simply ser- 
- ^' and did not tyra^.i-ize ov 1 r the House. 7hey r' -^ " ..'■■ t'-^.en 

a-\- e +h.e opp-^rt unity of empire aff'-'rded them hy the scantiness 
r'f time which hurries t-^e House and the wei^'ht of "Husiness 

hich oppres';es it; and they v/ere at a greater d isadvant atje in 
a r'-'Oin v>^er? oratory v.as possible than they are in a vn'^-t cnara- 
er \,!'ere t ■■> ■-> r>r?.tor'?; Tr-ij-^ is dro\,ned anidst the noises of 
isorderly ii.at t ent ion . Nowadays v.-ouId-'-^e debaters are easiiy 

♦ -■—<■ r.ijt of Concress ai. ' ^'■r,-^' + >- '-•>-^. rt t ^. t;i-» f-rin.+ i'i > '•''- 
f jce, are com.peiled to content themsei-i-es with speaking from 
the paf;es of the "Fecorrl" instead of fro;.; tne^r piajes lu th-i 

.''-■use. Some people v/ho 1 i-v e ■■ ery far frofi Vashinpton may im- 
ifine tii^.t the speeches \,hich are spread at large i.. t "^ e coi- 
im-.s o^ t ■-= "Conrres s ional Pecord",or which t eir representative 
•ends them, in pamphlet form, were actually delivered ir. Congres-^: 

• ',^ ■>■'■ -i r ' ''■ixd else 'i;n'"'\/s t i^ . t t ?" >,/'> r ■> r *" t • that Conpress js 
,'onstantiy grant inf. leave to its memher-^ to insert in the of- 



(3C) 

' i J J i] r->pr r^^; nf 1. 1^ ■; p rn e "? "! ("i iiif ?5 5?nT?^hT.<5 \/hiah it, ;.?••• ->r !"Tard 
an-i dofis not. ear-3 to h-jar.hut which J t, is not, av^^rs? fror^. print- 
ing at t '^ -> ;>'r-^jie expense 1^ 3^ '^ " •' ■^ -■: i r ■ ' i "> + -r* .r,;- - ♦ t t- -i -.nt " 

..d th? eou^.t ry At lare^ shoul' nad th-jrp.. It v. i 1 a iiot stand 
'^?tv/o^n a rneinHer And ni-i ec.s t i t.u^iit s so J r,; ,- ..:- it ea:: ir.duigo 
t "-'. -■ om and satisfy th^i oth^rr-; without, any ineoiiv^ni i^ne ■? to 



its?if ' ■ any serious drain upoi; tn--? r^soure'5-- 



r » v^ a ^11 



? Treasury. 
The public printer does not object. /V ^ ^^ ^ 

But then ar-? ot;T?r reason^; at ill mor-i ort inic than these 
..nv t h "> de'^^ates of Uonrr-">r5r; eann'">t , und t r '-.'ir- nr^'^eiit ?5"""teT-"., 

T t !iat serious purpose of search int. o t. '^ e "erjts of policies 
\:. ' *'-at defii.ite and det3rrnJnate party - o r , 3 :^ vom \;jli, par- 
tisan - aim v/ it '■■out. which they can nevar b^ e:f f ^^ t. iT,--; fr. r t. he 
i:.s t. rue t io:. of pu'-^l ie opinion or the cleansinf of political ac- 
tiOi.. The chief of these reasons , be cause t'rie parent of all the 
rest, is that t.^ere are in CJoncress no axit hor it at ive leaders who 

re t b ■> r ^ c o f r. i z -"d r; .-^n ke "^^ ''i^i o -r t. ' e i r nartie.s. Power is no- 

; ' o 1 icy 
..here concentrated: it is rather deliberately and of set^*«-f^ 

- >'• ■ '- > „..,*t^^-,^ ar.-.onr"* "-^any small chief-^;. I^ ■• ^- '■*•>■*'•'-'■' u-^,-'" 

i* './ere, into for*y-seven se j gno r J e s , in each of which a Gtand- 

i... wor.ii.!! *■ •■ e 1 is t r. ^ c<".ur t - b iron and its cn.^irnai; 3 t. j^ ior-' "'- 

rietor. These petty barons, some of them not a little pow^rful^ 

'^ut none r, *" y.'^r^-- v/ithirn roach o^ t. ^ e fuil powers '■ f ruli, nay at 

.. ] 1 . e..Trjise an almost despotic sv.-ay within t^eir oy.-n gnires. 

i-nd nav sonotimss threateii to - -ulse even t.-ie t^:\i\ itseif; 



(31) 

-u^ ^ot. h their nut, ual j ■^al ous i i s aiKl t. hoir ^rj"5f and n«3^rii»t, id 
oppo rt UI1 j t Its forhid their eoiiMnint , and eaeh is v-iry far frnm 
t.n offic"? o*" 'joi'inoi. i^adir. 

I kno\,' that to so: "; tt^.is se'":'?n"!T of d i s t, r i 'iuted p'-.y/^r an(] 

' i s i];t ^C'"''^^- "^ rui3 s";^rns a ■< 3 ry ixe-?! i Tiit- d-}\iijf> wh^rT^y v/9 an 
•onahled to aseap^ a dangsrous "ona-rnaii pov.'CJ r " . ai.d an untov/ard 
eone-3iit rat ion o^ "unetjons; an." it is vary easy to so? and ap- 
praeiat? th3 eoiiS ids rat ioiis whioh rnak"? this \i3u of Coiu.iitt3'3 
eovernnient so popular. It is based upon a very proper and saJ- 
'itary fiar of i mspons ihl 3 po\/erj and tho?;-; y.ho i:;o s t r = ^oiut3- 
^y maintain it always fight froin the position that aii ieader- 
'^ ^ ^ ' J: i ep isi at ioii is har:' tr restrain i.. proportn^,.. t r, ^t^ 
size and to t.^e strength of its preroeat ive s , and ^' i--- irio 

it is tr. make it manaeeabje. They ave r , ^es .i des , t rt;i* " "■ .ess a 

.an has to do - that is to say, the more he is confined to sin- 
gle departments and to definite details - the more iiiteiJigent 
and thorough will his v.f^rk '-^e , They like the Cor-sriit tees , the re- 
'"ore.^ust because they are maiiy and Vi^eak.heint qui*-? v/illing to 
■ -i ' -. ♦ >> -. i p '-1 e i ii j^ ' a s p o t i c \v' i ^ '' ■" . t - ^ -^ r - ■• r /- ^^ ; . -> r ■• - . 

It seems e-\ ideiit , ho^ve^■ er .v/hen the question is looked ' 
frcni anot.-or s t aiidpo int , that , as a i-iatter '- "" ' jf .uji exiier-""-^" 
♦^ne m.ore pov.er is divided tne more irresponsible it he.iornea. A 

ighty baron who ean call half the eouiitry to arms is v.atohed 
,. i f h greater Jealousy and there for 3 restrained Vi-it^ mo r ^ i ifil- 

^nt eare thaii is evir vouchsafed the feeble master o f .i. ^ ^ 



(32) 

J -jnt pi^asure jaunt, v/ithrut, at t rao 1 3 nf. the suspicious at.tontlo;. 

^ ^ t h "? Y/hol ■^ ^r.unt ry- s ■■ ' "• t - ^ ^ ♦ „ , ^ , ,. ^ , ..1 ,, , p ^ ^> -^ -. ^ __ 

tircj ueiehbourhood \,ithr.iit, fear of l^t or hJiidrano^. H- is ev- 
■^ r the little foxos thn,t snr.i] the grapes. At axxy rate, to tur.- 
■'aok from ii ius t. rat ir.i. to the faot^ of the argur.'.ent , it is plai;i 
MiOU£h that the petty character of the leadership of each (Jorn- 

ittee cont r i '^iit ?s tr.\.ar".s inakljit its despotisr:? nure hy Tnaklng 
its duties uniiite re r, t i:,(- . 'j^h'i Senate ainost always discusses 
i t s huoii.ess \,ith cons ide rw," 1 ^ t-z-.r^., -? s s ; and ->'->- + '- ^ .;'-,u^-> 
whether hy common consent or hy reason of such persist ei^t "fi;- 
1 hust ^ r ir.t; " ori th? part, o' ^ • uiiiiority as con:pelF: t. ■ r ; r."-. r ^ 1 :.;; 
Jor.'inittee ai.d the ma^nrity to grant t Mne for tai i: , so; ;et tf .es 
-tops tn dehate Cornip.ittee reports at lenftn; hut nobody , exce pt , 
■e rhaps , newspaper ed i t or s , f ixid these debates interest iai> read- 
ing . 

Vh" i <:• It tl•^at nnny intelligent aii ' nat r i r, t -i ,. ;-ier,:-.]e thr'-uc'i- 
out ^his count ry , f ror.i Virginia tn (Jaiifornii, - people v/h<". --le- 
yond all quest^r.i, lo^•e t h t i r State and t - -> 'Jnjon r-!o r * ta.Ui thoy 
- o\ e our cousin state over sea - su'^scrih? for the Londo:. pa- 

ers ii. order to devour the parliamentary debates, and yit \.ouId 
.-3''er think of troubling theriselvos to make tedious ;irogress 
thrrugh a single copy of the CJ ongr e ssl onal Record*^ 1 i^ "■^'J- 

jause t. "-.->• • n, r "> .vr'-.ti", if-^r' ',v t'--» r. 1 ') - \, r, r i <i (.ifi-i^"' <"' *" r''''''il 

i^.ngland witn its nobility and it"? court pageant ry , or bee luse rs ' 



t 



'i 3^ 



' ili'if de?5iro tr\ appear '-^ott sr v m's'JcI trnxii t I'.-i J r xiy ly u dou r i 
in fnnign affairs ai.ri t. <■• affect, f ami I j ari t y with British stafJJ"- 
ir.'Jn'' No: of c-nr-.i^ nrt . it j r; iiooause thn pari i armiit. try d"j- 

at^s are int'?ror!t jn£ ari'.' ours an iiot. , i xi the British iiouso 
of Coimons the funat.inns and prJv^legTs o ^' r.ur Standinp Coin- 

j t t -> -> r; M r "* : i ] ] o <"■ r "^ n t r ■'• t -> '' in t. b ? h .1, .,(-!■-; r, -T t '1 -> f ' j n J s f r \' , \, h <"> 
have , h^s irte s , s<-.r.-:.^ prerogatives of l^adrirship which eveii our 
ooi.iiai 1 1 eTs do iiof possess, so that they carry ail rTspons ibii i t y 
as well as oreat power, and all debate wears an intense person- 
al and party interest . Every important dJscussior. is an ar- 
raigiiment of fh~^ J'ii,istrY by t.hi Cpoos i t ioii , a.i arraiEunent of 
the ina:ority ^y the minority; and every importa:.t vot> is a par- 

^Tfeat an-' a part" triumph. The whole coiu'uet of thi G'^'^' " 
^rnrnent turns upon what is said in th? Uominons: because the 
r ';•'. il at io2:s o^ -'eSatT '■■^^'Hi. change votes, and a I'ini'^'' ~ .-ses 

old upon po\/ir as !■ loses hold upon the joiifidence of the 
^or;!;jons. 'i'h.is great Standing Comi;:] 1 1 '?■? goes out v,pen3' er it 
crosses th ? \, iii of the majority. H is,th^rTf^re,for t -'si 
■ ?ry simple and ob\ious reasons that the parliamentary debates 

-^ read on this sid^ of the water in preference to the Uon- 

re-^sional debates. 'i'hey affect t h ? m.ini s t ers , who are very co;-- 

<3 ■". j ._' • ! r. ■ 1 c; n -^ c : r. • . r; i j-i r' j ; \,'^ i". ' . ' r. r t :i, ] J t '■ "^ i T i t e i J j P T . t 

'•ri-' is int->rest3ri; and th^y det-irmine the course •f pol i ' 
].. a ( riat empir?. T}"^ - ■" '• *■ / vi-l iameut ' r; • 1 •• i 

great field day on whi,n Liberals and Conservatives pit tneir 



full for 3s atainst eauh o *• -^r.ai.d p?r.pj9 1 jko to v;at.eh the is- 
sues of ♦•h3 cont'ist. 

'^'ir Ui^iir r^R s iona J dahat. i ;? , r.ii th*? eont. rary . hai- 1 i,o t : t, >; i of 
thi5; ii.t-'r^st, H.-»causT t.h.-?y have no tithe of s'i*^u s i r.jii t i^ja-iice 
, . ^. irv,.,r, r t 1 : e -> , Th" (J oi.'iin i <■ <• T ^ r -?:"■■ rt s , ut'Oii \.hic^ ♦• '^ ■» c!'-'^ •" 
tako place, ar-? hacked by n'?jt-er party: they repr=?r?ent rn^r^ly 
t ? rr^eor '.r^endat ions of a small '^ody of rn-Tibars •'■^longing to 
both parties and ari quit 3 as likely t r- divide the vot-i of the 
party to >/hieh the m-^ority of tm Cor y:iit t e -; belong .as they ar^ 
to rr.e -Jt with opposition f roi '. the other sid? of the chamber. If 
they are carried, it ig no party triumph; if they are lost, it is 
no part;- d iseoff i t ur e . They are iio more thai, tv,-^ proposal^ o -f 
a rii;.ed comjiittee and may ^e re^ejted without pC'iitical incon- 
\enience t r, ejtber part^' or ni-roof tn the committee: ^ust as 
they m.ay be passed \,ithout com.pliment. tr. thT committee or pr.i- 
itical advantage to either sid^ of ^h^ iiouse. Neither party 
.as any great staiie In the controversy. T:;e o..ly importance 
that can attach to the vote must han^ upon its relation f r. the 
..ext C'.r.^r^l electjon. If the report c-'neern a question which 
js at the t im.e so much in the public eye tnat au actaoi; upon 
i *■ i" lik'^ly ^ - e marked and reuiem^e r ■" ■' afaij.-t t ^ -> r?,i" r.r ''o;^- 
ular ac t ion , par t i es are careful to vote as solidly a.s possible 
Oii -^.'hat t f?y concejx-e to he tr. e sa.f^ side, bt^t ai i othe- r- ■> - 
ports are dispo-^ed of v/ithout much thoufht of their influence 
::--. the ^ortuiies of distant e] ict jons , b-jcause tn-,,* ii,fiU3nc3 



(3r. } 



is riniot T an<' prohl '^mat ieal 



In a v.ord,tho national nartjgs dn not act i,. Unnfrf^g.*? nn- 
■ -. - 1 1> -. r "> - t r •! i . t r. f a ?? -^ rs " '^ <■. f i r^t" i rii .-i t ■> r ■> ^5 ■ ■ <•• i ; « i '■> 1 J 1 t, y . / I^ o - 
sponsibility js spread thjn: and nr. vnt -« r, r di'^iit-'; oaii gather 
it,. It r T5 1 s not. so nuoli upon nartj^s .as upon individuals: anii 
it r?sts upoii individuals i.. no such \,ay as v.nuld rnako i^ ?i- 
t !' T r just r, c efficacious to visit upon tnoi,; t no iniquit;- oi any 
l^£islativ=? act i Lool;int' at. govoruj'.eiit fron a practical and 
'mis iness- 1 ika , rathor thar; froT:^. a theoretical arid abst.ractly- 
"it h ical , po int of vi^w - t.r3atin£ the business of goiTrnrnent an 
' business - it s^er-^.s to be unquestionably and in a high degr'?'; 
r'-)sira^]^ t>at. all legislation sh'-'Uld distinctly npr^sent th"i 
action of partjos as parties. I kno^.' that, it has been nropos^'i 
'-y 3nthus last ic , but not too prac t i cai , re f o rr,:^rs to do av.ay wit:i 
partie." by sore legf^rdenain of goverrj-iental reconstruction ac- 
companied and supplemented by sorie reha^il it at ion , deT out 1 y to 
'e wished, of the virtues l?ast cor.Tmonly control! ii^G ii^ fallen 
-.uman nature, '-mt it seems to mo that it would be more diffi- 
cult and less de ?: i ra'->l e than tbrj^e amiable per---'-, j - suor."-, se to 
jonduet a government of the maiiv by means '••f any ot.ner d e\- i c e 
thai, party o rgani zat i on , aiid that the great need is, not ► ^. jet 
rid o <" parties, but t r, find and use some e;:pedient by which tney 
jan be managed and m.ade anenabl f? f roi.-. day to -lay t, <■. .juuij op- 
inion. I'lainly this cannot he offected by puni.<Jhlne here and 
t>-ere a member of Congress v/iio has voted for a flagrant iy dis- 



(36} 

oms t ap ' rr, n r i ' t i r ;> b 1 ] ] or an o'^rr. . i rm*? r'i'-« ;i in r -> r "* J at. i n , t <% 
t'r.i tariff". 'hilerss th^ punishi/.ont can ho e.-.t, siidad to th? party 

- if any s'loh "-^t "tcociiI za'^l ■» - v/i^h whioh th«ns'i member?? '-avT 
voted, no advantage has '-"oen v/on for sel f - pov^ rnnent and no tri- 
ur.ii'r has ^een gained ^y pu^iio opi-^.ion. It shr.uid 'i-; do"^Jr">-! 
trat parties should aet in dintjnot organizat ion^ , iii aeeordanvn 

jth avowed pr ino ipJ es , under easily r^eofnized leader^?, in or- 

'f that the voters miGht be able tr, declare by their ballots, 
not only their condemnation o -f any past poli,^y by withdrawing 
ai i supp*-. rt fror. the party responsible f^^^r it, but aif^n and par- 
'ieularl'- their will as to the future adriiini s t rat ion of the 
government by bringing into pr>\;°r a party pledg'^f^ to the adop- 
t 101- of an aeeeptible policy. 

It i s , t h ^ r ? f ore , a fact of tn? m.^st serious consequence; tnat 
by our system, of Congressional rule no such m.eans of coi. trolling 
.ogislatlon 3s afford-^d. Outside of Congress the organization 
of t>-i? national parties is exceed ingl-/ v/ell defined and tangi- 

1 3 : nr< one could v/ish it, and few could imagine it ,m.ore so; but 
xjthin Congr-ss it is ©bscur? and intangible. cur parties mar- 
shal th3ir adherents with the strijt<?Tt possiple discipline for 
t n ■; purpose of carrying e 1 ec t ion". , but their discipline is v^ry 
slack and indefinite in dealing with 1 eg i si at ioj.. /tt least 
th^r? is ',, jt--ii: Congress no v_i.sjbiJ? . s-rid t hi r ^ f '•' r"? no control- 
labij? party o rgani zat ioxi. The only bond of cohesion is the cau- 
cus , Y/f. ic h occasionally v/hips a party together for co6p^rativ3 




(3/) 
action against ths tii'.'i for e-istii, j t n -"r.t.n unn^ ^r,!-.? 'iriticai 
quTstJon. Th^r-j is alv/ays a majority and a miiiO r 1 t.y , indeed , ^vit 
thT loeislatioji of a sTssir.n dois not, r^iif^sTiit the policy of 
either; it is simply an aeeregate of th'i hills recomrnand'Jd by 
O'of.u"! J t. te OS oomposod of msm^ers froi.; both sid-^s of tni il'-'UST.and 
it is known to b? usually, not th? v/r.r;; of tho majority-rmn upon 
th-3 Commit 1 00 r? , hut oom.prom.isf? eoneJusions b'=»arinG soim shado or 
t iiige of "^ae'": of th? v ar ii-'usl y- eol ou n ,' r,pjn1i r.^r; and \.'ish^T of 
the eomjii 1 1 Te-m.on of hoth parties. 

It is plainly the representation o '^ '^r,f- p^r*ies oii tne Com- 
mittees that m.akas party respons i hii i t y indistinct and r.rgan- 
i zed party action almr-st iriposs ihl e . If the Cof.imittses \/ere 
c-.mposed entirely of memhers of the ma^jority and Vi-ere tnus con- 
st itut.ed representatives of the party in power, the wh'-'le course 
of Congressional proceedings v;ould unquestionably take on a 
very different aspect. There would tren certaiiiJy he a compact 
oppositioii to fix^'-i the r.rranize-' majority. Committee reports 
Y/ould he taken to represeiit tne vie\,s of the party iii p^^'wer : aiid, 
instead of the s cat t. e r e:' , uiiconc e rt e d opp''s i t ion , v/i t hout plan or 
1 eade rs .which now sorie times subjects the propositions of tho 
Comxiittees to - ex at io us hindrances and del ays, the re would 
-^•prjng up debate under skil^'ul master- of opposition v/ho could 
drill their partisans f<-.r effective warfare and give sh.ipe and 
meanlii(_ to t ^--> purpose- '■••^ ♦•t^e 'irrvrlt ■. i?t r, ' c^nr^e th">re 

cai; be no such definite division of forces so lOnu as the ef- 



(3=M 

fioi'Ji^t mAi:;h1r.nrv r. f J -> p ] s i at, i nn is In t.hn hanrir; of both par- 
M«»s at, ones; so ionf as thi part, j^s ,^re rnincJf»d and harnes^od 
♦ot3t.ner in a joininon o rt'arii z.it i on . 

It may be said , thenfo n , that very fT\; of th-? n'^as-in.s 
v«hioh c-'ne ''nfr.rT Cr.n^nss an party i:i3asun^. Thsy ar'^.at any 
ratT.not ^^routbt in as party measures. They ar3 -endorsed by 
s'^iaet bodies of members '>hosen \. i t ^ a viev/ to eonstitutinc an 
JT,npartial board of examination for the judicial and thorough 
consideration of oajh subject of legislation; no member" of om 
of th^s? jor.-jnit ^ -"^ -7 if5 -..ar ranted in reveal iiitj ai.y of the c'.is- 
ifreem.ex.ts c f the cor^U-iit tee- room or the proportions of tpe 
' '-•tes there tur.'Jx.; and liO •jol'''Ur is meant to "^e t3^^l. ^^ '^ he 
supposition that tne reports made are intended to advance any 
arty interest. Indeed, only a very sli(_ht examinat j on o' tm 

0-' 

•measures v/hieh originate v.ith the Committees is necessary tr> 
sho\.- that m.ost of ther; are framed v.ith a viev; to securinf their 
■?=.c;^' T\ -> -^ rs, i ^ 'i^ v,v pj'^ii-j^g then as neutral and InoffeiisiTS a char- 
acter as possible. The manifest object ts to dress them t<-> the 
j.i,iiii£' of all factions. 

'Jnder such c 1 rcuinst ance s , ne 1 the r the faiJur"? n^r th> s'rc- 
cess of any po] ioy inauc'J '"•'^'^ "^d '"^y r>j.T of ^■\'^.^. v^oi.u.^.a t teas can 
fairly be charged t - tna account of either party. The Commit- 
tee acted honest 1 y , no doubt, and as they thoucl"'-^- '^^st: and tner? 
jail, of curse , '^o ..o assuraiice that, by taliinr away its Coneres- 
"ional majority from the pa^^y tr. which t -?ater num.'-'Tr 



( J'J} 

' h'? oomni 1. 1, i-rnon ^olong.a Coi-iini t tfla eoui-! be secured which 
ould a-'t bet. t. sr or d i f f '^ rent, ] y . 

ThT or.no J u?; ir.n of th"; whol? nattir i s , t. h-^n , t hat public op- 
inion cannot b^ ins t, ruetod or ^l«5vated by th'? debates of Con- 
'" r "> 55 s , nri t oiii'-' '^oeausT t '^ ^ r -> ar^ fT\; dfl'-^ate'-- -^ -' r ■> f-^ • -^ i ■• Mii'^'^r- 
taiisn by (Jox:ic ress , but prJneipaliy because no one not prof^ssion- 
aiiy ii.t ? r ^st. ?r' in th'^ daiiy jr.ur-^T of lo^islatioji c;i,n- '' 
r^ad v/hat is said by the debaters \,hTix Congress does stop to 
t al k , Jnasmuch as nothing depends upon the iss'ie of tne discu.T- 
sion. The ordinary ojtizen cannot b? induced to pay inucn heed 
to the details, or even to the main pr inc ipl es , of la\/-ir'a;;ine: un- 
less soi'.ethint ilse no r i Jnt^resting than t.'^e 1 a\, itself b? in- 
• oived in th"; pending decisiOi. of t :^ -; law-makers. If the for- 
tunes of a party or th"! pr.\/^f - '' - great poiitical leader are 
staked upon the final vote, he will listen with the keenest in- 
♦Tr-;st to all that the princiijal actors may have to sny.and ab- 
sorb much instruction in so doing; but , i f no such things hang 
in the balance, ha will not turn fror.:^. his business to iisten.and 
if tT ^. tfi-' i'^?^Me<7 ;i r •^ nr. t brought r>ut 3], eager pubijc contests 
..hich catch his ear b'^causT of their irrunediate personal inter- 
^T'-."'' must -,? sought amidst tiie Jnf o r: :a^ -* ' . . ' ■ t ■■^-' t'-.^-» 

complete only ^y reading scores of ne\/spape rs . hi \;1il certainiy 
..ever f jnd them or carT for t:^.em,and tner-^ is s::la. us ■ 
printing a P e c o r d which he vn 1 1 not recxd. 

T know nf'-t how better to deserib™ r.ur forr.i o <" governmeiit i:i 



(40) 

L sirti^ phras-3 than ^y oallij "* ' ■ r- -r. ->::* •-" t v-^ ., . -ir- 

. en of tho Standing Comraitteos r. f (Joncass . This ri is int. ■? t rat n 

in J s t ry, a.'^ it fijjuns on thi fioor of th*? llous'? of I -? i»r'! •? ;nt .i- 
t i\ ■?.•?, has many peoui iari t ios . In the first piajT.nt 33 rnado up 
of thri -elders of th? as"ern>ily; for, by cusf-rn, senio r 3 1 y 3n Con- 
rnssional ser-vioe determines the hsstowai of the principal 
chairmanships; in the second placT.it is eoj\stituted of seifisri 
and v.arrinr elements: for chairman fiiht-^ af linst 13-airr-an f r. r 
use of thT time of the as s em>^I y , t houeh the most part of ther 
ar? inferior to the ehairman of V'ays and Means and all ar? sub- 
ordinate to the chairman of t-^T uor^^j-ittee on Appropriations; in 
the third pi ac e , instead of heing composed of the associated 
leaders of Coiigress , i t consists of the dissociated heads of for- 
ty-ei£ht "littl3 1 ec i si ature s " ( t o horr'-'\/ Senator Hoar's apt 
r. n- -. '' r. r + "' -» C '" mjn 1 1 t a ^ s 1 ; aiid , in th"? fr. urt^ place, it is institu- 
ted by appointment froi.; Mr . Spea^^e r , wh^ is, by intent ion , the c.'-ief 
judicial rather than the chie' ooiitical officer of t -^ v..,-:;-.. 

It is hiGhly Inter est ine to note the extraordinary po\;Tr 
'C-'niinr to Mr. Speaker through this pret;nant p r i r'-gat ive r *• ap- 
'Ointine the Standinc Co:-.i-:i t tees of the House. That power is 
IS it \.er-! the central and eharact'^r ist ic incon\' enience and an- 
nai-' r.f rur con'5 1 J t Mt : r.nal 'oyster., and on that account 9xcit9^ 
'^oth the curiosity and the vender of the student of institu- 
tions. The m.<-' St e s t -•->■-> ' \, r "i t -• r -^ i- -ir, ^ rii - :;r, . r; ♦ i t m t i a;, hav e 
failed to obse rve , v^.t only that the Standinf Committees are the 



(41) 

■-,'•'■ -^ ■5 3 iiit j I. i M,ci\ Ji. • ry of our tov-irij intal .syr? t -»•,'■; ♦ -.j-^ 
''Tat th"? Sp??aknr of the House of Pep r<?ssntat IvfJs ir^ t *ie most 
powerful funot. ionary of t.nit syst^ri. .So sovTnitn 1-3 ^ \.it, i.-; 
' .1? wid") {jplnr"? -"^ f his influence that, one could wish for accur- 
ate knowledge as to the actual exteht of his power. wUt Mr. 

nea'vT'r; r>r>v,^rr; cani.ot be i;nown accii rat e 1 y , beeaur^e they vary 
witn th? character of Mr . Speaks r . All Speakers ha\' e , o f late 

lars espec ial iy . be.?n potent factors in 1 e ^ 3 s 1 . t ] nr, , b>it some 

ivi ,ny reason of ereater energy or less consc i ence .made rnor-; 
:.<5e of their opp'"- r tuni t ie s than hav t otiiers. 

The Speaker's privilege of appointing the StandJnf Corr it- 
tees is nearly as old as (Joncress itsilf. At first f -■ iK.use 
^ried the plan of balloting for its no n ir-spr. r t ant Committees, 

r-'erii.g.in April 1739, that the Spealier should appoint o 
t r,r;-> ._. r.r.ni t f ^ -.<5 v/hieh shouit' consist of liot nore t'-an thre-j 

embers; but less than a year's experience of this meth'-'d of 
'■rganiziiig see; .3 to hav^ furiiishe(' satisfactory pror*- r, -^ -its 
rr-praetica^il ity ,and In January I7ir the present rule was ad- 
apted: that "All eoinrnittees sha^i be appointed by * ^ :' ear.er, 
inless otherwise special iy directed by tha llous'?.'' The Pules 
-- one A'ouse of Pep resent at ives are not , hoY;ev t r , nocessar 1 i y tne 
Pules r,f f •"' r:^>-t. Nn ruli 1 i' es save by biennial r ■'adopt ion. 

ach ney/l y- el ect ed House ine^ts \/itnout rules for its governance^ 

■ :o ng s t t ■ ■ '■> *■ :i r s f n •> t ^ r ■' it-: f i r "^ * <; ■-» s s i r, ; . is ' 1 s ■ m. i i ' 1 1"-. e 
idoptioii o^ the resolution that tho HuJes of its predecassor 



shall "io its OMii Pul =? s , su^i j o^j t, , o T or.urr;'? , t.r, suoh nvisionn as 
it, nay , f rr.: ; t imo to tirn^.s^T f J t, f r> rnak'^ . I 'r . Speaker ' s pov/sr 
of a 7* "^ i n ♦■ T-' ■-> - t -1 ■ ■ r. rtj ixi£ J y , a J \/ 1 ■" '^ i \y :o t <? t - ■> i m i - m- -> r, f t .^ i q 
resolution; 'hut it, never v/aits in vain, for no r.u.-??} , hov/ovJr 
fo<''lish in ot-Tr re sp 3 o ts , ha." yit h-^Tii foolJs liiout ' '. . "; 

frooh trial of 3loetint i^s Uoi ti a 1 1 t 9s . That moda may do \<<ill 
"Jriouf.h for th^ cool an! l^isurily Senat?,^ut it is not ^or tna 
.i:isty and turbulent House. 

/ It must alv/ays.of erurse.have ssemed err.in«?ntly d^-^irabis to 
li i thought fui and e.^pf? r i enced rn3n that f'r.SpsaKor shonlt' b'3 no 
more tnan the judicial guide and mod'^rator of tne proee^Jdin^s 
r, 1" + 1> -> iiou.se , ke^p in£ apart from t ^.-^ noated er.nt r---^- -> r- ■■ ""^ '■■:f 
.•larty warfare and exeroisino none but an impartial iiifiuence 
upon th-^ cur.^e of legislation,- and proba")ly \ia'r:ii ■.•.a \.'is first 
invested with trie po\,er of appointment it v/as thought pr ss ibl e 
that he .30uld exercise that great pre roc ' *■ i'''- \/ithout allo\.inE 
hio personal vie\.-s upo.. questions of pu'^lic policy to control 
or even affect his ci.oice. Rut it must ■'.ery s'-'on ha-^-e appeared 
t-^f i* was too much to expec* '■• • a nan v/ho ha' it v;ithin his 
f'ov/er to direct affairs that he should subdue all purpose to do 
so and sr.ould ma'xie all appo int;:ieiit s \/ith an eye to reeardine 
every preference but his o\.n: and when that did become evide.,t 
tie rule \.as undoubtedly retained only because none better 
could be devised. resides, in th** early years of the O'onstif;- 
tion the ComxiJ t toes were very far ^ rom ha" '. tne power 



(43) 

-.'■■\, possoss. '''isJn'3SS di--' /'''t. t'^^n i^m rrv f • r, fa-^t fr, r -M'^mi'i- 

ion and tha iioust \.as in t hie habit nf serutjnizine t.h.T reports 
' *" t '^ ^ Co:-" -itt . -. - rniioh i^r, r"? oritioalJy t, ban ■* ' '■•w nnt. ->ndr3 to 
do. It doJib^rat^d in its open sessions as \.all as ii. its ori- 
• at e cornrni 1 1 "^G- roons , and the funeticuary \/ho app'-Jnted its Con- 
.itt33s was simply th^ nor^inator of its advisors , not , as is thi 
Speaker of to-day, tha norr;inor r.f jts rulers. 

It is plai:., t ;---?rr-3 ^r, n , that t:-'0 of^ioo o ^ Sp-:?ak.ar of t:-;? 
.ious3 of R9pr'?s 3ntat l\-os is ii. its prssant estatfj a constitu- 
tional ph^nomsnon of t'-^^ -^lirst Imp'' r tanef? , dr? s 3 rv inf. a ■• -^r" r^r.r- 
ough and -ritieai exanjnat ion. If I h?v^■^'i suee 3 "Jd Td , in ^/hat I 
'"-av3 already said.ia rnakiixg, el ear tho extraordinary po\;er of 
tm uonr-'i 1 1 ees in directing I eg i si at ion , it may now go \.lthout 
+ be saying that h^. who appointa those Cominitr'^es is an autocrat 
-'f the first magnitude. There ar.uld be no clearer proof of tm 
reat political weight of the Speaker's high eornmiss ion in tnis 
regard tnan tr.e keen strife \,hieh every t\.o year?: ta:-.e=i niT.ce 
over thi election to tne Speakership and the inter.se interest 
excited throughout the couiitry as tr> tn- ehoje^ * ■* -^ - a'e. cf 
late years the newspapers have had alr.;ost as much to say about' 
^ .'■ e rival candidates for 'hat office as a^'-'Ut the candidates 
for the Presidei.cy i t sel f , hav ing eone to look upon the selec- 
tion made as a sure index of t!"e policy to be expect e ' in leg- 
is 1 > + ■''-•;-.. 

The Speaker is of course diosen by the party which eoninands 



(44} 

t t-i ? T-'ajority ji. tb-» iiousr>,nnrl it. ha- ?;r,r 'Rt. i.' lo r >ir»-»n t.t^-} jrfr.rt 
of scharnjnc , s^i f - soTkiii£ men of that majority to seoure tm -ii- 
-vatioi. of so.-M frjsr.d or tool of their o\in to i.-.at o f f i j t , f ro- ■ 
v.-hjeh ho ean rondor them seri-ieo of tM-> i ost substaiitiai and ao- 
oopta^le sort. "ut.aitnoueh tnos-? mtrjcuos ha' -^ oeoas aonai i y 
nsultTd in th3 -^jTotion of a Man if iiis if ni f itjant part,-? and 
"''.uhtful eharaet 5 r , th-i ei"oio=5 has usually fall -in upon sf^m r^- 
1 r-! f: "^r.t at i-i -> party man o *" v/s 1 1 - kiiown ant le ?d-3nt. "? and jl^arly- 
avov.'Hd opinion-?: for th"? Mouse eani;ot,and will not willingiVj 
■■'Ut up \.ith the intnl a ra"-^l 3 jneonveni enee of a v/Tak Speaker, and 
th3 majority aro urgod 'Hy se 1 f - re spec t and ^y all the v/eifhti- 
^st eom i d3 rat ions of exped i eno y , as \,eil as hy a r^rard ^'■■r t^-n 
interests of the pu'ili:: business, to place Oiie of treir accredited 
- waders in the chair. If t.hTre h? differences of opinion v;ith- 
ixi the party, a choice hetvveen leaders becomes a choice bet-Veen 

r.iioies and assum.es the greatest, s i^ni f icanee . The Speaker is 
expected to constitute the Co^jiittees in accordance \.itn nis 
'--v/n p'-litical vjev.-s.and this or that candidate is preferre:! by 

is party. not at all '-^e-aus^ of any supposed superiority of 
;-wnov/l ede^ of the precedents and 1 av/s of parliamentary usape.but 
■^ecausT of his m.--. r "> popular opinions coneerjilxig the ieadiiij 
q ue s t i o r. s <-, f t, n e day. 
•^ Mr . Speake r , too , f; ene rai 1 y uses his pov^ers as freely and ira- 

r. -> r q t -i •«•-.]• • T - ">^ -. -i r- -. y • , -> . t •> r" t - US'* f '^ "> ; ' . ^ f "* U 1 1 b e s i t T. t j H f 1 ',' 

acts as tp^ legislative chief of his part y , o re-'i-ni z iiit the Lion- 



(4r,) 

, i •■ ^ "• "> s ill t h -> iiit-'r->';t r.f t '^ 1 r: r, r t, l-;it po J 1 e '.' , nr. t. crr^.rtly an'! 
on thT sly as one who doos sormtning of v/hioh rr^ is asnarned , Sut 
'P?ni" and eonfidentiy a.s om W''.''' cfoos :iis duty. Nr, r do'Js ". i - 
offieial oonnaetion with the Cormnit.t. t?s eeas--? upon th'jDr ap- 
poiiitnont. It. is hi?; air^ to faeniitaf? their c.-troi of tm 

usiness of the House, ^y reeoenizine during: the consideration 
o *■ a report only thos? members \;ith whom th"; reporting c-'mmit- 
te^-man has apreed to share his t ime , and by keepinf all v/hn ad- 
'rer^s the Ilous^ within t h "^ strictest 1 e t, t :? r of the Pules as to 
^ " -^ l-!ncth r, '■ their spee.jhes.as well as by enforeiiif all thm-j 
-ther restrict jnns whijh forbid independent aetion oii the part 
of individual rnernb->rs. He rvjst see to it tnat the (Jo; J.:!i 1 1 ees 
..ave th^jr ov/n \/ay. Iii s^' doing he is not exercising ar'^itrary 

owers which circumstances axid the habits of the assem.biy en- 
able hir; safel]' to arro£ate; ne is simply enforcixit tne plain 
-etter and satisfyine the eiideixt spirit of the Ruios. , aGj 

A student of Roman 1 a\,- and ins t i tut. j ons , 1 ookine at the .. 
Pules of the 'House of Representatives through glasses unaccus- 
tor.ieu to search out aucht but ant i qu i t i e s ,mi eh t '- - excused for 
^laim.inr that he found in the customs of the House a striKine 
r eprodue t io:; o:'' Roman legislative netnr.ds. The Hom.ii. ass i. i., 

e would rem.ind us.C'uld not vr.t. « and debate at the s u-:e tK.e, 
It had no nrj^ilece.s of am.endm.ent . but had t r, adopt evory i av/ as 

I whole or r >^e;t it a^ ^ \/'^'-ie; and ii'-' priA-atQ m'^mhsr had a 
right tr. introduce a bijj.that b-»int the exclusive prer'^eative 



(46) 

of t h "5 ma C i " ^ f" "> ^ ■* " . '"^ t j t _ t ]> >-. 1 1 f^ ^"' ^ "^ r-i i > " t r-? '; f i >i i i -^ b i t . ; i r -» ] l -» j 

satisfactory t r. hii:;s'3Jr betw^^in the maj;ist rates of Horn? and tlTS 
Jor.;i o ^ t 3TS at V'ash iii^ t Oii , and b>tvvT"Jn tho undT '-•at .Tab! <? , UiiaiT^nd- 
a'-^i-? lav.s r-f tt^o ancient, and ^ ne und^bated , unainended Jav/s of 
the mode rn , r'>pu''^l ie , I-.5 oouJd hard.iy f j nd in th:? later syster-^ 
that eom.pensat inc advantage whijh scholars ha\' e noted an giv- 
ing to Poman legislation a clearness and teehiiicjal perfection 
s'jjh as is to bo found in non"! of the moderii codas. Since Ko- 
man lav.s could not b« am.ended in their passape.and must carry 
t-heir meaninf plainly to the compr oh^iis ion o^ the commons , cl eir 
and ^rief drafting was cui t i^-at ed as of the first iiece^sj^y in 
-•rawing up meas'ires which wer^ first to gain popular approval 
an-; the:\ to seccoed or fail ii. accomplishing their ends accord- 
as they proved v/orkable or impracticable. 

No such comparison of our own with other systems can.hov/- 
er'er.find any favour in the eyes of a certain class of Ameri- 
cans '>.ho pridT the; tselx-e': upon being nothing If not patri'-.tjc, 
and Y^ho ean consequently find no higher praise f n r the pecuiiar 
devices of Coi.TJ.iit tee governm.eiit than that they ar-? our r,y,n ir.- 
■ Tilt ion. "An i 1 1 - f a^•oured thing , s i r , but r;iiiio own." No one 
v.iil readily be 1 i eve , hov/e\'e r , that Cong r t^ s-me;; - e-'-en t»-i.ose of 
them v/ho belong to this dutiful cia-s - cherish a very lo^lne 
admiration fnr the discipline to \/hich they are nov,n.days sub- 
jected. As the ajcom.pl i shed librarian of Congress has declared^ 
"the genoral conviction may b-! said to oxi s t , that , unda r the 



frsat control o\3r letislat.jon and eumnt business by the 
SpTakor,an(5 ^y th'5 pov/'3rfUi CornnJfto:? nn Appropr i at, j ons , eornMn- 
ad v.'ith tho rifor of fh'} Piil?-; of th-; ilous "J , t h-i n i^ l^r^s and 
]'3ss opportunity for iud ]•>' idual mamhors? to rnak^ any iiif lu'?nt ial 
.'.ark iii l^tisiation. Indi'?p'?nd'3ne =3 ai; ' a'^ilit-' i r-^ r -» -, r--» - ^« ' 
uiidTr tm tyranny of th^ Riilis.aiid praotjcally thT po'..-3r of th3 
popular hraneh of Confro-s i;^ e one-^ut r at -id in thT opeakir and 
a fsv.- - v^ry f^v/ - ??xp'irt pari iainontar ians . " And of O'-ur-^* 
^.?rabers of Coner^-s sei this. "V'"; na-\T but t'^.r-'?'; forj-?s m 
this House ", 9xel ainsd a jocose mernbTr from th'? Paonfio eoast , 
"t!-.'? Rrahn.Jns of the Corrj.-.i 1 1 =>? of V'ays and Meand - not the 
-rains but t:ne Brahrnins of thT ilou^e - ; the whi t e- ''-'Ut toi. man- 
darins of the Appropriations CoJm.iittT^j th-i difnifi^d oligarehy 
ja]]'?' + ^^ ^ C'-'- • i + + n oi. Hulls; thi Speaker of thi iionsi; ^ : -* 
' -i illustrious c-ritleman fron Indiana." Naturally all nn 
indopTiid 3nt spirit ehafi under thi ar^itr-iry r^.^traints of s'leh 
a system, and it would be much mon phil osonhi^^al to jonolu^'e 
* 'at thiy lit jt stand because they can devise nothiiiL 'setter 
than that they adheri t*-. its ineonv anient praotjaes because of 
t he i r adrni r at ion for it as an Ame r i o an i n\ ant i on . 

j{ov/e\ "!r tiV'.t ; iv '-(i,th.? iium'tir of t r <? •> \;hr, rii^u". ■• t '■> -> FuJe 
i .-3 creator than ' aum'^er o '^ those v. ho s ^ r n- e to reform t 

rr.o of the rnosf s* '.rti].., '^ •^ * > prevaien^ <''-'ses i ^ * *^ ^ i-.Tt-- 
passi-i^e of bjll<=; under a. suspension of the Pules, a device 'by 
"-'eans of v.h i'j n ' , s xys senator Hoar,' l iiri_: i> r <■'-.> o r t. j p-•r^.^n-; 



J 



(43) 

f- "^ ■> T-^-i ■ rv r J ^ V _ o f t. >^ ■■» ^> 1 J j "^ ',^^ i ._!li n.i. <? s t. hi TTmi ^ "> .1. r -^ ■ 1 r r i t ! 

* -irouph." Thjs prajt, jc? Piay ^^ v^ry 'jlsarly ux.ri'^rst nod *^y fnj- 
J'^\.jnt -Turti^ir I'r.IIoar's ov.ii Vtor-.Is: "i-'-'^ry Ilonday ■ ' ^ ^ - • - 

--' mlr.f hour, and at. any tjirr^ 'urJm, t,h? last ten days of a 333- 
s ion .motions to svispend tlie rules \r=i in order. .^t tnsia tir.133 
r^y ineinhe r may mov to s'lsprand the rul3s and pass any prr.possd 
^:.. It nquins ty.o-thirds of thT members votjnc to adopt 
sujh a not. ioK. 'Jpoii it iio de'-iat^ or amandrigxit is in ord^r. I j^ 
this way , 3 f t\.o- thi rc!-^ of th^ hody a^ri^.a hili is hy a sin^l^ 
\ o t "! , .. i t hout diseuss.iOii and ^.ithout change , pass ?d ti'.-'-.Ut'^ all 

* " mj'^ssary s tac'=?^ , a^id mad-3 a lav,, so far as thi Mouso of H?- 
r =5 s >nt at i\- ^3 c;\xi aeeomplish it; and in this rnodT hundreds of 
3as'!r?r^ of vital importane-T r^; ee iv? , n'^ar t. it; elos? of an e,-.- 
x'jstin/ s -^ss 30.. .without hTiiit df^hat "id , arnend-ed , pr int id . o r ur.- 

■ d-Trstood.tna constitutional assent of the representatives of 
I the American people". 

pj t> 1 n pr, r,"i\' i (--'I s cT-TiTnt. t '"' h9 Taad "i u"ii"in ha''itq n ' --'ro^Td- 
'in so palpa'^iy pernieJous is, that nothing o^uld ^e mo r ■> natur- 
1 under Rules \,h3eh repress ijn'i-v idual act j on wit '. sr. riuch 
! strincency. Then, too, the mills of the Cor?JiJttees are ;;nown to 
rind slo\.ly,and a very cuJel; au'' easy \.ay of eettint rid of 
inor items of business is to let particular ^' ills, of apparent- 
ly innocent m.eaiijiit or laudabl--* intent, run thrr.ueh without eom- 

jft'ent. ';'W-.r> rri':!t ' ■> .■^ir,- 1 r, u t j ? t , t or, , t !^ r*-. uph \.hich '*- 

•rs '-.f 'elayed and accumulated business .-ained o^f a-s 



t '> ^ ^nfi o' a sTrssini. drav.r? mar. MotnbTrs \;hr, icnnv; nov.' to tak"! 
t, n-j Hous'J at. an induic"!^^- m'^'.iant and oan in a fov/ \/r.rrig hv\.Wi 

■It. a p r J m a ^ ■« > -i -> .i^^-. r r, p t i> -> ■-x,. tir, i. t -.v urr^ oan ai ^ " * ■' J - 
MAY 5 s'^eur? a suspf^nsJon r,f tm Rul'^s. 

To spiri:; \ -^ry piajnly.it. is \,'r.i. : » rf 'm t. hat. u^. '^ - -• -ya- 

t ^r.-! o^ eovernm'^nt. 1 ec isl at. jr.n is nr.t nfter.Tr at sixTn and s-tv- 
ens than it actual iy is. Th-^ ii.finitTly varied am', various i,.- 
^ir-jsts of fifty millions of a^Jtiv^ porple would h^ hard enough 
^.annoniz'? ai;d s^r-vo.or.e v/ould think , v/'5 n parties sffiji^ntly 

or£;aniz">d i:. t '^ "> ,'ursujt r, f ■• -! f i ni t t , .s t "> :)!-'y ^ 00:.-=; i ;^ t Tnt '-toli>ii33' 

is 

and it thf rtf r.c •> simply amazing to fiuri ho\rf fe\/ outrageously 

A 

fatally f o<-, i ish , h^^N/ fe\. 'Had or d i sas t r ous , t n J ; - ^^ ->■'■> '^?^n 
don9 by maans of our d J s int egrat t mathods of 1 f^eisl at i^^r^- T^'^ 
Uoinmitt T3S of tn? ilous"? to v.'nom tnt prineTpii ^^•p^J '' ii^is- 
latjon an ai lotted number m.or'^ than thirty. V'3 ar-; ruled by 
a seor? and a half of "iJttiT 1 e g is 1 ^.turT: , » Cur legi-iation 
:s eonrl om rat-> , not hoinofemous . The doixiCs of one a.. 
■ar-i-e Congress are foolinh in pieces and \/ise in spots. Thny can 
^' -"f, ■ jTpt by ace ident , ha'V' ■! anv ctiii'-! f -^^ t m re •- . rime o^ t r\e 
Committers are made up r, f strong men, the majority of th^r-i.of 
, • . • * - wea,^ ar-? as 3i.fi uu.M.w .1: * • "*'•-■ ■ '^'^ -^ 

-ountry can g'^t thf? counsel an! e'^i^^'^'nce of its ablest repre- 
•entativos only upon one or tv.o subjects; upon tr^,-- re-^t it i-ust 

ooliter.t with tbo impotent service of the feeble. Only a 
• e ry sm.all part '■■f its most important busine-^r be doii^ yisli: 



(50) 
v/h'-'ln of i^ t.a.on toeathor dom at, haphazafi. Tmn 

* '^an that of r^okoninf: the propa^^i 1 it. ior^ of there hoine aiiy eoin- 

■^ '?atur-'s of [) r i..'j 3 iii T in t.;;! jL -J 1 1 '3 -i ti, f, lOi. '" ' Ml oi'^ninE S33- 
'ioi-i. It night lif;ht,'^ii and divert th^ loisun of som'i inceni- 
'^us math'JLaat ie ian to attempt t!"!e oai eulat ion. 

It \.a'^ pro"SaMy sorm suen r^fi actions as tn-^se \.'hioh sug- 
\ Esstfjd t-^ prooosal ,rnad^ not !'■■..>: sine-? in th3 Hous-J,t»^at th^n 
n-nr^,\^ -^r, a p p o 1 n t 8 d , a 1 On f >, i t '-^ t -w -? us'.ial Standinr Cr.r--- i t ' t^s , a 
..T,. ior-irii 1 1--» 1 v/hieh should ^e known as th? ExejutJv-> oornraittT? 
r' th3 ilousT.and siK-'il' ^o '^iriOw"^ r--id to e.-anine aiid s^rt all 
the hills report-?d fa\onra"My '-y thi other Standlnf <Jor3:'.i 1 1 t -»:3 

■ -'. them forv.'ar::' In v/hat might se^r: to it tho order of 
their importance; a co:..m.ittee v/hiih shf-'uld.in short, digest pend- 
ing measures and guide the ilou^e in arranging itr^ r.rd^r of "■•usi- 
.i.ess. iiut it j« --.^r^-r.^-.'-lx' tr^, '-> -> dr.ir-^ted v.-hether such' an artdi- 
t ioi- to the present organization v/nxild do m.ore than tie*^*'^n the 
♦■yraniv of or., j 1 1 -. ^ ruie and stiii f-ir*-^'- r ^ -^ t r i . t fr-.-^v.r' o '" 
'e'-.ate and action. .. ooi.Tmittee to superintend coiiit :it t e-^s would 

■■ ■ -»ry j^tt^i tr. t >- -« iffjeiei.jy of tne ilouse ■ ■■ r- 

tainiy eontrjhut-^ nothing towards unifying 1 egislat ion , unl ess 
the ne-.v corir^.JttT? v/ere t '^ '-^ "? given the pov.->r,iiot y ■> t t.^.ou. 
r. f r-^vi-:!!}.. t/--> \,r,rk o' the pr-!?5?nt Standing Cornni 1 1 eeg . Such 
an exeeiiti •-'j'itt->-> is not ouito the devic 



(HI ) 

;^,,t.s j] ' lir'JotJoii or t' ? naijzation of aji Jd^a ^est. ^^x- 

■r-issed - no far ■j.s i:iy r-Jnuii.L siio\."j - '"^y J-'-n.. ot.uart. I'Jii; ar.-.' 
is too much Ij);^ ot-h-ir qxp=i r ir'Tr.t.js t.o ^e quit? ar? orieinal and 
'iiiquT as son-3 people vvouitl iiici to b^ii'^ro. ThTrT is, said Mr. 
i" li 1 . a" d j St inet Joii b^tv/Teii th-? funetion of makixic laws, for 

hiuh a numerous popular assra3hly is radically uiifit, ' nat 

r. ' f; -Tt. tinf; good laws tnad '^ .\/blch is its prr. p^r duty and cannot 
'^e satisfactorily f ul ^ il 1 '^c! ^y any other authority » ; and th^fe 
1 s , er.ns-3qu=?ntly , "ro^d o^ a 1 -3 e ^ s 1 at, iv t cofiuniss ion , as > -■ ^ r- -> ; - 
^nt part of the constitution of a fr=?T country; consistinp of 
a sr.vai I i;UTn''^'5 r of ni £r.i y- 1 ra j iiTd political nind-.oi. \vh'"'r-! . v/p.ou 
pari ian?nt has detormimd that a law shall he inade,th3 task of 

.ine it shoul ' hs devolved; parliament retaining the pov.'er of 
■■n,rr,Tr:f or re ; e : t ■! j-jT f*^? hi;] \;hen drav/n up, hut liOt o " altering 
jt other\;ise than hy sending proposed amendments t^ lealt 

.V. 

. j * sy I ,^ commiss Joi.. " It v.ould seer^a^ T ^^- -> ':;ri-\that Cn-v 
littee eovernm.ent is o^.^ for,.-, of the effort, now makinf '^y aiJ 
-^el f - CO"' e mint peoples, to set up a satisfactory i^ti". ' '• ^ 
. ission somewhat after this or'-^r: and it might appear t r, -^orne 
as if the prr.posed Executive Uomjiit. t. « ^ Y;as a slif^nt ,i:'p roA ima- 
tjor. to that form, of the effort \.:-ich Is typifie ■ ^agis- 

lati-ve functions o^ the British Cahinet. It can. --t.o- jr 
'''. ciaJr-T-' t>:\f t e forty-ii^ht J ■; f 1 s J vt ir- t uoitmissir 



Auto'iioe raphy , pp . 264- ^- 



-.'u?;t of Ft :> n -• Tr.tat iv Ts al\.ayf? ar.swor th^ purpose \vh'?n t, m 
r,use wants t. o £3t, oood laws mad-", or that oaoh of tham consists 

i ; .r a r 3 a.'^ i ' -■■ •" '■ ' s > j i . . m. ' • > ■' '"■ '" '" i ■ ] v - t r ;■ i ^ . ■> ' ■. r, ] i t. i -v : ■ ■ 1 n r» -; 
it "iv-; ry^ody ?;'?is that tr say that they fall shrtrt of nai J z- 

t ^ j rJ -. , ,-■:,' >;-'■*'■' . ^ • ' " • • ^ f- J r J t i I, J . 

In sayii.t that our Co; •;: ; j tte t eovirzL' ^ ;-ia3 , t? riniiiai i y . sorm 
•" ' ^ f ia,t\iT^" of th-} i;ritisn syst--?!!,!!; \;n3on ^ :^3 lainis ^ ■? r 
' ? L;ro\.ii , th-? Ca^i3Kt^t,an c'^.os-'Jii from amoncst the leaders of 
* '^9 parliamentary majority and ait not only as advisors of thi 
^■■"•^r^Jr- '^'it aj?:o as thg proat StandJnc L'or'nittOT of " i -? s ^ TSft- 
* i\- -i eomrniss ion" of th? Hon;?-? o^ (JornT-^ons , {iiid inc its bus' 
-1 -i , -. " ♦ T "its r r a"" "^ r r "> a t + • r =? of 1 ri f- i ?; J -i +. "i '■' ; . , 1 : "^ n. i- ^ r, <■ 

-■urse.on^' that 'h»->t.h systsms repr'JS'Jnt the coi-Xirv 
ST+Mr.j. t /art song sraai i pody.or '- 'ii^.of i>£islatj'^ ■ -> - 

*-^.rouL'h whom a "'--ie meetint" rnay e^^^ laws made. The d J f f" ■» ronoa 

"!t\/ein our d ev i e t an' ^'"-'; British is that we hav -? a Standinj, 
, orrmlt t n , d rav/i. fro:/; ^oth part j 3s , f f^' r the cons ide rat ioi-. of each 
'opie of 1 et islat ion.wh? r -jas our Enelish .jousins have bu' 
ii.rle standing (:<-,•• -i * ^ -> -« .jr-, •r,r.-^:-' r, *• t,'--" i^->i v.t^o ar-» r^iorniz- 
: as the leaders of the party dominant in th9 state and v/ho 

3,* t:-. n :.n'^ ti.".T a?i ' - poiit^ca. -< - n ' ^ ^^ -.-...ntl. -. 

■ 1 par ♦■:^">i t :^ of the goveri-ment. 

The British sy.stera is o-irfected party f- '• '' " ' ' 

ort is made in f . us such a-^ ] iouse of K3- 

"•entatives In the conpositjon o*" t - ' ' s,to 



inority a share in J a\/-makJnc • '^'ir minor it. J 9" an str'^nriv 

■ jp ns'^ut.'^d on th«? StandJnE Coririit.t. ^^s , thQ rnJnorJt.y in the CJor.n- 

r,r\F^ If; not. r ti n r? ->i;t. -»(' xt all in t.h=j Ca^jn'^t. it is f'^in f'ja- 
tur-j of elosoly ortaniz"J<.l par+y i^:ove rnment , vvhe reby th^ respon- 

■ iNi s>T fr-.,- logislation is si'dlT" uco.. t ^ i . . ^ r. r i ^ iob,-!-- 

I have alr^^id ■ poiiited out.ciTas to t ^. ^ d-»bat9s and act jon of 

ariaai::3nt .a:, int-^r-ish ai t. Ot_-» t, hi r '.'.'?ni'?' ^' + t proiT^'v ■ -• n '■ 
Concra^'? . All lepislatjon Js rnad^ a contest fr, p party snpren- 
aey.and if lT£isiation goe^ v.ron£ or th? majority '-iicoues dls- 

t 

t 

contented vitn the course of policy.th^re is nothing for it ''Ut 
*nat th-i ministers should reslfcii and gi\-e place to tne leaders 
-f f, '■ ? '^y>f>os i 1 2 on , uni e -^ ■? .i. n'^v. '?leetjon should procure for thT.-i 
a reeriiited foilo\;ine. Under sueh a system mer-; sJlent votine 
js out o^ the ques-tioiti debate is a prJrM.ari' neeessjty. Tt 

rincs t.'re repros'jnt -^.t iv es of the people and the miiiisters of 
^: ? Uro\/n face to face. The princi^j.ii r.i3a3'ires of "!a- --^ssiOi. 
originate with the ministers and embody th? policy of t > i,d- 

' istration. Unlike the reports of our i:tandJn( •'.ittees, 

,.'-i.'>i t r ■• i; t!n''->d t r, h -> Tir'']-' the digested s'lbj^tance of thi 

ore sensible bills introduced by private members, the bills ir»- 
t.oducTi' int-- t >- - House of Coi ;; I'-ns ^" * '" "" 'J-^'^'']-^^ -.r.'ir.d" t h -> 
lefinite schemes of th^ go\ t rnment , and - • ^ • ^ ■ ftin- 

is try is ma " ^ u;' o' ^ ■ ■ leaders of t, ;^ t i.ia^oi^i' • ■... ,--,.-, p ^ ...... - 

ilv^ays th3 priiiciplss o^ its party m.akes ' inority oj.Jy tho 

.ore anxious to hav • " aiic e to criticini its proposals. ua ^- 



■it- 



J 11 1 1 foi "> r i '■■''"'; f i "^ ' ' ">r i .' ^ f ri r '■> r J rif i 1 ! ■ t ■ ■• ■>.,■»,•' i ^ i ^ ■> .vj-^r? ]->;■. 
jsiat, jv^ hranehos into harmony and ocr. po rat, ion \,ithout unitlx\r 
r' r ooiiftisi..t their f mictions. It is as jf f ■ m-..^; r, r ■> ^ " ^ 
J'-^mmons d'Jputiz-'?d its liad^r?; to a.'t as t'm advisor- of t h ■; 
Crov.'n and tPT .siip-^ r Jntnndont s of tn"; puMie bus J iiTss , in ordTr 
^ hat thay might hav3 t ■> advantag'? of administrative rinowl od^^- -j 
md training in in"*- advJsin*; legislatioii and draftin£ lav^s to b' 
.•? u bf-! i 1 1 q ' t. .-, r\ar] i -u '-!iit . Thi«5 ar ran£=ii;'''?nt 3jili.'^ts thf rnajorit; 
in h^half of sueeossful administration without giving tn? min- 
isters a:.y po\."*r to eo<'?r,'-* '■• - ar'^itrarily in^lnene--; I '3^ i r; i w 1" 
action. Eaeh session of thr? Lords and Cof/irnons H-je^'mes a grand 
inqu-Tst jntr, th^ affairr^ <"■ ^ the empire. Tlte tv^o astates sit n- 
] t \iere in o omin i 1 1 e ?; oii t.hg m.anaeemeiit of the pu^i ie business • 
^' . ith open doors and spare themselves n*-' fatjfue in se^^urii., 
^or e\-ery interest r e ;> re'-ent ed a f ui I , f ai r , and impartial hear- 

It i -; e-' jr^.-^/.t, \.hy pu'->lie d-^^at? is t'l-- ■> -?r-' '-reat^ of ^ i f ^. 
to suoh a sy'=;tem.. The Ministry's tenure of offi.je depends iipo. 
the success of tlie letislatjon tnay urt'O. If ^i-ny '"' '^ t - ^ -> ^ ^^r. 
."-.sais are negatived ^y Pari iament , they are "Houn'^ tr. accept 
their <'efeat as an intim.atJon tM.i.t their adm.ini s t rat ioii is lio 
longer acceptable to the party they represent and are expected 
"■ '■' resign, or to appeal^if they prefer, to t • i coui.try for its 
\ "v r '^ i . > t . ■* ■. V "> . ■ ~> 1* J j ri i ; . , t -> i r D r i ' i ] ■> f ■> r, f a ( : ■' i s i 4 . ; the s o ' e r e i (J , 
t <-• dis-^olve rarliamei.t and issue vrits for a nev/ elejtioii. It 



(5r.) 



t \ » _ 



1 -^ -^ 



1 S , 0'^;.n'iqu-'?iit. J y , i ii'i\ 1 «■ ' 'm -^ ♦ u •, t t ■ -. ; • -i -i - ♦ r ■■ -^ l^r, ,■ j 

iy su'^j^et.'id t.r. t.ho nost. d ->t 'imimrt at.t,ae;:s and th^ ;;'9'*n9st 

crjt.jeisrns of Hv^ Pppos J t, joi. , ai.cl should '- -> ^- ■^-'- ' ■ ■■ '■ *■ 

?^ion put t r. th'^ t.a?;',: of vjndjoa+jnp thsjr ^our-^T and 'inta.^lish- 

inf ar.ew t'^eir o 1 a irn t. o t.h*? eonf id'^n^j'? r.f t, m ] r party. Tr, 

shrink from r'iseussion would be to -jonf'=5S'^ v/Tal:n'>s ?; ; t.r. suf'f'?'- 

* r-=?ras'?i\ er; to ho w-rstod iix discussion v;ould h-; seriousiy to 

j .-, n --> - j 1 t ^ -> j r r<r>\,'^r. T^ "> " • ' ' 1 "• t 1 o '■• :■; t r. j t , t Vn -» r ■; f n r ■? , n f"' t o ; ; ] y 

* - t th?ir policy he def^ns iM e , '-^ut that it be valiantly d-?- 
"" -'i-d''d also. 

' I As night bra expee 1 9d , t hsn , the Ministry seldon find tii«? tasii 
^ !" loading, th^ IIous^ an easy on^. Their plans are .-^ept un'^r 

.. uuiieasin^ fire of erititiism from both sides of t'oe House: for 
t-?r3 are indepei;dent sharp-shooters behind f^e mini stem as 

>;; 1.^ he.-fy '■•atter-'es iii *"roi..t of them: and th3re ar? , ■. ur/ 
imonest tneir processed f'-.iiow^rs who giv- ^id and comfort -- 
t ■ -^ ^nemy. Th^r^ come ?v e r ai.d ae^^in sho\/ers '"■ ^ sting i.-t. ques- 
tions , t -^o , ^ ror friends and foes alike - qu^stioiis gr'^at and 
-mai i ,d 1 r ^ij t and in •' ir e o t , pe r t inei.t aii'' ir ^pe r t ] ],en+ , or.ii.j e rni nf 
Tvery detail of administration and e-vsry tenilency r>f policy. 

But.althouch the initiati-e in lepislation and t n -; genera^ 
lirection of the business of I'arl lament are th« undisput,?d pre- 
fogatives ofthe er.ve riiment " - as th^ Ministry js called - t ney 

a- e n*"' t . o f cr'u r -^ e , ai j t , ^ fir--, r, r t - -> ;;r, m t -. at t ' e i r d -> spo '^ al . 

uriiu *■ he se^s ion , ce rtain days of each moha are sat apart fnr 



(56) 

t h ■; 1 r.t ro.i'ie t 1 oi. and dT^at, e of b i ] J s hrr.iu. ht i,. h- nn-^-at. '^ n-' >- 
'^ rs ,\.''- , \t tne openiiu. <"• f ^li^ sess J on , d raw lots to dacidi th3 

If many d ra\,' , thosiT v/ho p.s^^- last ohoicT of t irao find thg sossion 
. "jar its end , aii ' prj^;it3 u; ;i_:ho r ri ' dayri 'vjji^l^ u,->3or'Tj- ^y "3ia- 
^^d cove ri\m9rit measures , 'H-; ^r, r'? th^jr opportunity has oorae.and 

U7t content theinsel\-es v/ith hoping for het^er f^-^rtun? next 
y^arj ^nt tjne is generally found for a very fair and full jon- 
^Ideration of a lar^e number '■■f pri-vat"} members* bllis^aiui no 
. ei b.-jf- 3^, ''''>iii?d a ehanee to air \\in favourite opiiiioiis i.. t h i 
:ouse or to t.ry the patience of his fellow-members by annual 
r e :i It j t j ons of tne sar.ie pr opos 1 1 i'''i. . Private members {_ Jii ) r ,^ ^ ;• 
fiiid out by long expe r i enee , however , that they eaix exert a more 
teiiing influence upon legislation by pressing amendi.:ent s to 

oT-ernment schemes, and can effect more iLimediate and satisfac- 
tory results by keeping the Ministry constantly in mind of cer- 
♦■ ii. pha^e^ of pu'^iic opinion, than the;' could hope to exert or 
-;f<'eet by tbemselx'Cs introducing measures upon v.-hich their par- 
*y m.ig]-'t ivesitate to unite. Living as he does uiid ^ r ■ r^ystem 
..hieh m.akes it the I'.inistry's \.isest policy to allov/ the utmost 
I'r'jedom of debate, eacn i.iembor can ta.-.e as proi.jiii?nt a i'ar* 
the proceedings of the House as his abilities gi'* e hir^ title to 
ta:.:e. I f he have anything v.-hieh la not merely frnoious to say, 
:v; will have repeated opportunities to .say it: for the Commons 
cough down only the bores and ttxa talkers for the sake of tai^i. 



(r)7) 

Th-i llous "• '-• *■ Cni^irsons a.s v,:;ll as our ilous"! of H?p ros Tat.a- 
tiV'Ts has its ooi.'.rnj 1. 1 an.? and '?ven its standing i^ornrni 1 1 qqs ^ but 
^h-->y an of thi o 1 d- f avS^^ i oi.tc! sr.rt whior! r-'oniy i iiv t 55 1 i pat "J and 
r^nor^.not, of th^ nov/ Armrioan typT vhioh oriti^^ate and ooiiduct 
l3tisiatJ0i . ;!or an t.hoy appoint-jd by the Speaker. Thsy ar^ 
ohos'^n with ean by a " vJor.a li t te^i of Select ion" eonpos^d of rmrn- 
•»r?5 of both partie?;. Thi Speaker i.s kopt eanfully apart from 
'-■i-iMis in all his f une t ion3 , act jnc as t^T iripart j a] , jud i .m al 
president of th^ body. " Dignity of pres ->no? , onurt ] inoss of 
"anne r , great physical endurance , courage and impartiality r, ' 
TUdgment.a coinsunvnate tact, and f arnil iar j t y , bo ri, of li^'e-ionp 
■•.•■ipe r i-^ne T , V J t i-i the v.rit + eix and unvritten la\.s r.f tn^ ilo-ise" - 
such are the qualities of the ideal Speaker. V'hen he talies the 
jl'air he turn"^ his back on partisan alliances and ser\es ^otn 
art Its alike \. j t >^ eT-e,. han ■' . S'lch v r -; the traditions of the 
office that its occupant feels hinself as strictly bound to un- 
iasse-' judgment as is t— j--i^-^ist ^udge '■ ^ t ^- -. ^->tj-: and it 
as become no uneomnon thing f r, r a Speaker of trjed ability to 
preside durJiig several succe-;sive Par i iaueiit s , v/het c :; r t •■' 1 party 
'o \/hos-; suffrages he originally oy/ed his elevation rernaiiiS in 

o\.er or no. Mis political principles do not affect his *■ j t - 
. e -^ ^ fr, r judicial f niic t j r.:.s . 

T^". (Jorniions in sessi'-n pre'^ent an interesting pietur"*. Uon- 
'' <? t r ;^ i i;.-^-' '-," t h -. i r h,T'>if',- r, f r? -• ' a t -« t r, f? 1 t ir; c u a r t "> r "^ n'lita^i"* 
"or the purpose , tney jrr.y/d totethor in a hal i of somewhat cramp- 



.'113 eushjond hoiioh^s on v/hieh tho rnfimhsrr, sjt ris? in cios-^ tut- 
i^s 01. oith-jr rsjtlo of a v/Jd'^ -Antral ainl^ v/hi'-n ■ . --y fao-*. At, 
n^ ond of this aislo is rais^il th"? opaak^r's chair,b?loY/ and 

iii froj.t. of v.hieh , iiivad ine t'm spae^s of t.n-; aislT.an ♦■ n 

-Jsi-LS of th"? wJge-^d and cov/nod anrks. ("n t,h'> front henohos 
..?ar3st t.h-> Speaker and to his right sjt th3 Cab:, ■' , :iiii sto rs , 
•■ ^1 l^^adir"^ of t^'i i r-x -i ri.rr\9.iit •, oppo'^it^.on th'? front b';neh'?s t r. 
th3 Speaker's l-ift.sit th^ leaders of t.n^ Opposition. a^hind 
-I •- ' f r. f b -> r i f " ' '' '"■ f t H -i '^ j n J s t ? r s £ ;-i t h t r t i^ -> tm ^. -" r, p -i t y ■ ' i ? h i ri d 
an'^ to the l^ft of th^ir i ^ac'T rs , t he mJnorit. y. A'-'O^' ■* t h^ r^ar 
'inches and Over the out^r aisles of the llous ? , bt?yoi-c'. "the ^vr*; 
anc deep galleries from v/hien the outside \;r,rlc\ ma'' lonk down 
'ipon the eager c-ntests r.f the tv/o partj-?s ^.hnon thus sit faj3 
to faee v, J t n only the aisle betv.-een them. From these gaiJerier? 
* '■? fr. rtunate listen to th? ..ords of leader;^ whose names fill 

+ "'--1 -^-ir r. '" t^"> \ .f' ^ I. ^ , 

The orcanizatioji of the FrmC^ Assembly is in the main.sira- 
iiar to that of the 13riti3:, uolu lOxiS . Its leaders are t 
leuti-e officers of t'-.e £;o\er. ent anr! are e ho sen fror; the 
ranks of the ie£i3lative m.a-ority by the Presideiit of ♦ ^ He- 
.u^lie much as Knrlish Cabinets are chosen by B:nci3f5h sover- 
■!j'gns. They tnr, re r'^espons i"^! ■> for their policy and the acts 
r. th-!Jr a'"' i; i-^tritj^i, m th^ Ch,'im>er v;hJch t.hev lead. They, 
l3',;e t'^eir nritusn p ro tot ypo s , are the executive coirittee of 



+ ' ■ 1 "> ( J S i 1 t. j •• • ■> ' ^ A d y , a J ' 1 1 •-"■' i ^ '^ n ill t ■ -> t r t • . 1 1 r -> r, r r, f r 1 ,. -, 

ipends . 

It. oaii. ^ ^ -^ai ' , o\.^' " " , ^ " ~ ' • firooT T' Jnr— ' •" ' ^ 'r^ j.. 

..<3 ?5-^r-!>il y viTy jlos<^.ly r??sQrihl© those of th^i RriMr; Comin'-ns . 1:^ 
'ho hall of tho Df^putier? then ar-5 no elos^ hfjiionss \.n]en faoo 
■aeh othTT and no t\tn hornog'^ii^ous partji??? t r, ^trJvT for the rnaa- 
t^ry. Th^r"! an parties and part j es , fact ions an'! f aet ioiis , eo- 
t -> r i 3 s an' .T.t. -> r i > "^ . T''"'*r'? ar"? JV.nanart i s t s ai: ' Lt r i t Irnat i s t s , 
"ipu^lieans an:' Cl 3 r ieai s , stuh'horji na , t ioni s t s and heaJiong 
"ad ieai -^ , St ol ir' ^onse jKat ivo s and vindij+i' ■ -' 3s t, ruct loni s t -^ . 
'~:. ' h-Tars of th3 (J-mt r? , t. r.3 Fjint Uor.tre and the L3ft Centr?, 
tn3 Pic-ht,tr.3 Left, , the Lxtrerve Pight an- th3 i.xtr3iv3 L3ft. oorn3 
' tnes"! ar?,of v^ourse .r.ie r ? faetions.men ^ rriups o' irnjoneii- 
abjes; but several of them are, on t h^ otner hand , nurne rous an<' 
'*•^.'lrful parties ^•p'^n \.hose mutual attractions and repulsions 
'epend the f o nnat ion , the author it y , and the duratioii of Cabjnets. 



r f 



T,p^ 1 f r.r. * V T ^ -1 •) c: j; :^ '■ r. ' " <; r. : "> -1 ■■' '> 11 '' f ' ,' "> n. t. deal 



ooTT^-ust i'^1 3 naterial vvhieh the slight 33 t e i rcunstanee suffi- 
;3s to ,;iiidle into a sudden 'ilaze. The Asser-.bly v.'O n ' -ot ^^ -• 

r-'noh !■ jt v.'3r3 not always excitable axid sorn9tines uproarious. 
..bsolute turbuienc3 is so pro'^a'ile a cont ing'^iiijy in its economy 
'hat a •"•ery simple ai. " qu ie;ci y- appl i eabl e d3vic3 is provided 
'or its r3medy. Should the deputies lose treir eads altogofi- 
3r an' v,^ ,_,r>r i.-> ^\_ -. T,n''f">n^ ] -> , t. ••■ -> !'*r->'^-i ' -• t i-iv nut r.i. -Is h > t , and 
•y that sign, unless calm be iii;ediately restored, tho si' '" 



(er 1 

1 fixr>^QtQd that. t. '^ t inein^'^rs i '.ay ri-M; -; t.ii-! husino:?" ''■f the day 
].. ;i eor-jir fraiii of i.iim:. . 'J'tr^re ari r. * - ^ - ruios '■• ' •, r^. ,»•"■'•• r ■> 

-1 served iii the Chamber whleh so?n t ". fr, riic;. tv^s at ^irit 
sifl't v^ry noT"}]: ^nt v/hacn u-jr.n einsor exainii.at ion may 'la soon 
'o dif'-Tr from some of the praotj.jis of O'lr oy;ii Houst o ♦" Pep""^" 
s'intat j-'-es Jn forr.' rat'-or thai: in ©an-'?nj9. In franc i ' great :? r 
;,•'■•■'''"■• "*> •■ sp "'"'.■''' i " allc\, ->' i T'.M" i 'ual mrn'H "; r s tha;. Jn prr?si- 

io und^r Conrnlttee eov^rnnent , hut njocnjtjou is iiOt pjvTu to 
jUst aiiy oi.e who fir-t eets t ■ -• floor and cate^--'^ t *- -> -. p-"^ i ' inc 

'■'"Jeer's -jy-j.as it is in tho Hoiirt '"■f Corirnons , v/h^ n iion-'^ ^ut 
t'^-; iiinist3rs ar"^ acjord^d ai.y ritjht. of p r-3 j id ^i^ j ■} in t'^'i-'^^t, 
a h.oi.rint,. Thos^ v/hr. \/isr. to sp'^a): upon any pf^ndinr question 
"inseih--i" t h-T j r names hifonhaiid on a. list in t !•> i .•;?Tpiiie of 
t;^? Pres J .-'•■int , and ti^*? dis'^ussion J s u-nally .^on-^ir.ed to thos? 

^n^^rs who have " inse rih^d . " V'hen this ij-t has been ^xhaustT'^ 

f -^ -i Ti (- T r: i ' T,- t t :i • -> •-: t ■ -V '="»i':'> r. f t ''^ -> (J h ar "''i ^ f as t r. y/^Tt^. er t ^.0 
i.te shall he .>lose'. The Chamher need not wai t , nowev e r , t r, 
"i I r r:w J •■ ae gentlemen v/ho ha\ e put f -^zr i.ar es upo. ^ - '■ iist. 
If " une pnrtion notahle "'of ir fir^- s'->r.ner of t h -> dis-iussion 
I- r thinks Itself stjf f ic ient 1 y informed he<"ore all \j'r.r, \. : s :^. to 
in*"orm it ha\ e spoken, it may demand that t ^ debate' roufht 

♦^ o an on'. Of course sueh a demand \/iil not aedec' if it 

jr,r--> r T'-.ri r,; i •' t f -« v. isol t "> r'' r ' "if ■'-) e r s , and e\-en "une portion no- 
' abl 3 " may not interrupt a speaker \. i' ■ oremptr.ry oali 



(PI ) 

'^ r v,'hat. Y.'T should doiioi iiiiat t tlv? [invious quoi^tjoi. ' ut. „ :- j j ^ 
' Wi Kronen pari ianeutarian knov/s as th*? " c i ritur'? ♦ * A d'' 

ainst. it^Viut iioii(? in its favouf. 'JnlTr^s it imt v. ■ ;- ^^ 

'•I. ;- ■) s is taiij ^ , : ^ J- ""xirTot-*' *- r-- tnr'ii.^ ''•f its c,„^, v.^io^^- 

^'^n t. hT " e 1 o t, ti r e " , hr>\v!\' f^r ,rnust ei^e \/ay if a - n f 1. 1^ 

] -^ f ry oiaims tna ri^nt to speai;: for a niiiist-ir must aiwav- 
feeard.and a^'t-jr h^ has spok'^n ,no reovr» r , th"^ r -> r^ist alv/ay" 
lo\.ed on3 sp-?eeh in r-^ply. Meith-'^r oan the " e ] 6 1 u r ^ " b-? pr'-.- 
..'■■. . ' ' •ui]'?"^" \ T •• a ; c i- ■>■ t ^ ' r. -r t >^ •=> r^ •? "i ' 1 1 j -> <:; a. r "> n r -> ■^ ■? i , t j r^, ; ; r' i r. 

\'33 o' doubt, as to th? \, i 1 i of t.h? Chamber in tha mat t, -? r , af t, 3 r 
*,.'■• -rt-- ■ ^ ''-'?^. t,a",;oi; without '3licJtin£ a f ul J -'• '■■ i .' 3 ' ... 
indubitaM-3 ass3nt,thG diseussion is tacitly srif^^rad to ;.ro- 
e 3 3 d . 

ThTs-^ ruiTs aiO not quitT so .compulsive and in=?xorabi3 as 
arc th.'.' .; —'"ieh sustain ♦he govornnr^nt of our Standing Cornnit- 
t33s,nor do thoy so^n quit-? irnpirativ^ 3nouf "^ for tiie eff^etual 

ov 3 rnanc 3 o f r amp an t d o p u t i 3 s i li t n 3 i r moment s of v.' i 1 d e s t :; - 

3jt t r, find under a system of ministTrJai respons ibii ity , the 
urity of v/hose atriosp! -^ '-^ depends ■' -^ ^ r ^ ' -■ - . s ■, -. 

uJation of debate. They are meant for a body o' :liar ha'^- 

1 1 - ' i. fi-ir/ t ' erament.a body \,hio ] ort,->,; ^r*-'-: ' 

serTa: t <-, its f-;->t by the v/ords of a passioriat^ "^peak^r, 

1 '- *i ■ aeaii. '-ietray3d iiito storin' di^c .I'Jt, '--- .. ■ ' - 



(f52) 



■»• ■* »* > •> 



I' " ■ 



• Til iii jt. s minor points of obsorvan.jT th'^ unaM—r ■< • 
- y in.- Linji ISP- . i.3;.:-)7r3 uo not. s^jTa/,. fr-"' ^ • • ■ • ' t",ii,r 
accustomed to se--? mon^ors of our public ass^^mbji^s do.'iut. frr.:>. 
*■ '? t r i ^un"; ,\/h ioh is a oonsp i eunus struetun enotid near t 
'^s,;s of tho Prf?sid3nt and so .jrot.ar j ts - a hign box-ii/io stand 
jir,sf>iy ns^mbiint tnose t ai i , nar r'*'\v , quaint.i y- f ashion'Jd pulpit-; 

,, '- i .3 h .i.r^ sti]j f.n 'i-> -'>^., ii. q '"■r 'O '■. f t 'r i n i (^ -> ^ t. r, f r.'ir A'-'^ri- 

: ^n ebureb.es. And.sii.^j^ deputie?^ must gain its cot^j^. 'ndinf: top 
-■"'■'•■■• •■ - •"• •\ay speak , th"? r = an sai" ^^ '? '^a;" ?xoitin» ^^-.-. • 

or tbis placT of vantage. Somet ir.ses , indeed .•^- ery unseemly 
-ienes ta'::e place wben se\erai deputies, all equally eac^r to 

onnt tbe co^eted stand, reacb its narrow steps at t.he same mo- 
mt and contest the privilece of precedence - especially if 
t - -> i r ^ri'ii'-''^ r-xlly in nur-'^ers to f.'-^ir n,s s i s t anc '^ . 

The nrjtlsh House o^ Comjions and thi Fren.jb Chambe r , thoucb 
"^ i..ji;ce in t!>.e eieueiits \,hic^ compose them and ■-'- ■ -i - -^ -i i^ar 

^b.eir modes of p rocedu re , are easily se -jn to be alike in eon- 
stitutjonal s itni f i cance , be jnc made clr^se ',iii\ by tne i'C]iiC3plT 
"f Cabinet c '"'"'■ '^ ''^nent vvhieh they both recognise an;' ^otn apply 
in its fullei^t. efficacy. In both England an<i K ranee a ministry 
jomposed of the chi"?^ officers of the exejut.v.e departments ari 

onstituted at ones tbe leaders of lefislation and the resjiTin- 

'^ i , -> lie ad S C' - -i •• f r I t 1 r. ; - .) '-1 i ! (? i , . ] ^ , ■" t \, ■» "^ . * • r~ 

slatir' and executive 'tranche' of f > gover • '. I ' Ms n- 



(03) 



f f /- r. < 1 I- r. 



/II. 



rooognizi and s'ljiport s jripl t , s t rai tl"'^ ^'^'"v;ard , Inart i f Ic iai 

^ 3ade rs , ^r J lit i'-L i ^t J s] at i r ; and eX'3eut,ivQ side ^y sidq in in- 
t j if-> 'mt opoii eo6p9 rat. ion; v.nji-^t w^ , pn r-i r rin£; f- liTip Con- 
tra ss am! th«i departrnrits at, ari.;' s 1 ^ngth . pe rnii t oni y a i^ss 
; ir-?et. government hy party majori t its , eheekine party action '^y 

'. coT-.plTx J T £ i 55 1 at, j\» maehJiiTry of t\,o seor-; a..(' ?i( "t jjor^-ipo-;- 
i tR , .-9r-!i-ninist '^r i al Conjnit. toes . "Ttii Lngiiriii ta/.e tnoir i>ar- 

t -i T o o * p , -i pb ^^ ^^.^ ta:-::; ours rnixsd. 

Thers is another aspT.jt , hov;ever , In v/hieh all tnr'^^ of tmsT 
systirs aro alir.o. They an alike in tji>jr e ssent i .:i.,i ..-i rr.r,.s 3 , 
,.hion is t""' enable a nass-mee t ing of representatives to super- 
intend administration and get good lav.s made. (Joi:igress doas 
..ot deal so direotlv \, j t h our executive as do the Freneh and 

iifiish pari iaraent s with theirs, and cannot , the re for e , eont rol It, 
(. ■> ^ ^ 30 1 ^ ■^ "> - t.ual 1 y ; there is a g r "> -■ ♦■ '-^al of ' !- ■* j f i '-•ii ■^r-'onest 
Mie many \,h9eis of Coninittee government; hut In the long run 
-O,.!*.'"-^" i '^ quite as oiaiipot^nt as e i 1 1' e r the Ch.am'ier ' *" ^^"-^u- 
*iis or the House of L'oi.JuoiiS j and, whet ner t^^er7 ^"j t\o sjore 
jor.xnittoes \.ith functions m.ainiy 1 eg i si at ive , or r.i,\.\- one >w:tn 

unctions h.al f i egisi at ive , hal f execut ive , v/a have one form ^r 
i.iiOther of something lik^ Mr.f'ill's "legislati i.s.sioi.." 



T H I ; i I r 7 G L OF P E P R i: S l: M T A 'i' I V L b . 

H o \' 9 n u ■? and li u p p 1 y . 

"Th--i nieh^r^t. \.or',;s of r; t. at. o snaiish i p nqujn t.mm t, ^^ m 
thiue<3 - er'Jat pov/'Jr in th?? ininist t r , g'Jnius to jo'inf?^! 
and support, hir;i, 9nl ie^^teni-'iont. in I'ari iarmnt. to v/'JieM 
and die id"! upon his plaiirj." - Pro ^ . S-tj i ?v . 

"V'hen m?n :xr? not, acquainted with eaeh other's prineipiis, 
nor expT r j "inc^d in each othsr's tal3nt!5,nor at all prao- 
tieed in their nutual habitudes and dispositions by 
joint efforts of business; n<". personal oonf i dence , no 
f ri endship ,no eommon interest subsisting arnone them; it 
is evidently impossible that they can act a pu'->lie part 
with uni f o ri.n ty , pe rseve renee , or effieaoy." - BurV;e. 

"It reqni r IS " , says Mr . Bag eho t , " a ireat deal of t irn to have op- 
inions ". and , i f one is to ^ud^e fron the leci^latJve experience 
nf some very enlightened nations, it requires more tine to nave 
opinions about ^iuanee than about any o+her subject. At any 
rate ^ -> ry few nations have found time to have correct opinions 
I'-'Out it. Governments which nei-er consult the r^-^-erm-' are us- 
ually content v/ith \ery shabby , short - s ighted netnods of taxa- 
tion, witn any m.ethods , inde ed , wh ich can ^o mad? + -■• -"ield t>--> -'->- 
sired revenues '..ithout much trou'-'le; and the apents of a self- 
go veri.inp people are quite sur? to ^t too busy \,' i t ri elect ioiis 
!nd party manag'^ment to have leisure to improve nucti upon the 
'•ractices of autocrats in regard to tnis important care of a '- 
1 1 1 q t r a t 1 r, ) . . An-i ye* t !^ i s s ti b j 9 e t of f i nanc e seems to "-^ e in- 
teresting enough in a Y/ay . It is oi^e of the eoTTmoi.pl ace s of 
' '.' r '^. Istory that,"" "''■ since long ^-.-.frr-, y,'' came v.esti.ar' ^ r^. •=:'? 
the ocean. v,e haro beeii readier to *'ight about taxation than a- 



(21 
^out. any othrii' oiia thine, than a^out. a £ood many of. h^r thiiits 
.'ut. t ogoth"! r , iud'>'>d . Th^n an sTVTraJ aa'^My bloody spots i.. 
th^! financial history of our raee . It oouJd pro^a^l'.' "r? shown, 
-or/'Jv '^ r , i ^ on*^ oar'id to t. ak^ t iri'^ to <5h'-v/ it ,t*"'vt it i ■^ i-i.r-r to 
got v^x^^d a^out misrnanaeement of tho finances wif^out. knov/ing 
^ov, tH-"/ ■^•ii,7>^t he better nanaged. V'hat \;i do iiot like is t oat 
\.e are taxed, not that we are stupidlv taxed. Wa do not nee--? to 
'-e political eeonoiiists to ^-)t angi'y ahout it; and v<nen 'i.^ na-', e 
gotten anery a"^0'-it it in the past our rulers have not trouhied 
♦hernselves to study political economy in or-'er to rind out the 
'est means of apneas ii.r us. Oene rally they ha-' e sir"!:'ly s^ifteri 
*re burden from the shoulders of those v/ho com.plainod and v/e ro 
a' : -^ to make things unpl easant , t o the shoulders of those who 
•"'ifht complain '^ut oouIl' not give much trouble. 

Cf course t-^.ere are som.e taxes >,hieh are rnuL-'i .•■.or'; .'-.atefui 
than otners and have on that accour.t to he laid r-iT-" circun.- 
spect]-". All 'irejt taxes are heartily disli..;ed by everyone 
N.no has to pay them, and as heartily abused , except by those v/'^o 

a^■ e never ov/ned an ounce or o,n inch of property and have ne^•or 
se->r a tax '-> i 1 1 . T'^e heart r.-r t. >> -. or^Mziary citizei; rT.-ar.-ls 
* hem with an inbori. aversiOi,. Th'i" ire so rt raight forward and 
: -" ^ ^m.pt.ory in t-^.eir demaiids. They soften their exacti'-. '^ v. 1 1 ^ 

of. a grain of cons Ide rat i oi. . The t ax- col 1 ec to r , aonsequ^nt J y . 
:s iinv ? r esteem.ed a lova'-'ie m.an . His iietrodT ;ir? too iu.' ■... 

is powers too o' i.ox i o-r; . i!e c-^nes to us. not ^. i f >^ a'please.^ut 



(3) 
• ith a'must.'. nis r ^qu j s i t. i ons aiv/ay;? I'la-' t r.ur pn.j>;f3ts llphtTr 
and our hearts h^aviir. VVa oaixnot. fnr f '^ ■> Jif'i r,r nr, j^ip 

. K.t j s mueh too axp'jns i\- t a luxury as nny/adays eoiiduet. o ■' , and 
f„,» ♦'-at. noeipt, i.s 3 ii'jont, -js t. aM -■> doe'irnantary proof ''•f uii^n- 

ura^i-i ?xtortioii, \"hat vvf? do not naiiz^ is.t.nat, lif-» v/ouid 

■■ ro'^^^d of on«? of j t. ^ eiiief sat i s f ae t ioi.s i1 tnis ojja.g aoii of 

rumVii ii.g \;o r ^ +0 b-; tak'3n away. 

Ir.dinet. tax^s.on tb? o+n^r hand.offf^nd sjaro'3ly anybody. 
It is cm of thr? open soerets of fiiianeT that in alrr^o.st evTry 
syst-»m of taxation th^ indir-iijt, o^•^^ero\.• th^ dir^'jt taxTs by 

M-.v -"^i 1 1 iAi-^s ■>:-.-' h-^^-^ a knael: -for l^-^^-yinr on t.iJ smaJ 1 r-"^'-'Mr- 
i GTS o"" iiiS igni f ieant persons v/hich diroet ta-vi'-j hav-"? n^vir 
J 'darned. Thay ;:nov; ho\/ to eoax pennies out of pr.or p-^oplo 
,.h03T names have never boen on the t ax- eol 1 ee t o r ' s books. Rut 
+ h3y ar? v^ry sly and have at eornmand a thousand sue'je-^sful dis. 

uises. lli£h or eoinpljeated tariffs afford them their LK^st fr-;- 
.uent and abundant oppor tuiiit iis . Most people have \ery short 

t '^ <-, • j ( h t •^ ■V_ h i ,_'■)- r' r, net e X t T ii' ■ '"iT VOlj''' t t^ ■? i r 'T-i ••» ' i i t. "> n >■> ^^ i TiT i T , , ^. r, f 

ire.j* risioi.^and so do n'*'t reo'-'gnize the hand of th"; £0\^rr.- 

. *■ "• . the hich prjees oharge' t - t -^ sii'^'iis . V"!ry fe\. of 

1 tastT the tariff in our sugar: aiid I suppose that oven vory 
^hougntful topTrr; do not pereei-' e tr.? license tax in t ii ^ a r ^.hio- 
-TV. Then is i j t 1 1 ■-» \,oiider that financiers hav always ^e->ii 
.ervous iji dealinj. .. ' ' ■ direot.but eoiifidQiit and fr;3e of nvn.i 



i: layinc Jnti J not. , t, axos . 

It nay , th? r -jf or ■} , ^n accounted ono of th"> oustornary advan- 
' if'^s v/hioh our federal govgrii; "int. pos-"=i'»sse.s ov •? r tlT) govern- 

^ t r, n <■ ' ■ rt-i.t.->c; t.lvi.t it ^-^.^.n n,]\/a*'s iji ordir.arv t ir t <? d'^riv- 
i ed its entire r^veiun from pror-;pt. and faeiiT ind^not t,axn<;, 
'..hilst. ♦ - -^ ?*-\t ^^ 1-^' -> i^n ■■' ♦ '- ] j' -> upon th"! tar-'y a: ■' "^-^rr'-dpT' 
jneome '^rivaMf) from a dir30t. I ?>• y . Siiie^ v/o ha\-9 had t r, snp- 

' :' ' *..'■• gove rnm'5nt s it ^:x3 '■^t'^ii v.isoiy r'^-^Oir'Jd *' ■■ t us.ar? 
1 oiif- as poss I'll =5 , f ?^i tn? wei{;ht. of only on-; ri'?::! - and t.nat 

the one V, hJoh ean get at us nost, rowdily and at ttio sai.ie t ir.ie 
-; nost. easiiy and promptly eontrolied hy our xofi^. It is a 
^ ain , oonA-enient , and on the whr.le satisfactory di^•isi'-.^ of do- 
.i. t'-r,T!fh + '^ -^ r'» "'■"■"-■n" i '■> i J i t y \,'hief"' jt tbro\,?; r.]. state lerj-^- 
.a'-'.ires if; nore apt to pinch and pro^.-e vixatir^i^ than is that 
'_ It jays ui'Oii ., ongress. Mr . Gi ads t'-.ne , t >- -^ great ^-^ '- ' : - 

- ish f inane i ^ rs , one 3 playfully 'esjrihed direet and indirect 
taxes as tv.'o sisters - daughters or Necessity an:' Iiiveiitjoii - 
" differing only as sisters rriy differ, - - - - the one heing 

ore ^ r e -• and opeii.the otr.er sonevvhat nore shy , r e t i r in*. , and in- 

- inuat ine" , and fr^MiV.lv' o\.m/' t /•- ft , \,>^-> t h -> r ^ror- "a lax ser.se of 
r. ral ohiigatioii or not", he, as Chancellor of t hra Kxenequer. 

"^'^ought it not only al ] oy/a^] -• . ■•m+ -^ ^,. . * - ■■,f--fr. nw 

is addresses to t "'Oth! But our Chancellors of thQ Exche- 

quer, th-; cnairmoi. of t'^.e cor.!:-:at t e i of Vays lv...c .' '>ai.s,ari '-^r. i,i 
7 other traditions of court elhip . and havo ,hes ides .ustai 1 y sho*.vn 



. r. q ! c; -> n t i S i J i t ' • t r. t ^, ■> , - 1 vr r ' <^ r. r t h "> ^^ ] 1 1 : t V . ' ♦" I*, r V/ ». r •' T ] "^ 

f th-Tso tv.o sisfjrs. ThTv har'? ^'jtii or.nntan^ , ?■> en If nov/ ai. ' 

t'iii -^ J j t » 1 ■! Y/ay\/ar'' , ii. ♦ -• -^ - '^-^Moij ^'^ "■ ■■ youut^r. 

I srippos"? that, no on^ ev?^r found t 'lO paths o *" *" inane? J^sg 
^ 'orny and arduous than h^^■^ our national puhi j ^j j s t s . I '^ trtir 
' xsks '^ "> oonparod \.ith thr.so of European and Ln^lifsh financier-;, 
it is plain to se^ that th-iir lines hixv-i fail-»ii in pjea«3ant 

laces. From almost the \ery f jrst they have had '^oun'^'less re- 
sources to draw upon, and they have certainly of late days had 
fre^ ]•->•=>'■-> to sper.'-T limitless revenues in \,'ha.t. ext ravaeance s 
they pleased. It has cor.ie to ' e infinitely more trouble to 
spend our eii'-.rmous national income than to c-iiect it. 'ji'ne 
.^.ie^ embarrassments have arisen, not from deficits, ^ut from, sur- 
pluses. It j c -c^ry for + nnate thvt such has ''"leeii the case; hn- 
-I'ise for the best managemeiit of the finances of a nation, when 
rivenue is scant arid econom.y imne rat i^•e , it is a^s<^lutejy i.ecess- 
n. r .' f r. h 1^ -*. f inan'-'i'I ^(^r^i; i '? *■ r^t i ■' ; i; t '- ■> han'"'^ ""'^ '', ''e\. '■^ir''^- 
-'/-trained and s)cil'"ul rien acting su^^ect to a very strict re- 
- • ^ r." ' '- 1 ] it y , and this is ^ust \,hat our comruittee system doos 

^'t allOY.-, As in other matters of 1 e^; i s 1 at j on , so in finance \iO 
haT-e many m.asters acting undsr a very dim. and inoperatire ae- 
-ountaSil ity . Cf course under s-ich m.inist rat i oji our financial 
policy has always ^oen unstable and has often strayed -^'ery far 
■'.-'' *he pat>-r, o^ \. jsdr.n ir. ' ■> r o-v- j "! enc e ; for e\ en v/hQn revenue 
is superabundant aiid extravagance easy , 1 r respons i^i e , fas t - and- 



loos'i rnat.h6d«5 of taxation and Qxponditurts must work infinifj 
harm. Th-^ only difference is that duriiu suoh times tho natjor. 

is n^'t '^ r, «|.-»r.-' i t i' ■> t r, t h "" ill Tf'^'^'tr; ^,^l', ui'^t Sv ••ar'? ] T r; «; or, :- 

i2" . ' 'i smanaeom<?nt is not pen'? rai 1 y 'HianRd until a gn .t nany 
p-Topi i hav ■^ diseo'^--"' ■* t '-" '--•::'.: '^•'ft ' v it. MTaiit ir-"" , "-^ -,.- 
-"• T r , i t i^ none the Its- in^ -t r ■? s t int and important to study our 
rr.i'rj rnm.snt \.ith a t- iev; to guaging its quaiit us and m'jasur ne 
aejuratTiV its ea'^a^ il i t ies for good or bad s'2r\ieTj and th3 
study oan dou'-'tless hr; nueh more dispassionately oonduetTd ^i- 
fon I,,"; hn.-i =i ■'i?'^;. s t r i T'' ;■ s i y i'urt 'ly f oo .. i sh , uns t ea-'y adminis- 
tration than afterwards. The forces of the wiiid can '■^e reckon- 
^■' ..it;- rauch m.ore readily v/hile they are ^lowing only a gale 
than aft=;r they hare thrown a hurri^aiie upon us. 

^r-i national ii.com.e is eontroliei' ^y one eoi;unittee of tne 
House and one of the Senate; the expenditures of t ne go"V" e rriinent 
^ r'^ regulate-- ^^y fifteen eommitt'^.^s of thf> House and five of 
the Senate; and the currency is carer^ for ^y t\/o comj'Uttees of 
t'^e House and one of the Senate; hy all of v/hich it appears 
that *he financial administration of *'^.i country i"^ ixi ^'^'^ 
hci-nds of tv..^nT. -four comjnitt->?s of Congress - a meehani.sm o^ 
numerous sr-i^. an ^ iririt f unc t i or.s , qu i t 3 com.plex enout r ■^ '"' '-"' 
\V'rth careful s t udy , pe rhaps too complex to be studied directly 
without an aidinL knov/ledc^ '"•f s'-.i e simpler system v/ith v/nivin 
it may 'le compared. '"ur o\.n budget m.ay 'he more ' ■: i v folio\<- 

ed throurb. all the vicissitudes ''•f comm.ittee scrutii:y anti all 



th^ T-ari'^d fr.rnu."!; of q ouvr\i 1 1 >> n aot.ir,n nft.Tr on^i h:\r, tra^'i-I 
SO' ■* oKh-^r ^udf^t through the simpler processes of so:'e otr^-jr 

i'he BrJt. is - ayst.en is perhaps in its main features the sin- 
. ""! t Ml esistonoe. I* ? s , be s ides , t he patt, er^. after t.' ■ 1 .j " ♦ '■ "• 
'Ji.iJ.oia] systems of the jnief governments of Lurope ha'' e '^eeii 
mode^ ^ '.and v;hieh we have ourselves iii a neasur? jopied; so 

f :' prTfacinG the study of other systems by a jarefu^ ex- 
amination C' f the British in its present form one may start v/it" 

aeter 

t'^T pr-!at .a.-'v-v] t are of knov/inf the eharJstics o '" \,h't. r :ay ^air- 

ly b? .jalle''. the parent stocV:. Pari lament , then , in the first 
"■• i ■"!, simply cOi.t. rr.i 5? , i t 'oes liot or n giaiat e .i.-easures ''■^ *" inan- 
eial administration.. It acts tiirouth the agenojy and under the 

:idanje o-f t '-".t iiinisters of the Urown. L.iriy ii. eacr. a..:.uai 
session "the es t imat es " are subi..itted to th^ Commons , v/h ioh^Tvy hen 

'xrini' suoh statem.ents sits ii. Committee of t ne Whole House 
knnwn as Committee of Suppiy. The estimates eome before thi 
HousT jn truly formicJable shape. Each 'epartm.ent preseiits its 
->-fi- t-?-^ i; a bij^-T quartc volume "crammed N/Jtf- ^jfur-'-^ l^'•' ^■-^- 
nute entries of moneys v.anted ^i-. r t. p ^ forthcominc year." 'm* 
' "" House itself dnes not have t ri di£;est tnis ^ arir. us i-.' ^••-'r- 



"*"7he Nati'-.nal Tjudee' ."(tneli'^h Citjzen Se r J es J p". 146 . In 

it I have to say o '' t =:! Lnglish system, I follov/ this volume. 
, . . I'lC- 149, -i.i • an'-'ther volume of the sar-ie adrJrabie series, en- 
titled "Centrrl Onve rnrient " , PP • 36-4*'',mos t o ' my quotations be- 
ing f r-- ' ^ . ^ ^ ^ r . 



,.'■-''•» 1 nil' r r?P.^r! o •■ <" i r'^^ r -"-, . Th*? dipTstnu i^ 'orn in t.^T first, 
iiiStanoQ by tho offioiil leadTrs of thi House. "Thn ninistor- 
3 .. J ha r ^ <■' •■ ♦■ -^ "' !'. •" a J and rni i ■" ♦ ' r " r; t r-^- i ■» ■» - i a"' '^ ■» <"r, r •? t '-^ • 
Comrr.j tt. Q-? [of Supply] th^jr r-».sp3tit jve st atertr^nt r? r. ^ ► ■ -: 

\, 1 i i ' ^ --^■■■■^-^-- fr,r + • ' • T-int. enaii'je of t'os'J sQr\i,'^3; 
and sorngwliat later iii t, ho s^«?si''in a eonrnon ■est, ]r^at, -j f''>r f 
• arious ci-^^.il siri-ie^s is F^u'^nit. ted ais""'." The^'^ siatrt-ii-int^ 
an, as it \,? ro , ecndensed synopses of thO' details of * ^n quartos 
and are made \,ith the obTQct of renderinp quit,-? ole\r to the 

'-.M =: ■? , -5 i ♦ + j i f uj.''"^r the ir.f '■> rT-^a ] rules o *" Cor-^r' 1 + t -> e ^ t he policy 
of the expend it ur e-^ proposed and the oomo'tness of the i>alc':- 
- * ions upon \,hioh they are based. Any member may as:-; wha* '>->-- 
i-Jnent questioi^s he pleases of th? m.inJster \.ho is maViine ^be 
statement, so that no^hint neadJn£ el u j id:^.t ir.n in.ay bi passed '-^y 
v/Jthout full explanation. After the statom.ent has been eom- 

ieted t r, the satisfaction of the Committee, a ^ ote is taken, at 
the m.otior. of th? m.ini ^ t e r , upon eajh item of expend it ure , and 
the duties of f^.e Conr-ittee of Supply have been performed. 

The estim.atos ara alv;ays guhnitted "oji *^^ coiieet^i e re- 
sponsihjlity of the whole Cahinnt." >"i'h-^ arm.y and Navy esti- 

ites hai- e , as a rule.'peej: eonsidere-' and settled i, (Ja'-'inet 
Council he^ore heinf suhnitted to the Mouse; and th"? cAiiective 
r espons i b j i : t y of the r/^inistry is in tnis case , t he ro f o re , iio t 
technical merely, hut substantial." If the ostimates are resist- 
ed and rejected by the Commi 1 1 e e , t he ministerr, of c-.urse re si,-: 



(^) 



'll T ./ 11 ,-. 



y "ear.,,rt, aoqui-Ts "> ^ ' nfusal o;. ♦ ■ •"• ti. rf ^^ Par] j""^ t 
^^ "^anet. ion th* exp'^nd j t. iin v/h1*;h" t.hrjy "havJ as^- ' ■^- 

"^r,!- ? n,r^ ^i.t , a;. ' t.h^ ma J nt. enanc? nf t,h<» pu^."' redjt * nor.T? 

i:.d a^roar!," The vot.Ts in ConJii 1 1, g -) of Sujipiy an , t hT n f r, r t , 
• itai ia t ho hJstory of Tiery adrnini st. rat. i on , ba inj; tak*?n as 
sun Jnd'^xe*? of t ho amount, of jo^.fadoneo plaeod hy tho ilouso 




iiut tr!9 votos in (JoT:nJttoo of Supply ar'o only tm first 
st^ns in Pari iar'iont ' s annual supo f- i s i oii of th^ pu^lij finane?". 
.'hoy aro sinnly tho spondliiF votos. In orc'or to consider tho 

lans ^y whi'^h m.oney 355 to 'He raiso' f' moot t^-; out jay?; j^ar.c- 
♦ ionT." ^^y tho Coru-'it too o '^ Supply, the ilous": r3sol-<es i t s o 1 f m- 
+ Comrndtto-; of the V"ho 1 under the name of the (Jomriittee of 

ay<5 an^? f'e^ji-?. It is to t :js Cor-imi t t. 3 -; that the Chanoelior of 
the Exchequer su'MUts his ^udcet every year, on or soOi. 'before 
^he fifth of April, the date at v.'hieli the national aeoounts are 

ade up, the financial year closing on tho t. hi rty- f i r'? t o ' f^arj r 
^.. or'er %<'' re ^ re hJ55 '^ndtet t : t u^.ance 1 i o r ;.vint of course 

are early .inowl odc' ^^ ^ " "> estimates mide for the varioris ser- 
' i^es. To^'oral moiit hs , there f ''■re , he f r.re the estiiiiates are laid 
before tj^e House in U oii-im i 1 1 t -? of S'lpply the various departmontr? 

re ■callo'^ upon hy the Treasury to send in statQi;ionts of t no 
tj ij'-c; f -1 r M 1 r ■? ' t r, ■-'->*■ rn " t >■ -> -> ;• -^ ?) , <; (^ s ri f t, - r> CM r r en t yo;^ r , and 
•hese estimates are earefuliy oxamiiiod *>y the cnaT^ooi i or ,witn 



(in) 
.1 V 1 T\; Pif^t nr;] y t r, nx^rji^i..! h i «? rhity o r JcTTninr t.h'^ expendi- 
tures >/ithin tho lirnitn o' -'O'-'noiny , but also to as'je r tain 3 nr hov, 
'•Mic>> ni-onue h-=> Mill ha'vo t"-' socure in ort'''»r ♦ '■ • '^ > t t h -. •,r-'.->r 
expenditure contemplated. He iiust '^alanoe estimated needs over 
against estimated resouree.s ami ad\Jse t :i ; liouse in committee 
of '"ays ar-.i f'eaiis as to the neasvires by v/hioti taxation i ■? to be 
made to af^'ord sufficient nvenue. Aceordiiifiv he caii?^ in tm 
aid o^ the permanent heads of the reveiiue departments who 'ur- 

ish hjm v.•it'^ "their e-tim.ates of the publie revenue for the en- 
suinr y^Hr unon th"* hynrithesi?^ that taxation \.' 1 i i remain uii- 
'i hanged . 

V Having v^atn such aids made up his budget, the ChanceJinr roe^ 
\^ 
Before the Commit t«o of V'ays and I'eans prepare c? to gi^e a clear 

istr.ry of the financial adm.inis t rat ion of the year just jaosed 
and to subm.it definite plans for adjusting tr.e taxation and pro, 
- iding for the expected outlays of the year just opening. The 
p r e.' e--' ent ?; o^ a \/ i r; e policy of long standing for'^id his propos- 
ing to raise any greate- revenue than is absolutely necessary 
fr.f tv-, sap port r. f the goveriiment and the maint enan^-'e of the 
pu'-^l ie credit. ne therefore never asks the Committee to lay 
taxes which promise a coi.'i ide ra'^1 e surplus. He see;-is to obtain 
only such an o^ erplus of income as \. i 1 .. secure t ve government 

raiiiSt those slight errors of unde r est jrat : on of proba'^ie ex- 
peiises or of ov e r es t imat ioi. of probable revenue as the most pru. 
dent of administrations is lia'^Ie to m.ake . If the estim.ated 



(II) 

ravenu'"} cnns ii-'ira'il y oxeeod the ost.iinated expenaf^s , hT prr.r>osos 
55U3h ronission*; n f taxation as wJJJ ^rliiK *. ^^'^ '^alanee a.': n'?ar 
■"lu.xlity a-^ pnidnnan \vi . J of^rr'it; if t'^-? ant. i .^ i nat. ^r! r»y ri .-»),«!-> <? 
run ^-^yond tho figure of the hop^^d-fr.r r iv ti.uo , h"* asl^s that ctt- 
tain 2.3V. tax3f? ^? laid or that j-Trtain oxistiin trt,..3s ^o iii- 
enasedj i^ th*? halaiije ^etv;e^ii th? tv,'' sJdTR of the fonoast 

ae'^ouiit shoves a pretty near approach, to equ j I ihr iuir. , s'"' the 

the. 
Tcale of reT enue he ^ut a 1 it t i e ^heav J e r of the two, he oontents 

■^inse]'" Y/ith .<5u;_ t f^st Jnt such a readjustment of exis^ine taxes 

\'-; \,jl] he ]i;-.ely to <! j f? t r i'*-'Ut e the ''-lurden of taxation r.T- re e- 

quita'^ly amonest the tax-paying' classes or fa^jiiitatT hampered 

ool 1 e at j on': \\' s imp] i :''y in£ the more ooL'iplex methoi's of assess- 

oi.t and imposition. 

Suoh is the hud£et statement to >/hioh t '^q Hou'^e of J*- mmons 
listens in (Jomriittee cf V'ays and ^1eans. This Comjnittee nay 
-'eal Y.ith t >-e proposals <■' f the Chancellor of th^ LxcP.equer v.it^ 
som.eTihat freer hand than the Committee of Supply may use in pas 
sinf upon the estjm.ates. The f-!inistry is not so stiffly insi-^- 
ter.t upon having its ^udfjet sanetioj^ed as it i-^ upon ha-<.inc itr? 

proposed expenditures approi-ed. It is understood to pledr"? it- 
':elf to as,; for i;'"' more m.one,. than it li nJstly n'jeds; hut it 
simply advises with the House •» s to the ^est \r\y of raising 
inaT m'-nay. It is punctiliously particular a^^out '■'Ml^. suppli- 
ed tvith the funds it asks for,'-^ut not quit > so exact inf as to 
th-- Y/ays and means of supply. ntijl.no I'mi-try caii staiid if 



•^ ri^ hudp^t, 'hPi rTjscto' out of haiid or if its demands for tm 
mans of m^tjnfi a defiei'^ncy hn mot v/ith a flat nfusaJ.no al- 
tTrnatJv'3 means hainf suggTs*T* ^i^ thn Oppon 1 1 j«'J> . Suoii votas 
wouJd ^9 dlatinot do c J arat i<-,jin of a want "-if confldTucT i.. *h^ 
f-' i n i s t r y and v/o u 1 d (^ ^ o ^ u r •■ ■> f c r o ■> t h Tin t r. r t 3 1 c '' ' • 

The Commit, tea of V^ays and Means , tl-nn , earr ies out.undTr tm 
euidanei of the vjhanj"}] i or -"-f th-T txchequ^ r , thT r*? soi ut. iona of 
th'; iJOMi.iit t a? of Supply. Tho vot-is of thj iattar (Jornmit t ee , au- 
thorizir.c tha axpendituras mappad out in t no as t iinat as , ar^ ain- 
^odiad in" a ra?;olution proposed iii iJoiamittG3 of V'ays and Maans 
for a ganaral grant out of tha Consolidated f und 'to\/ards making 
good th^ supply grantad tr. jrar !-',a;i as ty ';" and that rasol ut ion , in 
ordar that it may '^a praparad for tha consideration of t na 
.lousa of Lord.s and t ^^ ^ Crov;n,is aftarv.ards eas+ '>^'^ tha iroM-:a 
into t.ha form of a Rill.v/hieh passes through tha ra^ular stagas 
and in dua eoursa haeomas law. 'i'ha proposals of t.na Chaneaiior 
-f tha Eehaquar \/itn rar-jranja to v^hangas in taxation ara in 
i ika manner embodied in ra soj ut ioji-; in Coiimittao of V'ays and 

aans and subsequent i y , upon tha report of tha Commit t a a , passed 
'^y tha Ilousa in tha shape of 13 ills. "V'ays and Means IM 1 1 s " gen- 
araiiv pa-s t »- -^ ],r,r^."' v/ithriiit troii'^ia. 'i'ha a'-'soiuta eoiitroi of 
tr.a Comm.ons o\a.- the subjects of ravanua and supply has been so 
1 ong astabiishad t)iat t.ha uppar ilous^ \,ould not i.ov, draar-^ o' 

isputijii it J and, as tha po\. ar or t -; Lords is simpiy a privii- 
''ga to ajjTpt or raj act a mon'^" '^ i 1 1 !•-; . \. ho^ 3 , 3 iic 1 ud ing no 



right, t. r. armiid.t. tiT po'^r.s ar-> v.-ojit to J'>t, s-ion ^liis £r, t, hroripn 
\. it bout much -'virut. iny. 

But. so far I have spokon only nf t.hat. part, of I'arJ i .arnnnt. • s 
ooiit. rr.j or thfJ finaneas v/hieb oojieTrns thT f'lt.'ir--). The "V'ayn 
and f!eans Biiis" prnyjdT for enrrinf f?xp'in'5Ts an' a n rr, «?p-»c t. Jv t 
r^venu^^. Pa?3t expens??? ari supf?rvisrari in a difiTr-^nt v/a-/. 'I'mre 
:s < d'-'irW''^ prf'oess of audit, hy neaus of a siiioiai Audit L^part,- 
ment. of t !:-i ci\il S-3 rv iera , wbieh is, of cours'^.a part of t h'l p^r- 

siiiOKt organization of the adr.iini st rat i'"'n , bav inf it in eharfo 
"to examine the aeo'^-uiits and vouohers of the entire expenditure, 
and a special eorT^.itt.ee nominated each ye >r ^y the House "to 
audit the Audit Department." T^^is eomxiittee is usually made up 
of the m.ost experienced business men in the Commons , and before 
it "all the ajjouiits of t -: -> .jor.ipl e t, ed financial y;ar ar^ pi.^sed 
in revie\.-." "l!inute ijiquiries ar^ oecas i'- nal i y made by it in- 
t r, t ^ -! reasoiiS vvh}' eertaiix items of expenditure have ooourred; 
't discusses claims for com.pensat n on , p rant s , and speciaJ di'^- 
■ ursem.ents , in addition to the ordinary outgoiiij^s r. ^ t ■ '-■pirt- 

:ent .m.aini y , t o '-^e sure, upon the information and advice of the 
departments t hensel ve s , but stilJ v.'ith a certain independen .* e o«" 
• lev and judgment v/bich riust 't? vaJijaHJe." 

Tne strictness and explicitness v. 1 1 n v.-hich * pu'-'lie ae- 

j r, 1 n t -3 -3 f -> '.--.-if r. f .J <". ' J r " e f r ■» i, t J • facilitate-^ t h -> n r r. .3 -» •-: f; fi *■ 
audit. The balance which is st rue); on the thirty- first of every 
March is o< <■ i.i'-'St defnut? r.rrt. M -• - -1 1 - r^:,l^' v, i ^ 



( 14) 

tuaJ r'? c e :r)t. •; a:.d d i s'uir soraoiit " "" *" * "^ ■• cr.t.ipi at -jd riso.i,! yTar. 
At. that, dat^ aJ 1 anQxp^iid-id crod.it«? lapsi. IT t, h t Txpqndlt.uro 
o"" c^rtaJi; sums has 'o?ii saiic ♦^ i f'ii."j d by par i 1 u.ioiit ary v.t'i,->ut 
sr.rm of th^ granted moinya nmain undrawii v/h'?n April ennos ^ , 
♦hTv can be usad oixly af t .i r a ngraxit '^y t m Cormaoiis. ?mro 
are , t he ra f on , no uiici'"S'?d aeeount-^j to o^soun th3 viev/ of thi 
audit. jr.£ an* hor i" io s . Tax'Js anci <»re(.'1tc. ha- t t '-? same do finite 
: "^rjod.ani^ t^■>^? af! armar-: or vimx-'i-in'Md '-lal ai.o ^ «? t r, or,nf'i;?-> 
^ n? hook-kO'Bp inc • Vh^? £roat advantages of sueh a system in the 
■>, ly o'" eh^ekiiig ext ra\agances which \/oui d oth^rvns-^ '-.^^ pos.sibi^ 
ay bi se?n ^y eomparJng it \,-ith the syst?r.i in vogue in France, 
in v.hos"> i^atii-nal balance-sheet "arrears of taxes iii one year 
^••" e r 1 ap \,' i t h those of other years" aiid "credits old jostle c r-j- 

'its ne\.",so that it js said to ^e "3,lv..ays thne or four years 
' "jfori the nation can kiio\/ vvhat the definitiA'e expenditure of 
a g ivexi year is." 

For th-; completion of this sketch of fi^.ancial adminis t ra- 
Mon und3r the vJommons it is of course necessary to add a v^ry 

'istinct statem.ent of what I m.a"/ call the ace i ss ib il i t y of t n t 
inaiicial officers ''•f the government. They are aJv/ays pns'int 
to be questioned. The Treasury department is, as becom.^s its 
K^port anc 3 , Txeept ional 1 y yj'^ 1 i represented in the House. Tno 
Chancellor nf the Excheque r , th? workinc chief of the department, 
Ts i rp- n, r i a'-^ i " a ri"': ^b-" r '■■ *" t >i -> (jr.; 'r"-. n -^ , " :> n'"* o-'n '^i cal]""' ♦ '"■ ac- 

-eunt by interrogation or riot ion with respect to all matters of 



( I ' ■ ) 

Vr?agury eoivi^rii" - with ro spTi3 1, , that i ?? , t r. v.tII -j.igh "th*? 
v/hn] q fsph.Tn o^ thT d i so i ;> ] 1 ir"> aic' m; rnrir-^y r.T t. >^- -» rx'*.jM*'i' "> ''.r,'- 
ernm'?nt": fnr the Troasury has v/ide povnrs ("'f suporvision over 
♦h3 othor dopar tr:i'Jiit ."5 in al i matters v.hieh raay in any v/ay in- 
volve an outlay of pu'^^l ie rnon'iy. "And not, only doas thn invan 
aM -3 pr-Ts^noe of th? (JhanoTllor of t It; i,xe ;^: -jquo r in tm ilouso 
of CJoTJirnons mak-'J the representation of that departnent peculiar- 
ly d i rect , ^ut , t hrough the Secretary of th-? Treasury , and ,\« it h 
respeet to oertaiii departmental mat te r-? , throuch the Junior 
Lords, the IIous^ posses peculiar facilities of ascertaininc and 
expn??sinc its opinion upon ^h-; ''^t.aiJs of Treasury az-'tni n i <5 1 ra- 
ti oi.." It has its responsible servants always '-efor"; 3t and 
: in obtain v/hat glimpses it pleases into the inner worliings of 
the departments v/hieh it \,'isi"'.es to control. 

It is just at this point tr.at our ov;n syste;- of fmanciai 
administration differs most essentially from the systems of 
Lneland.of the Cont inent , and of the British colonial posses- 
si'--..'?. UoiUf"'"'^ does not cor^e i^ito dir-^ct co);ti^t \,ith the 

inaneial officers of the governmaiit. Lxecutive and legisla- 
♦ u r -> rre separated by a hard and fast i me v^ni.jr. sets ther. a- 
part in v.hat v/as meant to be indepeiidene e '^ut has come to a- 
m.ount to isolxtion. Correspondence bet\/eeii tiie: is carrie'-! -;. 

y means of >,r:tten communications v/hich like all fornaj writ- 
ings are vague, or by means of pri\ate examinat ioi.s of offioiaic 
1.. comiiit * - — rooi.^s to v.-hich t^e \,>-o]t fouse cannot be audience. 



Uo om vv^T'"' ha~ nad off jijj i.i d'''0ur;v3:.t s in^^ds t''< ^ t. rid rr^v/ 
easy it is t.n conceal the essgntial truth undor trto apparf^nt.ly 
oandid and al J - d isc i os inc phras'?s of a voi uminou's and particu- 
larizinc report, ho\.- dJ^f^riiit tho-^g ansN,'"} r;^ t ro whJeh an t'l*'''' 
vvith the pf?n fro a private ofrici from thoso v/hieh an civan 
with t !^ "> tr.v}.,-. ^,i-'.->. t V, -> '?;--i ' .^r is loo/iiiit -u- a?? - ">' --^ V' i : *'-''' 
facJ. 1+ is ■ uf f i a i^ntl y pi aii: , too , that ro r^ol ut i ons N/l^ijh call 
upoii officials to £ive tostii-;Oiiy before a eoruiitte-? ara a much 
ciurnsi'Jr ant-J less officiant means of f^li'jitiiig iiif onnat ion than 
is a r-:nnln£: fJr-'; of quest ionrj addressed to ministers who ari 
al\.ays in their places in the H^'use to reply pu^Jiciy to al J an- 
te r rogat ioxis . It is n as enable to concl ude , the ref or e , t hat th-s 
mOus 3 of Fe p r ? '=^'^r t. at TT >-> e; i c. TMiji lesr j i t init ■-> J y acquaintid 
with t'^e details of federal Treas'.iry affairs than is s\ijh a 
N^.-j,, ., r. the Hf^'ise of Corr-ions with the partic'ilars ''■'■ '-^a::af ^r^T^ 
in the treasury v/hich it ovoruees by direct and constant 
mun i c a t i on -wit- t r.~: c h i t f t n a s u r y officials. 

This is the greater drav/^ack ir. our system hoeause.as a fur- 
ther result of its eom.pl ete separation from, the execut ire , Uon- 
r r I •• s has to orif inate ai.d ner-Tejt thi ^U''ret for itself. It 

does not hear the estimate-^, translated and expounded in eon- 
dTi.sec' Stat •?;■■■?. t - '-v sr.il le' officials \,'ho ha-<. e riiad "• ■> ^ f >- ■> i r 
bus Iness , because it is to their int e r =jst , t^ kno\. thorouthiy 

what they are talkinc about; j.or doe^ it ha\ -» the hanafit of 
the guidance of a t rained , pract i cal financier when it has' to do- 



^3rr.iii"i'J qinstjon!^ of r-)v<Tnu'T. Tm 'i'r-3a^ury ir, not, ^oi.gult.T.: 
t.it.ri r-^f^rTi.e^ to probierns of t a.- at ion, and motions of sm, 

n dispos^c' of \/it- i;*-, suce-st. Jons f rr.rn tlr? daparti lent s h^yond 

-ed 

••tnnizT^ ?!tat'=?mr;t of t ■? ariouiits r.'!'>;i to ri'^et t r>. ■? r'»ruiar 

xnonsTs o' an op3nJn£ fiseai yaar. 

In fTdora. -t,;;- ko ->p inf thi f i seai "^ y-^ar .jio?3'=»'' -■■; ^ ^ -^ t - i r- 
']Tth of Juni . SeveraJ months '^TforT that yiar oxp j r^is , ho\,- 
^' ■jr.th? 3 <; t iraat es f '"• r th"? tv.^Iv^ months v/i''. i.t. an tr, sujco^d 
aro made ri=?ady for th^ use of (Jongress. In th3 Autumn ^ach dT- 
partmsi.t and 'Hunau of the puMie serxieT reckons its pecuniary 
-.■^ed'! ^or t }vT fiscal year v,-h J e ". is to hegiii on the f ol i o\,- ja.;. 
first of July (making explanatory nrtes-and here and there an 
i r t ? r J e e t "^ ' "< r a' "^ r ^ ''■ r s <;j-\-^ ui;V/on+ "^ ''' e >■ ■'■ t i ; ''^ ■> * ■!''"> '\' "". ; f ^ t t -> ■> ■ 
columns of figures) and sends t i-n resulting document to the 
" ■> J r ^ * r ■ ' ' t - -. Treasury. These r e por t " , iiie i ud iiit of jr. ir^^T 
the estim.ates of the -various bureaux of his own depart 

"jcr-itary has printed in a thin quarto -volume of sor^e three hu.i 
der and tv.-snty- f ive papes , v/h ic h , f or sone reason or other not 
^'^ apparent , is called a "Letter from the Secretary of the 
.' r-' -1 'J '! r V t r r( /i^!-' 1 1. 1 1 . ??;tn!'ate'^ '"• f An p r on r i at i r,;.s requind for 
'he fiscal year ending v'une 30th., - - ".and which boast • ^ 

' : " ^ ■•: J t. arra: ^' '^ * ■•..'■' r t ■• - "CJ i-< i a Is t a'^l 3 s h; v . ' i . 3 - 

tary Ls t a^l ishr -ont . Nav al Lst aM J 9hme,.t , Ind i an Af f ai rs , I'-^ns ions , 

'I'liic vv, rks , iV.stal Te rv ice " ,t' c . , a c-.nvenient suminary of t n ? 
c^ie^ itTris.a:.' a complete iitdex. 



In reoemb-sr this "Latter" i.<3 sTiit, ,as i part, nf the S'^ant- 
ary of th? Tr'iasury's annual nport t. o Conf r?' s <;, t.n th3 Sp'ia.'ry.T r 
of th? .:ouse of P??p nsf^iit. at. iv^55 , Irnimd iat, e] y after thT .3r.,.v Ti.inr 
of that body, and i -: r^^^'^rrf:' tn th^ Standing" CJnnrnittoe on Appro. 
n r i 1 t- 1 r. 1 q . ';■• h -» : [ r. • • <= ■• i f- <; -> ] f ,-i r, .-» c; , r, t - ^ :i r t )^ >-» •> c; t i I ;a t T s r T ad , 
it simply pas.ses th? thin quartos ovor to tm Conunitt^ij tnouyn 
nf eo'Ts--? c-^^i""- of it may 'm pr oeur-id ' anri studied hy any mrn- 

"^ r >vh^ ehos^<^ to serutinize the .staring pat;=?s of eoiurnned fig- 
ur=is \, i t '^ tho dutiful purpose of ko:^pine an eye upon t n "■ uses 

'.d? of the pu'-'lie revenue. Takii.p these estimates into con- 
sideration , the Uomjni^tee on Appropr iat ioiis found upon them the 
"r'^r.eral app rop r iat i r,]i b i 1 1 s " , \,'>" J 3^ fh-> Pules require t 'n ^i ■ ^o 
report to the House "v/ithin thirty days after t " e J r appointment, 

* "■• ->ry session of Coiif;ro s.t , eorruasno iiit o.. the first Monday i:. 
Deeembe r " , unl ess they ean gi^e satisfactory reasons in v.ri^ing 
for n'-t doinc so. The " general anpr '"•pr iat ion bills" provide 
separately f r. r 1 e t i s J at iv e , exejut iv e , ami judicial e-.penses; for 
-•jadry civil expenses; for consular and dinlom.atic expejises; 
for the Army; ^ r, r the '•lavy, for the expenses of ti>i Indian de- 
partment; for the payment of Invalid and other pensions; ^ r. r 
t " ^ support of the t'.i 1 i t a r'/ Academy; fr.r f <-. rt j f j c ^ t ions , f'-'r 
the service of the iv.;^ t - r f ^ j c e department , and for maii trans- 
nort-i, t3on by ocean steamers. 

It v/as only throuph the efforts of a later-day spirit of 
• ifjiant ec-.nom.y that t .>". 3 s practice of inakiiit' *■ he aPi'roi'ria- 



t. ioii!5 for gach o <" the sov^rai ^raiiohos of *■'■ ^ p>iM ic; s^rvico 
ii, a s^parat.o ^ill wa^ established. Ijurii*) t.ri'^ 'lariy y^ars of 
the Constitution very 1oo?st I'lOthoda of appropriation prevailed. 
Ail the moneys for the year vyere e^'-'^nteci i*. a ;?infc;le 'uii, en- 
titled "An act nakiiiG appropriations for t ne support of the 
Go^-e rniient ", and there v<ar; mo att^npt t r> specify the ohjects for 
,.rA<2*^ t ►">'>>■ v,-'"'re t <"' '^e spent. The frr. s*^ ■-■ut-i piveii c-'ul^' ^^ ap- 
plied at tive discretion of the heads of the exejutjve depart - 
i.'.ei.ts and \.as al\.ay.s large enough to allov/ nuen freedom iii tne 
undertaking of nev.- schemes of administration an(i in tne making 
of s'tLih additions to the ejerieai fr.rce of the different offices 
as m.icht seem convenient to those in control. It was not lantij 
I'iCZ that the present practice of somewhat minutely speci^yinp 
- -^ u';-"5 t r, %n '•ad'^ of the funr's apr. rr.p r j at ed \/as reached, 
thouGh Congress had for m.any years ^v3en --"y slow stao^f? approaeh- 

i. ' s:jeh a pn] jcy. The history of app rop r J at j ons sho^/s that 

a 
"there has '^een an jncresint ten^Ieiicy to limit the discretion 

of the exeeutjv n departments and 'irint ^-^■'"- 'ietajls ^ '' ;>3ndi- 

' ;re more immediately under the annual supervision '^ f Congress ■: 
a tex-deney which has Si'3cially maxilf -ested itself since t^.e 
j.'-'se of fw-' re.»->: t war ^etv/een the States. In this, as in 
Other things, tne appetit-; for eo^■ernI^ent On the part of con- 
gress has grown with that pirfectio r. <■ r, rran i /, > t i r, \;hich has 



•^ See an artJ,ie ent i t J ed " Nat ional Appropriations and Misappro- 
priatjons" hy tne late I'resident Garfield, North American Pe- 
■ 1 e\. , p . ^' "^ 3 e t seq . 



(20) 

"aJnaVili. Tn t.iij!? i.iattTr r.f at' rif-.p riat J ons , liny/^v^ r , i iii-' r Vst '^ 

'"•1?^ uj.qu ? .'5 1 1 oua''>i y r ? ?3 'li t. ^? ;! ai* a i- ? r y doc >j u r t it, j i 1 .Ji.f, 

r. f Txt ravacaiioo in departri'^iitai expanditure , thouch CJoncnss han 
'-ft-TTi shov.'ii a '-'I ind ardor ^ r. r r -■ t renehinejit whieh has faiJon 
^itti? shrrt r.f ('trsjr-^ony and \.hieh t;o\il>) i.ot, have found placj 
ji; its i ^t 3 si at. icii had it. nad such adequate means of eonfidgnt- 
ial tj ornrr>.iinieat i on ^,■it, ^^ t ''^ "• ?xoeut i-< t iIt nartr ■>^;i.t s .i. .q w'miJ ' hav"? 
^na'^led it to undirstand th^ir real n-?eds an;^ to di sc r i:.: Jnat f? 
'"'etv.9T;i tfuo eeonony md thos'> S'jant allov/anee-- ■y/hio*"' <^i.l'" ii--> 
■ j rth to .-lif ie i-?i.e ios and v/hieh.evsi. und-^r th? lueiiiest eon- 
' i t jons , se f.- e only for a v^ry "'^riof season to creat? t 'v? imp res- 
:ioii v/hieh they are usially msant to ^-le^" et , that the parf..' iii 
pov.'-er is the party of thrift and hone sty , see inr in form.er ap- 
ri pop r T ,at 1 OjiS too mnoh that v/as oormpt and spendthrift and de- 
■jring t*-' turn t ''■ the good v/ays of \,isdom and frugal ity. 

Ther^ are sor-e - '•• rt ioii.'-: ''•'' t^^ puhlio expen:! i * " r ^ N/hie^^ -'''■ 
..ot depsnd upon the annual 'cifts of Cong re ss , '^ut Y.-hieh are pro. 
• ided for hy statutes whioh run \.ithout limit of date. The-e 
in \/hat are '/inovn as the "pen^aiient appropriations." Thay 
JO'er.on the one hand.suoh indeterminate eharges as t^e i;.ter- 
"• " ■ fw,r, n^'lio de^t^th"" am'^nnt 7 annually paid into the sink.- 

int funl.the outlays of ra fund i^.g , the interest on the hond': io- 
— T • f r ♦ 1' r» ^^^.> 1 <■ -i ' t:" -^ i ] V , ■ • <- 1 ' ,-, • t '^ -> r. t >- -> r >^ ••- ■' '^ ' I ' ' s n e -J i - 
'■ 1 'J ehargss asf t, he ma^, nee of the militia sarviee.th? oostr; 



I -I ) 
th.T enl J '?et. ir.K of the eust'-.i;.'; rriv ^i.i^ , anc! int.Tnst on 

le bequest to thg Sr.ii t hsoiiian I ns t. i t\it ion. Their agtfipat.T 
•u-'. .joi.s ^ 3 tut. -^r; no i u*:; Ipni f i oant, part or thi ^ntjr^ pu^jiij «;'.- 
TiiS-;. In ITlr^ji. a total app r '••p r j at, j o a^out i 307', rrr , 000 , 



t >■> 1 '-, -> pr T 1 , . .-> J t ra r-i ', r r. • ■ _r 1 if i r. •• ^ "> j 



■ r. r t r. r t . -> 



y 



oi.Jv a'-'out sixtfjon and a half miiJioiis. li. latsr y 3arg , hov/evo r, 

t-a [M-rrMortion has '^'len si.icij I fJ r , ono of th^ .i r i ^.c i [•■m Jt^iis.tm 
int-?r-TJ5t ori th? pub] io rie^t , bee r.j ;i;i[; , of eourss , 'joiit inuai 1 y l^sn 

"5 th-3 di'^t jn paid off.anc' oth'ir itoris reaahliig loss ainounts, 
at the sarns t irm that the ficur??; of th^ annual prants havT 
rather thart fallen. 
V i t \~ the"? -•> n •> rr ■ .-i. n 3 -, t. r r :\)\ f. h t '^ ? L" '"' r ; 1 t t. ? t o n A.r> <-< r '-. n r i a t i o r. o 
has,o*~ or^ur^ie , nothing to do, except that e s t Jnate.'=! of tno rnonoys 
*■ '■■ '- -» drawn u:''''r autrin'--' + " <■■ '" ^-'.'^ rraj.ts -i^'^ -^m'- itt->' t r. j * -; 
■xaninat ion iii the Seoretary of tr.? Tr lasury ' ?? » Letter" alone 
■* •• f ■■ ? ^ s t i::^.at r; f^ for \;r.3jn speeJal app rop r i at i Oiis ar"? ts .^ ^ 
fon thes^ latter estimates the feneral appropr i at i oi.s ar^ '^\.s- 
ed. T^.e Coi-'j.nM.ee may report its biaJ-^; at any stat"' '^f t ne 
y.use's bu" i jiess , prr.v ided only that !■ ;ir.es i.'-'* interr 
en^er Y/ho js speaking j and these bills whon r«5j>orted may at 
, » • r f s < -. s y a 1. r, r j + ' ■ ••'-■♦■-' '^ ■> • -1 . ' -> . o ^-i --> _. i , J r, r ' ' ■> r ^' " " d a v . 

'^ f courrie tbejr ooiis ide rat j oii js the most imperative busin'3ss 
' ^ t m session. 'i^r.'i], .'.-ist ':i-i pass 3d '^ioi • ' •' • 

els? the departr-ient s will be left altogether v.ithout moans ■ ' 
suppor'. The chairman of tm ^r. • ..pp r^ ■■ r ^ 1 1 t r, s is. 



eons'?qinnt. 1 y^ a \'ory rnasterfuJ authority in thi Housn. Ht can 
oroT it to a eons ide rat ion of the husinosn of his Coninitte'} at 
' I'.-^o^t any t. im-'! ; anr! ^v v; i t. hho 1 d ijip h j ?; r ■"* p r, r t -; until thT r,-;3- 
sion is woil advancod can crowd all oth^r topics from thT doek- 
■"' t, . For mxi''^ *• ii:'!e is spent n^ ■? r eao.'-. <"' ^ ^■h-'^ "COiierai api)ropri- 
ation bills," Tlv? spending of money is on^ of th-> tvvo thinos 
t-a^ (Jontr3ss j jivar ia'-i] 5? stops to tall: a'-r.ut ; the othor heing 
' the raisiii£ of money. The talk Is made always in Committee of 
^ he VTiole.into which the House at onee resolves itself whenever 
appropriations ar? to '^e e '■•i:s i de red . Vhile members of tnis, 
[ Y/hieh may be called the House's Corimitt-ie of Suppl y . r epre sent a- 
tives have the freest opriortunity of the session for activity, 
for usefulness or for meddi inf , out s ide the sphere of their ov.n 
JoLiiilt+ee \.ork. It is true that t ne " f iv e- minutes rule"£i\es 
^ach speaker in Committee of the ^.''hole scant time for the ex- 
ressii-'n of his viev/s.and that the ]{o\ise can refuse to acj^r' 
•"ull freedom, of debate to its other self, the Committee of. the *" 
' "lole.by lim.itine the time v/hich it is tn devote to tne discus- > 
s i^i. r,f rnattorr; referred t n i t, , o r ^y providii.jj for J t t: ''i'^charr^ 
'ron the furtiier cons ide rat lox. of any hjii committed to it, after 
It shall '^ave acted ^/ithout deSp.te on ail amendments peiidinf or 
'hat may be offered; biit as a rule every member has a ehanee to 
^ffer what sup{ est i ons he pleases upon questions of appropria- 
Mon and many hours are spent in business-like debate and amend- 
•?i.t of such bills, clause by clause and item by item. The 



(23) 

;iou53-! learn- ,o^f'-. »>^r.,-r.,, ],, ., i- -. t -j - i '?■>..•'- of 1 1, s ..v/i^ r '-i-r j ..■ 
t ioii bill?! ^Gfnr^ jt s'lnds it. t. o t. h'j S^naf?. 

i'.ut , uj f o r t.unat.T 1 y , t, '1 ? dTaiints of t-^? yrjuat") v/3^n inor.oy 
'^ills penerally render v/ort.hloss the painstakiiit action of tho 
House. The Senate has been est.ahlislnd by precedent in t ne 
very ^'re^st po.«?55i^le p r ir ii e(_;es of amendment, as re^jards tnese 
'^iii?; no less than as regards all others. The Uonstitution is 
•^iJ'^nt as tr. t '^ ? r,ri£in-,'ftir. r,f hiij":; apnr opr iat i ri ■ r'r,j).-»y: jt 
says s imply that "all -Til is for raisJnr revenue shall or JpJnatT 
ii. the House of Pe p r e s eiit a4 iv e s " , ant' that in eoijg ide r i ..i these 
"the Senate nay propose or e^nour with amendr.nents as o..; other 
- il 1 s " { Art , I , See . VI I ) ; Sut,"by a praeti-e as old as th^ Govern- 
ment itself, the eoiiSt itut ional prirocative of the liouse has 
been held to apply to all thi general appropriation ^il;s",and 
t^T rer.ate'r; rip^t tn anend t)-i->s'? h^s ^-leej; allov/T' t!'e '..idest 
..eeivahlT su'Ope. The upper house may add to them v/hat jt 

."!ase^; may t'O altogether r, ^. > rr -j -^ -^ r,f t h ^ "i r ori^ii'-^ .. rr.v i f: ■> ^ ::s 

al te rint 
and tae',: to thei.'i entirely new featuns of 1 e tg i s 1 at i on , , < »1 1 o^ , i .h - 

not only the am.ount s but eveji the objeots of expeiui a t ur ? , unci 

'Cine ou* of the materials sent them by the popular ohanhor 

""asures of an alinost totally new character. As passed by tn'» 

House of Pepresentat ires , appropriat ion biiis mineral ly provide 

I for an expenditure considerably less than that ealle'-' for ^y 

* ^e estinates; as returne;'. from the Sanat '? , t v<r»v Ms'i.aJJv nr^'nr.se 



^ Senator Hoar's article already several tines quoted. 



; rant..«5 of many additional mil 1 ions , hav inn ^'^an '^r'^xirlit, hy that 
[ ie.'js s-^nsitjve body up alnost , if not, quit.^.t.n th.T fie^rTs of 
• the -^^s t iriat es . 

After passing throuGh their ordeai ''•f scrutiny and amend- 
-•I'.t ii the Senate, the approp ri at i '■•r '^ i 1 I s retnr;. \/it>^ t>>->ir 
I new ficures to the House. But when they return it is too late 
for the House to put the): a{_,ciiii in the eruoi'-ile of Committee of 
the V^hole. The session, it may be taken for e^anted.was well on 
*-o\;ards its mir:..-lle ace before they were oricJnaliv introduced 
by the House Co^-ii.iit t ee on Appropriations; after they reached the 
Senate they were referred to its cor respond inti Comnitteej and 
f- n -n f.-,.,r,ft Q f that (J oinj ' T 1 1 ■-! ^ upon the^' v/a-^ de'-^ated at tne leis- 
•iriiy length characteristic of the weightier proceedings of the 
upper chamber : so that the last days of the sessior. are f-'.st 
apnrnaehing when they are sent down to the House with the work 
of the i:enate's hind upon them. Tne House is naturail;' disin- 
clined to consent to the radical alterations wrought by the Sen- 
ate, ^ut there is no time to quarrel v/ith its col 1 eague , unl ess 
jt ear. nak^ up its m.in^- to sit through the heat of midsummer, 
rr to thro\,- out the bill ai^d accept the discomforts of an extra 
session. If the session ^e the short oiie which ends, by con- 
stitutional requirement , on the 4th. of l!arch,the alternative is 
tne still mori distasteful oiie of leaving the ap;' r op r iat i ojis to 
'^e made by t,he next House. 
/ The usual prac t ic e . t ne r e f o r e , is to adjust sue diffennces 



'iy man'^ of a eonferGne':^ >i9tv/c39n thn t,v;o iiousog. Thf? IIousi n- 
j3et.s tiio iaQricatT's arnsndmont.s without, hr»ariiig tn.?r^. nad; tnn 
Senate stoutly r^fus^s to yiTld; a confereneg ensues , conduct Td 

;■ a eomrnitf^o of thre'? rn'jmbors frorn oaeh eharnbor; and a eon- 
proriiso is nf ^ 5e t ^d , hy such a eornpo'uuMnr o '' r! i c;;i.c r t ■? i nr nrr,- 
positions as gives mJth-Tr party to th^ quarrel the vietory and 
oof'smonly leaves the grants not a little 'lelov, the aniounts asked 
for by the departrrient s . As a rule the Conference C ocj-i i f t e e con- 
sists, on the part of the House, of the chairman of its (Jorinitteo 
021 Appropr iat ions , soue other v/ell-posted member of that Commit- 
tee, and a representative of the minority. Its reports are m.at- 
t^r<^ '"'f hi^^h'^st prerogative. They may '^e '-"rnupht in e-^/e;; while 
a m.ember is speaking. It is mvioh better to silence a speaker 
't > ar. t '-' delay for a single mome n t , a t this s t a t; e of + '^ ^ s e s s i 6 n., 
the pr es s ing , imp ?r ious question of the supplies for t vi support 
r,'' tn^ government. The report is , t he r ef or e , ac t e ■■ ^non imm.edi- 
-^.t^ly an'i in a m.ass.an'! is generally adopted without debate. So 

reat is the haste that the report is passed upon before brjing 
'rint^r an'' \/ith'"'Ut ^i^•inF anyone ''^nt th-^ mem.bors of t ii ? Confer. 
enee Committee time t »■' unde rs tand v/hat i+ realiy contains. There 
is no chance of remar,i or amendment. It recei\as it once sanj- 
tion or reject i^.n as a \,holej and the chances are, of course, in 
fa\'r,ur of its '->ein£ accept ed , 'le cans e to reject it would '-^ut 
force a nev; conference an; bring fresh delays. 
^/^It is evident .therefore. ti. at aft-r all tne carefii a^u thor- 



(26) 

nur^-r'^inc d^^a*o an;! arv^n-lmnt, d f Cm r-^ i f, t, ^ t r. f t. '- o Vhn]'? i,. 
the House, and all tne gra^a doliH^ration of ths Senate tr, \jhJ'2h 
tno e-oiieraJ appropriations an su't j "i j teri , t nay fiixaiiy pass i:- a 
very eh actio stat-;,fuJJ of pro' i<?ions v/hien nejthor t h.-i iiouso 
nor ti"i3 S'inat'? liko.s.an'! uft'^ray ■-■atue ai.'i Uiiiiit e J i i ^ 3 hi e to 
e'\'5ryone saA-e the member?; of the Conference Committee: so tnat 
It v/'-'Uld seen almost as i"" the generous portion?; of time con- 
scientiously gi-<,en t.o their coiis iderat ion in their earlier 
stapes had Heen s im.pl y time throv/n away. 

T^"? result o ■•" fHe ui.de r- app rr.-i r i ^t j on t, o \/hicb Conpress 
se-im.s to have becom.e adc'icted hy lonp ha'hit in dealing with th^ 
e s t i; :at es , is , o f course, the addition of another ■^■' i i i t.o the num- 
ber of the regular annu-i.l grants. As regularly as the annual 
session opens there is a Deficiency Bill to he cons ide red . Touht - 
less deficiencies frequently arise because of m.i seal culat ions 
or extravagance on the part of the departments; ^ut t, ►-^ e most 
•^-^riotis ''e f ic i eiic ies are thi-'se v/hic'- result from the close-fis- 
tedness o*" the House Committee on Appropriations and the com- 
proLilse reductions which are v.- rung from t. he Senate hy con'ference 
eommit.tagg. Every Decemhe r , eonsequentl y , al onr with the estim- 
ates for t, hT next fiscal year, or at. a Jat, er i'eriod of t - -» s ero- 
sion in special eommunieat Ions , eom.e estimates of deficiencies 
in the appropriations for t'-ie current year, and the apparar.t e- 
conomies of the grants of the preeedinr se'^sior have to he off- 
set in the fifts of the inevltahle Deficiency Bill. It is as 



'■'I 



(27) 

if (Joncr^?;^ had dn s J tTi'^ci] v o ;5t, ahl i sh^ d "t h'? plan of nn.kii.f rjTini- 
annuai app rop r J at ions . At, eaeh s3?!sion it e^f^a-ntg part, of trr? 
f^^nsy to 'h'? sp"" + aft-ip + "- -> ^ir.^t r. f July f ol i ov/ J rif; aj.d sucn 
sums as ar^ maded to suppl'?rmiit tho expenditures proviously 
aut iior i ZTd to '•^t made after the first of July preo'?diiiC. It 
doles out thTir allowanoes in iiistalmejtt s to its wards, tne d"?- 
partment s . 

It is usual for the Appropriations Committees of ^oth Houses^ 
when preparanF the annual ^ills.to tak*? the testim.ony of the 
djnet^T^^ o^-^ieers of the departments as to the actual n-ec'?; o''" 
the public service in regard to all the principal iter-^s o ■♦' ex- 
ji'end i t u r e , Having' no place upon t'^e floor of the House, and >ie- 
inr.in consequence , shut out from. makint_ complete puM ic stat?- 
ments concerning the est imat e s , the beads of the several execu- 
tive departments are forced to coxifine them.selvos to private 
communications vith the House and Senate Committees. Appearing 
■^efnre those Comjnittee'i in person or address inr ther-' mor^ for- 
mally in \.r j t i:.c , they explain and ur^e the appropriations askod 
in the "Letter" coiitaiiiiru the estimates. Their \,ritteii com- 
munications , thnvi£h addressed only to th.^ chairman of one of the 
Com.mi *■ re ^s , f requent 1 y reach the House it sel f , beiiit, read m op'^n 
session by som.e m.emher of the Comriittee in order to justify or 
interpret t^^ iter-^s of app rr.p r J at ion proposed In a pendlne ^111. 
Mot infrequently the hiad of a department exert- hir^self to se- 
cure desirei! supplies by dint of negotiation with indi^■ idual • 



p r i V a 1 
membTrs of the Conrnittee and hy repeated aiid ins isteftt ^appeal s 

to their chairman. 

Only a very sr.iali part of thT relatioiis between the Coimnit- 
tees and the departnents is a natter of rule. Each time that 
th? estimates cone und'^r eons id t rat i on the CJornini f t e •^•q nu'>t 
sp^oially seek, or the departments newly vol unt e« r , Ji.f n mat 3 on 
and advioe. It v.ould seem , hov/ev e r , t hat it is no\. less us'ial 
for the Uor-v :it. t, ^r^s to ask. than fr,r the Secretaries to offer 
eo^jnsel and sueo'^'^'''' ^ on. In the early years of tne governm.ent 
it was apparently not uneomino]. for the ehairuen of spendine com- 
mittees to seek out departmental officials in order tr. get nec- 
essary enl J ohtenrient concerning the mysteries of tlie est. i;;ates, 
t.hotigh it Y/as often easier to asV: for than to pet ti^e informa- 
tion v/anted. An amusint example of t>? d 1 f <" icu J t ie s w.hicn then 
Heset a commit t ee-m.an in search of such knov/ledge is to be 
found iii the private correspondence of v'^ohn Pai.dolp^. of Foanoke, 
'Jntil 1365 the iiouse Committee of V'ays and Means, Y/hich is one 
of the oldest of the Standing Commit tee s , had charge of tiie ap- 
p ropr iat Jons j it was , the re f o re ,Mr . Randol ph' s duty, when chairman 
of that Committee in I3o7,to look i3;to the es t imates , and he 
thus recounts, in an interesting and exeoedingiy characteristic 
letter to his intim.ate frjend and co rre spondent , Nieho J son , t nis 
pjtjful experJer-.ce which he had had Jn performing t i\at duty: 
■I calle' some t im.e since at the navy office to ask an explan- 
ation of certain items of the estimate fr-r t •^. i s year. '.'"- ''••^2- 



\^ I) 
r^fary called upon his chief clerk, who knov/ i e ry 1 i 1 1. J -^ noro 
of th*? ^usin^f^s than his tnaster. I propounded a quest ini; to 
th-3 h-^ad of th':^ d -jpartnent ; hT turned to t hn clnr',; 1 i',;'? a >>oy 
v/ho cannot say his lesson, and Y/ith linplorintj countenance be- 
<^'?--5ch9s aid; th'"? clerk \/Jth much assviranco gah>iled out sor^.a 
commonplace jargon , v/h i ch I could not ta.-;e for stirlinc; an ex- 
planation v;as r!?qu i red , an;', '-^oth v/ere dum'H. This pantomiiie was 
repeated at e\'Gry item, unt il ,d isgusted , and asham.ed for the do- 
graded situatior. of the prJneipi.I.I took leave v/ithout pursMinc 

tre subj ec t , see jn£ that my o'-ijeet could not 'oe attained. Thero 

relatiiu ^ ''' ♦'■'^^ department 
was not om single quest ion^ that the Secretary couJd ansv/er." 

It is to h? hoped that t. ^ t P,ee r ^tar i-? s of to-day are sonev.hat 

better "-ersed in the affajrs of the^r departments than v/as r-^- 

spectahi-3 Fohert Sm.ith.or.at any rate, that tney have chj^f 

clerks Y/ho can furnish iiiquiring chairmen with somethine hett3r 

* ai. commonplace jargon which no shrev/d m.an can take for stir- 
- inc inf orm.at ion; and it is altogether probable that such a 
scer.e as the one just de^>eribed would nowadays ^e quite impos- 
sible. The book-keeping of later yearn has been very much 
stricter and more thorough than it was in the infancy of the 

■"partrieiits j the estim.ates are much mor'-; thoroufe:hly dif'"''reii- 
Mated anrJ itemized; and a minute division of labour in each 
department amongst a nuiierr.us clerical force makes it coiipara- 
tiveiy easy for the chief executive officers to acquaint them- 

* Adams's ".'ohn Fandol ph" ( Ame r ican Statesm.en se r ies ) . pp . 21 (" . ^ 1 1. 



I 



seivos quioi;Jy and aecurat, eiy v/ith th^ d-^t, aijs r. f administra- 
tion. They do not. wait , the nf orn , as a Qeiiorcil thine, tr, ' "^ 
c;r,'M ht out ani"! qu-T " t i onO'' ^y t h t L.'ornr;iit t oos , '-^lut ^egt ir t'.^ti- 
sTivss to E'^t at the ears of tne eor.iiai t tee-men, and especial iy 
to so^uri.if poss i^I '3 , tho infJuones of the ohairrn.ei: in th'^ i:i- 
t-^rest of ad-iquat"? appropriations. 

These jrre^-ular and generally informal eominunieat i ons ^e- 

tv/een the Appr opr j at ions Comrnittees and the heads of t'n? de- 

pri^'ately 
par trr.ent s , t a'<iinc the form sormtirr.es of pleas addressed '^y the 

oeeretariTn t ''^ individual ner-!''->erR r.f f ■ -> Cor u 'i t t ?> -?<:; and ar^in 
of careful letters which find thejr vay into the reports laid 
'ofore Con£ r 3.S s , s tand in our system in the place of t'^--> annual 
financial statements which ar.^ in British practice made hy the 
ministers to Parliament under c ircum.s t ances which eox.stitute 
?ry full and satisfactory puhl ie explanations iind the freest 
■^pl ies to all pertinent questions invariable features o*' the 
?;un?rvision of th? finances hy the Commons. f^ur m.inisters nak3 
f'eir statements to 'ooth Mouses indirTctly and pieee-rieal , 
t>,j.,,,, ,, t ,, -. r--;dium of the Committees. They ari r-^er'^ v/i ♦ n'>- ^ *? - , 
and ar? in no definite v.ay responsible for the annual appropria- 
tion •5. Their se.jure four-year tenur? of office is not at ail 
affected 'Sy t -"i treatment the estii^iates receive at the hands of 
Uoncress. To s?e our Cabinet ofri.j^rs resign because appropria- 
tjoi.t; had heei; refused for the full am.ount asked for i.^ the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury's "Letter" \/culd be as no'<el in our eyes 



A 



( 31 ) 
as v/'^uici bo , in t. ho v io\( nf r,\ir i.jitii^n o '^•us i jis , t ■'. ; iir.i't of x 
MJinstry of t,he Crov/n ninaininr in of^ioo undor sjr-'ilar oiraun- 
j^tanees. I ndeeri , v;t n r^ur Cabinet-? t,r, Rta;:« t.h'JDr p'".': : t. ]r,n*^ ip- 
r.n t.hT fortune?; o '" thi estjriates subnit.r. ji' t,o (Jongrr; ;^s , v/e 
snouJd probably suffor ttr^ t.ir-Tsorm j neonveiilenc? of y^ariy n- 
s i ' r. ' ^ ions ; for '»•'•'>]■ \.'^^.i ^ b -> h->ri.r'?; of t.b.'^ dTpart.mi t. -^ tax al J 
t.ir^ir in^rei-s and brine into reqnisit,Ton ai i tneir art^ of p^r- 
-Masaon to f5^'iur3 ampl'=? grants fron the corn'ii 1 1 tt s , t ho ilou.so 
Coi:;ntt3? euts doNvn th? suns as usual, tho Sonata Connittso adds 
to thou as bofore.and tho Conf^nneo Uonunit t to stri'r.os a dofie- 
^nt er.r-'p rofjiso balanoo according to t irno-honourod custom. 
W^ There is in the Mouso anothor appropriations eonrnittee be- 
si--""^ t ^ -> Cr- :;itteo on App rr.p r 1 it ir.r..'^ . V'^ i s js the CJ oimn i 1 1, e o 
on Pivors a..' Harbours created in l.ocerri'-er 1313 by the forty- 
it -th Uon&re.ss , as a sharer in the too-fereat p re ro£, 1 1 i-^ =; ti;j 
then enjoyed by the Cornrnittee on Corrjneree. Thi Uoi.'i :i * t e e o.. 
Fi'-ers ai.d jlarbour-? r epre s ent s , of jnurse.the I at r>iy- acqu d red 
permanency of the policy of iiiternal inpr '"•venont s . 'Ji.ti; I870 
that policy had had a very precarious existence. Strer.uously 

ei-io'l all tolerance by the severely constitutional Presid'^uts 
of the earlier days, it could not venture to declare itself op- 
en. y ii. separate anp rop r 1 -> t i r, - \/»- 1 .->>> r.ffered an eas^' pre" to 
* -e v/atehful veto; "^ut skulked in tho unobtrusive e'Hs'' ©^ 
Items of the ^ex^^ral e rant s , s-if ^ u...' • r the co' -»r ^' r ^ - -. ,. t - 
able neighbour iteL:s. The veto has never been alJo\. ' seek 



(32) 

out s J nf 1 "^ f" -> -\t '! r "> '• i); *• ^^ ■■ a.-t'? ^n^- i i + f i,' t r. t ■ -. ^xeeuti'''^ ''"'' 

.HI evoii such mail as Madisoii and Monroe , st, j ff and pn rfi^nptnry a?; 
tlioy \.3r3 in tha assort ioji of t '- ^ ^ r coi.S'j 3 "Jiit. lou;; opinJOi.3 .j,.. ' 
in t.ho p? r f o rrnanee of what thny eoneojvnd to bo t he j r eoi.-tatM- 
t ional duty, and much as thoy disapproved of st r'^tohing tne Con- 
t. itution to sueh uses as national aid to loeal and iniand ii.T- 
' ro\ ernent s ,\ver ^ fain to let an oceasionai Lift of money for 
sno*" purposes pass uiif'-' r^iddTii rath5r t r an thro\, out t. • •-? gener- 
al appropr j at ior. 'hill to which it was taeked. St i 1 ] , (Jong ress 
' i '' n'"t, make i-^ry frequrint or ver/ flagrant usri of + ■■■ i •^- ♦■rjo':, 
an! schemes of internal improvemsnt eame altogether to a stand- 
tial \.'hen faced hy Presid-^iit Jackson's ir:perDOus cJisfa^our. I' 
\,as for many years the settled practice of Congress to grant 
"he States upon the seaboard l^a^■e to lay duties at their ports 
"or t.'-T im.proA-em.ent of the harbours , ar.rl jtself to Uiid e r t a.-.e thi 
^xpeiise of no puh] iu \.or",;s save those upon terrif-.ry actually 
owned by the 'Jnited States. Cut in iator years t'^e re 1 axat i n;: 
Si of presidential opposition aiid the admission of new States iy- 
int al tof^ther away fror-: the sea and , t he re f ore , qu it ) uiiv. J a ^ i.^t 
fo pay the tariffs which were building up the harbours of ^heir 
^astern neiphbours v/ithout any recompens iiig ad\antac'i to tnem.- 
';ilves who had no harbour s , r ev i^-ed the plans which th3 veto es 
of former times had rebuffed and appropriations fror;! tne natio.i 
V J o f *" '> r ■? '^'ip^.v. fre^j'" t r, 'No i'^^r[r> f C' r t)^^ ori->i;i.r:, r, ^ t, r i priat 
\.atGr highways and the perf'T-tDne of tno soa-gates of commerce. 



(33) 
Tm inland States v/nr^ s il encod , ^^eeauso sat : r5f iod , ^y a sr.ar:3 i.i 
the 'Henefits of national aid ,\vh ich , ^ie ih£ no loner jnd i root ,\/a-: 
not eonfin«?d tr. the sanetionint o^ State tariffs v/hieh non^ but 
th3 sGn'^nTT'.'! C'T T 'ari\.'^al ths eonll ^en-^fit, i>y '^ut •whie.^. cnnsurm rr^ 
ev'iryY;hTr3 had. to ['ay. 

Th 3 £ r 3 a t. "T * i r~i e r '^ a ^ 3 J n a n p r f"' ■ r ■*'+■' '"■i i '^ r, f t ■■ • j ^^ .3 J a ■ ^ tor, •,; 
laee ^ust, after I37r. Sine? that dat3 they have oeeupied a 
• 3ry prr.j.in^jt plae-=» in 1 e^ is 1 at ion , ri.inii3nc fron sor^ *-.3i'-3 

illi'-^ns in the session of l'i73-'^ up and doi,vn through various 
'"i£ures to eighteen millions seven hundred thousand in tii3 s-js- 
■lon of I 3-]2-'3 , const itut jnc during t.hat decade the chief busi- 
..ess of th3 Committee on (Jormne rce , and finally ha-^-inp a spe'jial 
.'^andine U ornrn i 1 1 '^ -> ^ree+e!' for their surier j nt endence . They 

a\ e thus culminated with the culnination of the protective tar- 
i'"f,anc the so-called "Ai-serican sy<t • ' r. r prot ec t J-''^ t -^ri '"'■'• 
'.nd internal improvements has thus at last attained to its per- 
'"ect work. The same prero£at i\-e s are accorded this n?\; appro- 
•riations Committee which have heen secured to the greater Com- 
:ittee which deals with the estimates. Its reports may he raadn 
:f -.r-," + -i»n ',/''». ■■> ">^T i'S'-> r i "^ n''it. ^'leaking and stan.' in all ri- 
jpects upon the same footing as the bills prnposing the annuai 

rants. It is a spe'jiai spend in t cor - ^-i t ♦ - -> , \.' 1 t ■ 1 1 c. r,\n\ key tr, 
the Treasury. 

liut the appropr 1 at j r.ii CJomi^ittees of the tv.o jous is , though , 
-^trictiv speak.ing , the only comjnittees of supply, ha^e their wori; 



(34) 

\-ot? tJrn'i and onerpy t.o ereat. jnp demands upon thft Trflas'iry. 
Thar:^ is a pension list in thn gs t ii.iat ns for v/hogT payin'Jnt, thcs 
(J omrn i 1 1. -a on Appropriat. ions has t,'*' provide er'jry yr^ar; ^ut tho 
C onirr! i 1 1 3 e on Pensions is constantly inanuf aetur int na\< elairns 
Ml''*'!, tho pu'-iliii nvoiiins." Then mist he nomy forth- eonmc to 
build th-T n'3v. ships called for '-ly the report of the Committee 
on Naval Affairs and to r.i^et t ■ -> ehartf^s f <-• r * '-'e ar; '•■ equipr-ent 
and ref'-'rns re oor.-'jn ended hy the Comnitt-e-? on I'ilitary Affairs. 
■I'nere ar? inxiui;:3 ra'-ij e fint'Jrs in t ne biidc-t. pie. 

It is principally in eoi:nection with appropriations that 
what has eone to he known in our political slang as "loe- rol- 
ling" ta":;es place. Cf course the chief scene of tnis sport, is 
the prj"\'ate r'-.or-: of the Cor-^rnttee on Ri"^-ers and Harbours , and 
th"^ '^e-sr.n of its highe-^t exc i t enej.t , the hours spent in the pas- 
sage of the Pivar and Ilarhour Bill. " Log- rol 1 ing" is an exehanre 
' *■ fa-'ours. Fepre seiit at ive /..is very anxious to secure a grant 
for the clearing 6f a small y/ater course in his district, and re- 



•^ Cn on? occasion "the Hous") passed thirty-seven pension hills 
at one sitting. The Senate, on Its part.hy unanimous consent, 
took up and passed in ahout ten minutes sevei: '-ills p^o^■idin£ 
for puhlie buildings in different States , appropr iat iiig an ag- 

-egate of 5I,£00,00O in this short tine. A recent ilouse feat 
..IS one in N.hich a hill alloy/ ing 1,300 y»ar el aims, in a lamp 
was passad. It contained oixe huxxdred aiid nineteen pages full 
of little claims .amounting In ail to *2'5I,^^rj and a member, in 
deprecating critic* ism. on this disposition "--f then, said that the 
Coiamittee had reeei\ed tsii huge bags full of such claims, which 
had beei. adjudicated by the Treasury of f ic J al s , and jt yvas a phy- 
sical impossjhil ity to examine ther.' - N.Y.: 



( J^) 

present aii>'0 H. is oquaily soi J e J t, oufs ahout, his plans fnr hrint-- 
inr momy iiit.o th^? hands of t.hra cnnt, raeto rs of his own const it-i- 
•ney , Vi'!''. i 1 s t r'");-" n sont. at iv a (J.ooms frori n. sTanort t.ovvn v/^os? 
ndd'^st harbour is neglected Heeaus'^ of tm treacherous har ac- 
ross its moutli.and roprasontat ■!••■ -> D.has '^ee^i hlar-^'"' ^ >■ r r.^'^ '^''- 
stjrrjnr hinself noro in th? interest of schemes of improvement 
afoot amonfjst the entirprizint citizens of his native plac3: so 
it is perfectly feasible for these gsi^tleraen to put their heads 
together and eomfirm a mutual understanding that eaeh yjil 1 vot^i 
in Comjnittee of the V'hole for th? grants desired by the others 
in eons J de rst ion of the promise that they will ery "aye" \/hen 
>^is ite:r. eom.es on t r, v,-. eons ide red. It is not. out r.r t>~-=> p-i'?'^- 
* i on to gain the favouring ear of the reporting Uor.-u.-;it t e e and a 
~reat deal of tmicirint c 'n be done with the bill after it nas 
c-^me into the hands of the House. Lo'-^^ying and log-rolling go 
hand in hand . 

So m.ueh for estimates and appropriations. All questions of 
revenue are in thejr first stages in the hands of the House Con- 
mitte-! of V'ays and Means, and in their last, in eharpe of the Se:i- 
at -? UoMTnit t, e? on Finance . The name of t ne Houso Cornr-^it. t, .^a is 
-"vidently borrowed from t-^e language of t > -> i^ritish Pari i ^' ->: t • 
the English L'onmittee of \"ays and f'eans is , hov«evQ r , the Commons 
itself sitt nu: ill Committee of the V'hole to consider tp.e state- 
ment and proposals of the Chancellor of the Exeheque r , \.h il st 
ours is a Standing Committee of the iiouse composed of ^.leven 



(3n) 
menibors axid charged with the prfjp'T''"'T'^ i'^ri of all 1 oc isl at. j on n- 
iatinr to thT raisine of the revenue and to providinf ways and 
m-i,?!?? for th? support, of thf? rnr- -> r;.i '?nt . V't ha'T,!). rnrlinh 
parliamentary phrase, put our Uhaneel i orshi p of t lie Lxcnequer 
jr.^o eornrni ss ion. The chairr^an *■' *" th^ Coroi.iit t ■> ^ ^Ifjures as our 

ir.istTr of f inanee , '^-'Ut he really, of course, only represents the 
eornr.ussion of eleveii over v.'hleh he presides. 

All reports of th^ Treasury d^partmeiit ar? refer re .^ to t'Mi 
Committee of V'ays and I'eans , v/hioh also, like the Committee on Ap- 
propriations , f ron tine to t im.e holds other u^.o r ^ direct communi- 
cations with the officers of revenue bureaux. The annual re- 
ports of the Secretary of the Treasury are ^.-r.erally quite full 
of m.inute information upon the poiiits most imnediateay connect- 
ed with the proper duties of the Committee. They are explicit 
with regard t '■' the collection and d is^ursem.ent of the re^-enues, 
\,'ith regard to the condition of the public debt, and v.itn c^^jiir'J. 
to the operation of all laws goveriiine the financial policy o' 
' *^.e departments. They are, in on? aspect, the £r--ii\t yearly bal- 
ance s hi ->+ s , exh i '-^ i t j nr the receipts and expenditures r.f the gov. 
ernment.its liabilities and its credits; and , in another aspect, 
f^enerai vjev/s o *" t - ^ 3tat-> r.r industry and o^ t - -« financial 
m.achinery of the C'unt ry , summar i zing the Information compiled 
by tp.e bureau of statistics n, 3 1 h reference t r, ♦ -« conditio;. --^ 
^ no manufactures and of domestic trade a«j y/all as with regard 
to the plight of the curr-^ncy and of t ne national ^an.-;ri . They 



(37) 
aro.of oou rso , tiua t ti d ant met. from the "Letters" nf tn3 oTo rot- 
ary of the Treasury .Y.'hieh eontain the estimates and po.not to 
the ConrnttGe of V'ays and Maans.>^ut. to the oOi.ii ;it tee on Appro- 
ve r iat ions , 

Though the duties of the ComDiittee of V'ays and Means in sup- 
ervisjnf the rnanarernent of t '^. "^ reTei-iu^'^ r, f the eountr" i, r e 
quite elosely anaioef>us to those of the British (JhaneeJior of 
♦■ ^e Lxehequ-e r , t he lines of policy in which they walk are --^ry 
widely separated from those 4«» v/hich he feels hound to fo]lov/. 
r.s I ha" e said, the object which he hold-:; constantly in •<• i ev/ is 
to keep the annual balances as nearly as possihl-j at an equi- 
li^rjun. lie plans to raise only ^ust enough revenue to satis- 
fy the f rants made in CJ omrn i t t e 3 r. f Supply and leave a modest 
surplus to cover possible errors in the estimates and probable 
fluctuations in the returns from taxation. Cur Committee of 
\"'ays and Means, oi: the other hand , f ol 1 ov; a very different policy. 
The re' enues v/hieh they control are raised for a double objejt. 
They represent not only the income of the f ot.- e rnn.ent but also 
a carefully erected commercial policy to A/hicli the income of 
the government has for many years been incidental. They are 
intended to foster the m.anuf ictures of the country as ViSli as 
to d ■; f ray the expen«!e'=; r, f ^eHeral aflT-i inist ra^ i '•■n . V'e re the 
maintenance of the government and the support of t.na public 
credit the chief objects of our national policy of t a;:at. i on , 1 1 
would undoubtedly be east in a very different pattern. DurJnf 



(33J 

a ff-'iat.nr part, of the lifi-tirne of the pnsont. tot- ;? rnmrit , t ho 
prineipal ff^aturr? of that, pr.liey has boeii a complex systen of 
dut. ins oil ir'i.;>ort. s , t rouM f5 sofiie and o^pQiisiv^ <','• ';ni i net j r,n ^'^^lf, 
n'^ve rth*?! ess y iel d ing , toe^t'J^f'r v/ith th^ 1 leenso taxns of th^ in- 
terna] r-i\'eni.ie v.'hieh latir y-;ars ha\'R se'^n add9d to it , imri-^iiss 
surpluses which no extravagances of th^ apendint; eorirnitt ees 
eould exhaust. Duties f ew , srnal J , and comparatively lnexpei;s i\' e 
of eoileetion v/ould afford abundant revenues for tne efficient 
conduct of the c<^ve ri.nent , hn s i des comporting much more evident- 
ly v/i+h economy in financial adm.inist ra,t i nn. Of cour'^e^if vast 
revenues pour in over the barriers of an exact in^ and exorbi- 
tant tariff, amply sufficient revenues v*ould flov/ in through *^^ 
easy conduits of moderate and simple duties. The object of our 
'"inaneial po 1 iey , hov/eve r , has not been f< equalize receipts an.' 
expend itures , ^ut to foster the inrVjstrJes of the country. The 
Committee of V'ays and Means , the re -fo re , do not concerri themselves 

i recti y \/it]-'. re^ulatine the income of the eoverwiant - they 
knov/ that that, in every probable event, will be more than suf- 
ficient - hut \/Jth protect inf the int t r -> -^ t <:: of t---,^ naiv f i- ■* tur- 
ers as affected by the ref;ulation of the tariff. The resourcos 
of the Eoverniient are made incidental tr. the inc'ustrial im Tst- 
m.ents of private citizens. 

This evidently constitutes a very capital differei.c^ o- 
tv/een the functions of the Chancellor of the Exchequer and 
those of our Committee of v'ays and Ileans. Tn the policy of tm 



'.i^- 

.'?^- 



{•in 

fori.ier th-i support of tlie eo^^J^nrtflnt Is '?\-orthJnrj v/jth t ho . 
fir t.ho ear? of t.hi industries of the country is th-j ''>Tt'' 
ar,''l th*? ■?::'' of duty. In t h "» oyi?? of Parllx' T:-.t ^rorT^oiiT Sal- 
ances ropres-^nt ignorant or imprpper rnanacQM'^nt on the part of 
' ^ Ministers and a suoeessioii of the; ■< •■• n'\r-^ f' cast a Ua' ■> .;- 
Qt from of<"ie9,to tho lasting diseraee of tho Chaneei i r, r o '^ ^ 
ehsquerj ''^ut to the mind of (JontJ.r" ■'^ !? ^■ast s'irpl'jg9<5 ar? ii.uJu-a- 
tive of nothing in particular. T^-9y indicate of eours'^ a'^und- 
aiit ret^irns fro:.: tlis duties, ^ut the chiaf eouC'^rii is,i*ot wh-^tmr 
th? duties ar? f rui t. f ul , ^'it whether they render the trades pros- 

?rous. L'ommereiai intere.-ts are th.e essential oons i derat ion: 
Txoess of ineoT.13 is a m.atter of c-'rin^i rn.t jv e ind i f ^ t ni.ce . The 

'i..ts of Tie-,/ eh iract T r is t ie of the t\/o syster.is are tnus quit? 
opposite; the Corirnttee of V^ays and I'.eans subordinate:; its 
house-keeping duties to its rnueh wide r , ext ra- eovernment al busi- 
ness; the Chancellor of the Lxehequer su'io rd inat es everyttlinf 
to eeonomiea.1 administration. 

'• This is evidently the m.Qaninr of the easy sove re i£;nt y , in 
* . "* pr^.jtlc"' o^ t^e irour;e,of quest ir.n-^ o-'' supply o' e r questions 
'■■ ' revenue, It is imperative to grant money for t'^e support of 
"■ ^ £; ove ri.r.:ent , ""■• * ^uestioiiS of reven':? r>\-isioi. may '"'e i^r.^t- 

oned v/Jthout inconvenience . The tv»o things do not iieeessarlly 
go hand in hand. as they do in tp.e i^ory.ons. The reports o ' ♦-- 
CJoiiiiriittee of rays and Means are matters o' quit? as hiph priv li- 
ege as the reports of the Comjiitteo on Approp r : ■ t ions , "ut tiny 



(40) 
'-■V no m^ann stand an 2c;naJ ohai.oT rf paJiii;!'' t. *-.-» i^r.n-' "i •' ^ rn f T-,p 
of t, h*^ House aii'-i f^achlng a pa.r,sa.cfi . They hare no Insflpara^jT 
'j'>i.i:^'j r ;i r.i. wit.h t.h'; annua] pra^.ta; the naedsc: supplaea \. : J i 
f or t.hoomJnp vit.hout, any r^ad justMont, ?5 o^ taxation to r.met thT 
ant iij i pat 3d demands , bs a au so tho taxos af? not iaad iii tn? fir.^t 
instane-"? v/ith rafTrGnee to tho expenses which are to bn paid 
out nf their pro«3eeds. If It \.'ere t r.e function of the Comnit- 
t3'; of V'a:.-s and I'eans.as it is of the Chancell'-.r of th.e Lxjhe- 
quer.to adjust the revenue to the expend itures , t he i r reports 

.,,]^ --> as essential a ^ art of trie business ''■^ each session as 
are the reports '^f the C ornni i 1 1 e e on Appropr iat ior.s ; ^ut their 

roposa] s , occupy int , as they do, a lery differeiit place ii. iej is- 
lation.rnay po to the v/al 1 ^ust as the pr'-'posals of t.ni other 
Conni t, t .-50 J5 do at the demand of the chairman of the great spend- 
inf Comjnittee. The figures <■, f the annual grants do not run 

?ar enough to the sun of the annual receipts to make them at 
all dependent "".r '-^illr? which concern thi latter. 

It v/ould seem, that the supervision exer.jised by Congress 
- ■ -• r expenditures is more thornufh than that \^hic*^ 1" excerci.-- 
ed by the Commons in England. In I^I-r the nous'' created a 

tandint Comi.uttee r.n Public Expenditures whos"! duty it snouic: 
" ' "to exam.ine into the state of the several public departments, 
and particularly Ijito 1 av/s making appropriations of money, and 
t r, rei'iort v/b-^t^-ir t- '- -> r^'-nev'? •• av e 'lee;. (■? i <? Sm r r; ed co. 

ith such laws; and also to report frr.m time to time such pro- 



isiniis and arrane^ir.Qnt, s as may bn neeensary to add t.o thfi ocon 
-•^.y of t.ho dgpartnent. s and the accountability of tniir ofricora 

Mt t '■' j t; C'f '! ■ i ^ t. f» ■-» .'jtorw' n.r. t.H.-> r, . ) v ,• r, - r ■ i t f •» .:* o '" -vi'lt f i-, r ^'l* 

tv;o years. It waT not thnia abolished but j t t j urlsd ict loii v/as 
']\id.-?d -inonfst six oth?r Cor 'j?.i t tn-^s on Expenditures in t 
sev3ral department s , to N^hieh v/as added ii; 1360 a seventh , and in 
I 3 ^■'x an eighth. 'i'b.ere is tlius a separate Cor ii.-it t ee for the au- 

it of tne ae.ounts of each of theex9euti\e department s , bes ide 

:ijch the ori£iiial single Cdmmittee on Public Expenditures 
: t arxr' s chargei^ v/itb siijb duties as r^^.ay have been left it in the 

eneral distribution?' The' duties of these eifht Cortr-'.i 1 1 ees an 
" : ^ ■> ^ ■■ "^ ' \, "> ♦ h great minuteness in the Pules. They are "to ex- 

line into the state of tne accounts an:' expenditures resnect- 
i\-ely su'-nnit ted to them, a:;' to eiiquiri and report par t : j ■ i i.r i y * 
whether the expenditures of the respective departi.ients are war- 
ranted by 1 aw; "v/het he r the claims fror^ time to tirie satisfied 

nd discharged by the respective depart; .ent s are supported by 
sufficient vouchers , establ ish int; their justness both as to their 



Cong ress , though constai.tly erecting new committees , neve r 
i'-es vip old onoT.n'"! r <at t, e p h<"'W useless they may have become by 
ibtraction of duties. Thus there is not only the superceded 
'-■rmitt.ee on Public Expenditures but the Corvnittee on Manufac- 
:res al so , wh i cb , v/hen a part of the ojie-tirie Cor-initt ee on Cot-^- 
^rj- a: i"anuf nc tur e s , had plenty to do, but which since the c .- ^ 
t i-on of a distinct Coi:Tmittee on CoMmerce has had nothing to do 
a^ ing nov/ , togethe r \, ith the Coirrni 1 1 ees on Agriculture and In- 
'ian Affairs, no duties assigne^^ to it by the Pules. It rei.iains 
*o he seen whether the Cor.imittee on Cor.imerce will sviffer a like 
eclipn' jause of the gift of its principal duties to the nev; 
-.mini t tee on Rivers and Harbours. 



-haraotir anc' anount ; v/h^t.her sueh eJains ■ jsof^arr^^ 

ut o *■ funds appropriated t he r^^ f o r , ami whetlier all Moneys hav o 

-Ton (J i a^^ ' r<^er' in ar.y.f r.rr^ity v; 1 1, h ap "' r'"'n r i :rt, i n.., ] n.\. «? ; an' v. h "! t -< 
■^ r any , o r what.prr.i isions are i.oviessary to ^^e adoptTci^to pro- 
' j '^ "^ r-iore p ■> r^ -• ? t. ] ■■ -r '-. r t "^e pri^oTr a[in] i ea*- i on '■■ "^ + "> •"ihlic 

loneys.and t <^ sTeun the eovoriirnent frr.n demands unjust m t, no i r 
?■ raet^r or ext r i-\- at a.;.t in their ainoujit . " Besides exirjisJi.j. 



thes"^ funetioi.r; of oarefui audit, they are ,no reo\er , requ i r ■?--' to 
"nport fron tii.ie tr. tir-'e" any plans f >"' r r cj t, r -»nchrnent that may 
arip?ar ad^isa'^le in the int^r^sts of e(3onorny or any measures 
t'^at nay 'he neeessar" to seouri gre.i.ter effieiei.ey or tr, 3nsur3 
s ^ r ■> ^ ? r aeeounta'^:' ■ "i + •' ■•■ '- Contr'^-'^ i: t- '^ -• • '-^ :.a£eine;.+ -■■ *■ *■ ■ -^ 
' epartrneiit s ; to femt out all aliases that may na".:e their ap- 
e-arane-T; and to see to .it- that no deoartiiex.t lia.s usele-^g of- 
""iees in its hureaux.or o- t r or uiider-paid officers on its 
rolls. 

i'ut.thourh these C OTivt i 1 1, e .-» s ar-; so many and so eoinpIet->iy 
armed v/ith powers , indieat. i on-^ are iiot vvantint + iiat more abuses 
r'!i. 1+ i ^ r ■ -^ ii: + >^ -> r? -.r.nr <■•' -^^r t '; t'oan they,\vlth all t. 'i ^ i r ev->", 
are a'-l-i to deteet. The Senat e , t. hr.ue^ it- has n^ similar per- 
manent commit tees , has sot -^ * ^ es disco-- ered d i s l-i^'iies t deaiine?? 
that had altogether escaped the A-ieilance of t ha ejpht. House 
(Jo'.'i'ii 1. 1 ees f and ever. t:->e;e eit^r.t occas J onaji i y , by a Si>::jjii *" - 
*"ort,'irinc to 1 ic^t tranactions v/hieh would ne^•or h '^ ; - 

^arthed in the ordinary routine course of their us'iai procedure 



It x.nr a 55'>l->ijf. e r.r 11 ! i t 1. 1 n of the Senat.? v;h i eh , 'iu r j 2i[? th^ sna- 
sioiis of t, h'3 f ort. y- siv -Tnt h Conerc^ss , d iseov o nd tnat thT " Jon- 
'■ j n r g u t, f 'jiid " '"'■'' +!■'■' T" '"■'"' I r ■*' ■ ■ -> : 1 r f ■ > 1 t ' < > ' '!■•», >?.->;» i ■ r i - 

lirs on t.ho Seeratnry's prj^•at. i n s idonoo , f <■• r exp»JnsJ"" t :=?'ip- 
^ors spread hof^'r-e th-; So e r^i t, ary ' f? iiOi j t i jih, j> f r i.jnu.s , for ioiaOii- 
ad 3 for thT do] Get at j on of thT Soerotary's private palate, for 
'■'^uqu3ts for tho grat j f ioat j on of t'-r? ijr?e rotary ' s hu^i^st al- 
ii^^.for earp-^ts n^ver d^ 1 Jv ^ nd , " ieo " n»-<f>r usod.and s^rvieos 
. ^r ^r rends r3d :' al though thesT \/t n s^erets of \,hi>3n th?? hon3st 
■^ ^. ^? "^ =: of th? louehar."^ su'^rnttTi' \. ith th-? aeeouj.ts pav'b not a 

Jnt . 

It is hard to sae ho\.- thnro Gould ha"^ v^--,,. -ir-'thirir ^ -> t t -; _ 
•^.Jt^l^y or eone 1 us i\- ■■? ii. the annxaal siipe r-i- is ion of th? puM ie 
a'30ounts durinc aiiy hut the latest years of thi- syst^3u r>f .jorii- 

ittee audit. Before I 3 7o our nat i.onal hook- keep ing v/as rnueh 
like that Still in vogue In France. Credits ones grax.ted ran 
r.i-, ■,, i t '-r,-i t. period uiit i J they \,irT exha-isted. Ther-; \/ere alv/ays 
inexpended halanees to coi-ifus^ the aeeounts; and when th"" fiC* 
ur?-^ of the original grai^ts had heen on a t r,r, r •>}:■->. rr.u-. «3;r».]e - 

s \;as often the ease - these halaiaefJs accumulated froi.-. ygar to 
year in ir.iinense surpl uses , sone t ii.ijs of maiiy m i ■> "^oiis ,r. ' ■ -'---• 

* S-Je the report of t!.is c-'Mir. i 1 1 ee ,v/hieh v/as under the ihalr- 

anship of Senator V'indon. 

An illustration of what ths iiouse (Jormnittess f:nd by sp^ci- 
-1.1 effort may he so en In the revelations of t h-e inv -*■••»■' t vt ion 

f the expenses of the notorious "Star Foute Trials e hy 

' ne forty-eighth Congress's (Jom.n.ittee on Lxpenditures i:. • 'J- 

irtr.ient of ^'ustiee. 



-i-i no aceoniit, was f i\ on and whJeh eons^qu'^nt. 1 y affr.rdo? rnnann 
''■■r a]I sorts of ^xt. ravacano'J and po>.*ul vt Jon. In I3 7r this a- 

'!?!"» \,a'^ partial]^' e <"■ r r ■'? o t >■> d ^iy n, ] ;i.\, \(bio""' ]i''it.'»r' -^ m • >^ -i.'-'i- 
mulat, ions to a p->riod of two yTars and laid hands ox. 'nhalf of 
+ -- Tnas'iry on th^? £ 1 7.^ _ r>rr _ rr-r r,r ,,,-r.,,^^ ,'-, ' haJano'^'5 v.hieh 

ad Hy that t irn'^J 'Hg^n anass'^d in 1 1^.-? s'?"' "^ral d^^partnent s ; hut 
1^ I. as not t. i i J I 3 7^= t at suop. a rule of GAponditun and ac- 
c^.'ntjng was ssta^lish-^d as \,ould make intaliieont audit by ths 
Cornmit tees po.ss ihl 9 , ''■•y a prop?;r e i rcjurr.seript ion of the tin'? :!ur- 
'..r Y."hii3h enc'its could b=> drav/n upon without a ngrant.' 

Such is a ganaraJ vievv.i:. brisf and without technical da- 
- a j 1 , n ^" 1 1^-» chi"5f f'?at'ir-^s o^ our financial s -'s t-?' ' , f. f t '^ > diai- 
ir.fs of Congress with the questions of r eT">;.-ie , expenditure , and 
supply. The contrast \/hich this system offers tr> + ^-^ <->]''- \.o rl d 
syster-'s.of v/hieh the British is the most ad\anced type, is n'^- 
' iously a very stri,;in£ one. Tne on; is t ne very opposite of 
t;--; oth-irs. On the one hand is a financial policy regulated hy 
a compact cooperative ministry un-^'^r the direction of a repre- 
ss! tnt ■i''> c^ar ^er , and , on t ^- e nth^.^ hn.;.d,a financial policv di- 

^cted by the rep reseiitat ive Mody Itself \.ith only clerical aid 
frr,; f--' executive . In our practice v ^ ♦ '^ -• - vrpac- f -. .;r,:'-it 
tees are the min i st e rs , and the titular ministers only confiden- 
tial clerks. Vhere is no coiicu r r Jnc; , ji^ * ^' ^ ' ^ ..:- 



Gee Gen.Oarf ield ' s art a j e already once quoted: North iUne r i 
an Review, Vol . I^l. . p.r, 33. 



anofl , ^ntY/3?5ii t.iio saverai snet, ions of this or.nvii t, f. o'l-inlnia t ry , 
' *ioueh their several dut.ias ar<? elf?arJy vary nearly akin and as 

. J ■> 1 r ] v T ^ 1 1 1 ' m. ] j V r? T'l "> ,1 , r' iT n t. . T ' i "^ f -> .1 t ■ I r "^ '"i '" - ' i -^ i : . t ^ i r -.i t i '-. •; 

^adf^rship runs, as I have alr-Tady pointed out , t, hrouf '■ ail our 
. ?t i -^-l ^^^ (".r. ; '-'It jt j •• rnanif^stiy of much rnor> sirjr.n- .- --»- 
qurjnes in f inane iaJ adminis t, rat, i on t. han in th^ dirf^et. ion of 
- 1, ■ -> r concerns of ^ovf? rnM^nt . There can be no douht tnat.if i* 
\ver-3 not for f-i? fact that our rovonues are not retuiated with 
any immediate referei^.je *■ o the expenditures '"■f t •-■e government, 
* -.is r^ethi-d o*" r;r.endinr acc^rdinf] to ti"'> sucE'^stions '^^ one 
' ody and taxing;' ii. o^^dieneg to the suggest jons of anothir en- 
•■ i r -» ] y '-■3'^+^ net v.'Ould ■■ery quickly ^-"rinr u'^ ir.t^ •' 1 •? f r "^ '• - : it 
v.r.ul :' unquestionably ^reak down under any attempt to treat rev- 
enue an' e^.penditure as mutually adjustable parts of a sinfie, 
uni form, sei f- eons istant syster.^.. Tney can h^ so treated only 
when they are under the management of a sincl- body; oi^iy v/non 
ali financial arrangements are based upoii schemes pnijared '^y 
a fev. men of trained r-iiiids and accordant principles \,'ho can act 
.. : t h a ;, r; V :3i T "^ ^ T ■^. n t and \,''t'-i Ti-^rfT'it c'~'3i'r 1 ■■' ijice iii each othir. 

-.en taxation is regarded only as a sourcT of r•3^•enua and the 
cf^.iT'' ohjTct -- ' f iii-ii. J lai f.ianagei ; * is t ivi graduatio]. ^ '' o-jf- 
- lys by incf'm.e.the credit and debit sides '"■f the account must 

^■r-n under a s"'xicl^ -V *■ '^' ''^'^ proper., y "'^al ai:ic ed : or.a^ ' i ' is 

tho.-3'» officers \.b.o raise the money must see and bo guided by 
*he books of those who spend it. 



T* e ann'"t , t, ho n f ora , ^"> nas'^nabiy T'^j far -'^d as :nnf f i r of 
s'lrprise that our fii:iariCiaJ poiicy has h-^on Without oonsiston- 
j or c^ "^ T roncy , \. i t >•"-. ti t p r f'C ro s fj .i\' ••> e '■^ : . ^ ■> : 'i ■> t y . ',1 .- ■> r, . , j / ^i^ ■) _ 
d'?r.ee!5 of dr?slen to ^n disQOvernd in it appoar in trios'? f'?v. ^1- 
''■i^iitary f^atur3s v/hich \/-^r? ii ij^ rf5.ss'3d upon i^ n: tne fint 
' days '■'f th? f ove riinent , when Uoner"5ss dsonndTd upon such men as 

in: 11 ton and Oallatjn for guidance in putting the finances ii.to 
shape. As far as it has aiiy iiAariaoJe characteristics or any 
traceable heredity, it is the hand ■'\.-ork of th3 sagacious men who 
first proside'.l o\ ■* r th--^ Treasury de nartr-ient . Since it has "^ee;, 
altof-ether in the hands of Congressional Cor-naittees it has so 

.ywarcUy shiftid fror,i Oi^e role to another and has \;it- such 
erratic faeiiity changed its principles of action and its modes 
of speech to suit t:\^ temper and tastes of tog times, that o;.e 
Y.ho studies it hardly ^ecom.es acquainted v/ith it in one decade 

"■f'-re he f-'nds thao that was a seas'-'Ti quite apart frf.r-; and un- 
like Sot»-' those Y/hJch v.ont hefore and those which succeeded. At 
almost e^-ery session Congress has made som.e effort, more or loss 

: te rmined , to<,ards changing t'-" r-^i-ejiue system m soi.ie a^^sen- 
i tiai portion; and that systerri has never escaped radical aJfjra- 
* "• on for ten years together. Had revenue heeii graduat -> ' -" ♦ •^-' 

--mparat ivel y steady standard of the expend itures , it m.ust havo 

Ten kept stable and cal jul a'^l e ,• but depending, as it has don« , 
on a m.ueh-debated and constantly fluctuating industrial policy, 
it has b^Tii regulated in accordance with a scheme >,'hich has pas 



(h7) 
sTd t.hroiifh a*? rianv phases as th-Tcn havrj hoo]! v i e i ^ 3 i t,ud ts and 
vagaries in t ^-^ f c. rt. uiio?? of eor.:; n ro ■; and t,ha taot ios ^f partlos. 

This is th"^ r "-■ r ■• r ■•narka'^l '^ •-••.i..?-. ..nr, ^ i i fisoai quTr;- 
tions Congress acts vv J t. h 00ns ids rabl -^ dol iS? rat, i 011 and care. 
!' liiai-o iaJ I et' i s 1 at. T o.. usuaijy.if not al v.-ay s . oe .:up i '33 'iy T'C tri-? 
most proninont plaei in t.na husimss of >-»aeh sTssion. Thou^n 
tr'nr qu'istjons aro oft.on dJspr^sed of at odd inoraent s , in nasto 
and v.it.rioiit. thought , quest ions of r^venus a^i ! supply ar^ aiv/ays 

, gi\ en full measurT of debate. The House of Represei.tat ivos , un- 
'^r ant, 'p. ority of the Pule ''^efore referred to,v.'*iieh enahjes it, 
as it v.ere.to projeet the preT-iou?5 question into Uonrnitt.ee of 
*"? '."hole, by pro->-idint_ f r, r the o. isehar[.'9 of tr. at Coiariittee from 
the further eons ide rat ion of any '^ill that is ii. its hands, or 
' '.at nay be about to be referred to it, after ai ^ ar.iendi-vent s 
"pendinr and that may be offe-red" shall have been acted upon 
without debat e , se i don hes itates ,\/hen any ordinar:' b-jsiness is 
to '^e ooii-^ i d e red , to forbid to the proceedincs of CoMi.iittee of 
' .-:e Vhole all freedom of discussion aiid , coiisequezxt 1 y , alfos t aiJ 
iscretion as to t'i~e action * '■ ''^e ta;;eiij but th.is muzzle is se;- 

I dom put upon the laout h of the (Jorjii 1 1 ee Nvhen appropriation or 
tariff bills are to 'e cons ] de red , unl e s s the discussion in Corn- 
it fee v/anders off into fields quite apart from the proper mat- 
* -i r of the measure in hand, in \.hJch ease the douse interposes 
* o check the irrelevant talic. Appropriation bjjis ha^e . however, 

k as I ha-'-e shown, a much hither privilege than havs bills affect- 



(43) V 

f 

j nc f.h°f tariff, and instances ar? n^'t. want inc In whJch tha chair- 
man nf the Cor.D.ii t te'* o^i Appropriations ha?j manat'^d to engross 
th5 t irp.a of ths ilous:"? in the (Msposal of m-^asuro^ proparTi ^y 
^ T ", Cor V ' "i ^ t -> .-> f r, t ■'^ ■> > M t i r ■■ •^ •■ J '1 *=; i ''■ n '"■ ^ :• ii"' .v,' t. i r, ii \,'ii at. i'^' '^ r r, 
important hills r^port^d >>y t n'* (Jommitteo of V'ays and Mean.*! af- 
fir the r;io53t. car-jful ansl 1 a^r.u r j ou«? d"? i J bq rat 1 oii . iii.s pnrota- 
tives ar? never disputed iii suoh a eont3?;t for jons '^ds rat 'on 'rs- 
t\.-3^n a suppiV and a revenue 1^ il 1 , h3ea'!s ^ th'JS'; t\v. sm'-'^, ^'j t -5 do 
not undrsr our system n'?eessarily go hand in hand. V'ays and 
Means '->ilis nay and should ^e aoted upon, hut supply hiiis nust 
he . 
^y It should he remarked in this connect i «->n,noreove r , that , much 
as Confr""---^ +al:.:s a/^out ■fJS'jal que - t i r.ns , Y«he]i-;^ e r n -> rr 1 t f -»rl to 
do so "^^y the selfish Apptopr J at ions c;or:ui 1 1 ee , i t s talk is very 
iit^ie needed hy tne hig \<orjti r.utsJGT its halls. The note- 
v/orthy fact to ^/hich I have already called att -jiit ion , that svon 
the n.os^ thorough dehates in Concress fail to av/a(;en any es^i^'" 
ii:e or active interest ix: the minds of the people, has had its 
ciost striiiine illustrations in the course o *" our financial lef- 
j^_nt-!r,n: for th'"'ur^"' th-'> .' i <? .^ii^; ■■ i r.i <? \,hi,3i^ >->;v't ta'.;en place i:. 
Coneress upon financial questions have hoen so f requej.t , «»r. nrr.- 



* 



- ' : 1 , and so t hor^ugh , ent r^s s J li.. so l.xr v .,i,rt r, -■ t . . i -. 

of the iiouse oii th«ir -jvery re cur rejice , t hey seer^ m aJi;:ogt evory 
instai:c"! to have made scarcely aiiV impression at all upon tne 
puhlic mind. The CoiiiatQ Act of IJ73.^y \.hich silver >vas de- 



(49} 

rnoiiet. j iod .had beeii '^-■^'■r- t-.-. eour.try nany ysars.f^r' it r-'i.-hT' 
adopt. J on, having "He^n tim^ and agaJn eons id^^red by Comnitt. e'?s of 
Cont r •? s s , t, ir':-3 and aeain printed ajid. discussij j zi oi. ? g:a;"^ or 
another, and havinc finally gained aaeaptancn apparently ^y 
shTer persistence and iiapor tunit y ; The rosuinptio)i Act of I-37r. , 
tr.o.ha-l had a liim career of repeated considerations by Cornmit- 
tT^s , repeated p r int j ngs , and a full di-'ciissJon by Congress; and 
'■^* \ih'ii\ t. e "Bland Sil\er uiii" of I 37T v/a-^ r.j, j t. «; \.av thron,- 
the mills of lecislat. ion sone of rno-^Jt prordnent nev/spapers of 
tro country d.^^ia,c^u with confidence that the Resumption Act 
had ^een passed inconsiderately and ii; hast e , air ost secretly 
indeed;and several members of (Jr.nb^'^ "^^ had pre\"iousJy co - 'i..- 
ed that the demr.net i zat ion scheme of 1373 had been pushed sur- 
reptitiously throuGh the courses r,f it.^ passage , (Jonc ress r.;u mg 
beeri trjj'-.ed into aeeer.tii., it, doing it scarcely kne^; v/h.at . 

This indifference of the country to what is said in Congress, 
■"■int ii.g , as it r.v musly does, to t ;ve fact t :-iat , t hr.,i ; h fnn Cor-- 
rnittees lead in 1 e r j s 1 at ion , they lead without concert r.r re- 
sponsibility aiid lead nobody i:i part icui ar , t ;iaf is, no compact 
and organized party force v;hich can be made accountable for itr, 
policy, has also a further s i£iiif i canee -.. i t h regard to t ive op- 
••^n rt '11.1 t i e-r a/.'' oanajjtier^ of the constituencies. The doubt 
and confusion ''•'■ thr,,i, t, v/hich must necessarily exist in the 

1^ • .:. r, r f - -, . ' r.r-\t-r r, <" -, r ,^ > r ': ;i s t r, the berjt \.av of ex- 
erting their will in infiueneinir ' iction of an assembly 



,. r. s--? orfani zat. ioii is so eomplex , whosT .i-jt. s are apivaronf. i y so 
iphazar(\and i2:i which nspons ihil it,y is spread no thin , t,hrov/s 

oi.s + It u-?i:c ion into t'r.rs har.ds of Jooal pri i 1 1, i j i ms v/no an r-'on 
■ isi'-iJa anc* tan^i^iR than ar^^ t!^^ leaders o <" Conf nss , and p^n- 

r-at '=?s , ths while, a profound distrust of jonf nss as a ^ody whoge 
actions cannot ^e r-'Jc';'"'no i '^-» f r. r ^haiid ^y :^ny s t an--' ar i r, f »-) ror-ij -- 
■?s mad? at gleet Jons or any programmes an:.ouneed hy conventions. 
Const ituTi.e i Tr3 can watehi ami undorsta..' \ ^ ■><,,■ "^-rr-'^'i lead^irs 
who display plain pur.os'Js and act upon theii v^ith promptness; 

■;' ' ^y CMu.ot watcli or u..c' ? rs t and forty odd Stdin'.ii.t '^oi;!iiit- 
'"j^s each of which £03s its own v/ay in doing v/hat it e >-:. \/itr'.- 
out any special retard to the pledges of eit!v?r of tna parti:?'; 
from which its m^emhership is drawii. In short, \;e lack in our 
political life the eondjtio..s m.ost. --?s =!ent. ial for the formation 
'•> *■ ar. ri. i^ t •< T •-> a,.'' e ^ f t e t i''- e nir-ilje onjiijo],. "'ph^ c hara i t "; r i s- 
tJcs of a nation capable of public op inion" , says Mr.Bag^hr.t, 

'^^ saeacir.us of polit. Jea^ critics, "is that - - - - parties 
-- 1 organized ; in each then will ^e a leidf>r,in each tneri 
wiii '^i sorv? looked up t o , an.d many \/ho lor,... up t C' tr.u::: tno r.p- 
inion of the party will hT forrved and suggested hy the fev.-,it 

• criticised an-' accepted by the many." And + ' i '^ just 
th"! sr.rt r.f part-- r, r r ^r.Jzation v.-hich v;"! have not. '^ur parties 
ha\ e titular leaders at the polls ii. the persons of eandlditos 
and norninal cr';'?ds in the resolutions ^^ e '"■r.''- en* ^ '■:","' t ;\r. ■;■»- 



Essays on Pari iar:ient > ry Peform., 






^ 



.^1 



t 



1 ? J t ^-}\v ill Y/horn t." fr.-^ ''or tiuidanoT In the generai pojj'r" '' 
i 'if? isl at ion , or to whom to Joo:-. for surc^s^ i^^'HS of opinion. V'hat 
u-.v^riat troup o '" ;-3ii,e.'.;. ^p'^ak for t •■'.2 Ho jjuhi I'jai: party or f o r 
' ■»?; ]?9noeratie party? V"h'3n our Mo<?t eonsp icuous and Infiuen- 
tia^ poJ i t i i ai.s say anythir.e a'lout future 1 -^fj i'sl at i on no ono 
supposes that thoy ari sp9akine for the i r 'part y , a^; those who 

i' 3 authnrity; thTV ar'3 icnovm to speak onJ y for thernsel\'«s a;:' 
t ;> -1 i (- ^T< a, ] ] 3 r-^' < p r* i n t -> ^ <"• 1 J r. \ ,■ j 2 1 •' <">■'' e i"' 1 1 e a f "i I -'> "^ ail'"'' ■f r J i . . ' s . 

The pros^rit rrilation'^ 'Hetv»'??en Con{.r3ss and public opinion 
rivir.d u.s of ti^at tii:a,in the rei^-n of Geort"^ I I [ , \.''".3;i" th3 ^ul,; 
of the English people found itrjeif pov/erless to control tm 

ourse of Lngiish (vovernrnent " , when the tiov 'i r..v^(ilit was ■ j "• 

'ro:-! "that general mass of national sentifnent on vvhieh a cov- 

rnrnent can aiom safely t^^-'Uj.d itself." Then it was that 
.jrjh p'T-lia op 1 i.ir.r. , " ro''''-'ed as it v.a.s of all praetjiial povv^, 

nd thu!5 stripped of the f^eiijir of respond ih i^ ity whlol^ ' 
jonse i<".visne - s of power earraes \.ith it","^ecjane iii.r'C' *■ 

..different to the ii^nerdbl progress nf the ac^.hut at the same 
+ "! ' e - - - - ho.="itii3 to ^o^• -• r:.; :ent because it ',,h-- ^■c" ;r;..:J..f , 

isioyaJ to the Cjro\/n , are rse fr^r, I'ar 1 iaraent . For th"; first 
.'^ last tir-e ------ I'ari iarnent was unpopul ar , am! 3ts op- 

onents secure of popularity." C'oncress has in our oy.ji '^ay ^e- 

one divorced from the "general mass of national aentlnent" s' 

.; ■'•eeause tuere is ..'■■ . leans ''y whi'i'^ ♦-'"'' ' 'r,y ■■>, ■% f .; r, <• ♦ it 



r^eii' s'History of the En£llgh Peopl e , " Vol . I 



(S2) 

nat'i'^llal r; Tit iT^^i.t. enri r'^idilv ^ t r^. i<^ti?rT' in ] o r i ?? 1 n.t, i r>;. . 
lug a^out. as it dens to pieaso ai i sorts r.f cr-i y n t, t T»g eom- 

t> o eunniiie , the hoiiSst a,.c) t ir -jI ess .C'oncri^s 'Jvadfis ^judg- 

Mtu'Jncies oan hardiy till v/hfjth'jr the v/r.ti;s of any particular' 
com - ve boon good or 'lad : at tlie openint of :ts sessions 

o det r; rr.-iinat e polijy to looi; for\;ar'i to. and at tnsir 
elosn no- aceonpl ish'Jd plans to look ^ae',: upon. l.urini;- its 

.• : ^ I j f "> - 1 jr'-> ^r,th part IT?! rnay ha'-r? f/a'jillatT' n,!!-" rr.r.'i astray, 
poliei'2s may ha'o shjftid and v/andored , and untold -.'• tr,- 

X 

'^' "*t"n sorio £ood rnay have ■-io.3n doii^ ; '■"^•■^ ..'^"'n al ] "^- 

■ i'3-,.Td it is ..ext to impossible oftentiuies to distribute justly 
' v3 blatr^ and tho praise. A f^N/ stubborn eo ^' ' -j -j-i.i^i. ua,:' '■ " 
at the bottom of m.ueh of tb."; harm that has baaxi ^.■routht , but 
they do not roprfjsent th^Jr party, and it cannot b?? clear'* to tho 
votor bow ■^ 1 r; "i^allot j <? to chanr^ thn habits of CJoncr^^ss for 
the ^ett?r. He distrusts CoiiCr^i^s because he feiis that he can- 
- * cont fi it . 

The -vote r .more ov e r , feel s that his v/ant of confidence in 
uontre-is is justifie' ' • v.ri^t n- ;ir;> of the pov^^r of • '-• - -"ip t 
lobbyists to turn legislation to thoir own uses. He hears of 
■--.ormous subsidies bo££od and obtained; of pensions procuiji o.i 
-ommission by professional peiision solicitr.rs; of appr ^■■■S 

ide in the interest of dishoiiflst contractors: and he is not 



(-3) 
ait.oe3t.bnr unwarrmt 3d li. ' joiic 1 u-? ion tnat tnesT afj svaia 

inherent jn tho very nat.tir^ of Concrnss , f o r thero 
■'■:' ' ♦hat. tho pn\,'-!r of thi lo'^Syjst ^joiis J s t. s jn C'"'';** part, .j' 
■-.t altmthor.in tb.i faojiit.y af^ordod him Sy thn C ornr.T 1 1, t o 9 
system. Ho must , in t no natural course of thinfs.havo m.any most 

7ns int t;om.mi 1 1 o -is . It woul:' he impraet j ea^ti o to wor;. 

■s li. f :• ^road fiol' ' '" t - ■; -,.rr,l-; iiousi.'nit i;. *-- 
^r.ship of a UoT'ir^i t to T ho find.<? manaBoahle numhors. If b.o ean 
pain th"! oar of tho Commit t o ^ , o r of any -ii-;f i uon* -cti p'-'ftior. c>t 
',.-.0 has pra.jt .^oal ly gained- tho ea. cf tho iiouso itsolf: if 
1?? plans one o g^t footing in a Committoo report, thoy may os- 
' J r it j 3 j ':!'^i al t opo th? r , and it Y;ili,in any ease, ho v?rv dif- 
"ioult to dislodE"? them.. This a.^eos s ih ii it y of the Committoos 
v., ^ ,,+ „.;,'., _„ ..j,->^ f. ^^ il ] og i t imat o influoneo-^ ^i..-- vpp '-'"■-^ ,■ • ^t 
all points of 1 oj; isl at ion , hut i^o Uommit teos aro affected hy it 
so often or so uiif ortuiiatei y as aro the ooi.imi 1 1 oos v.n.^ :'■..- 

'r-.. t ;m..3 pii'-iie m.oneys. They aro naturally the ones whr.go fa- 
• ^ur is oftonost and most im.o rtunate 1 y , as v/eli as most iii-sidi- 
- us i y , s'-.'u ht ; ail'-' no doscriptjon of our sygtom of rovonuo^ap- 
ropr lat ion.and supply would '-^o eomploto \nthout mention of tho 
> ; '! ' ^'.j t ur 7 rs ^,'bo •juj^'i' ''.* "" ^ • "" -^' ''■iir or t ;^ -> tjrir-'ri.i 1 1 i t of V'ays 
and Moans. of t -; interested persojis \/ho wallc attendance upor. 

^orr ' lbs idy- seoke rs who '30urt the Cor.Tnitteo on Appropria- 



(54) 

t 1 011-3 . 

f'y last, point of crit JcaJ eorninont. upon our gyst^i.i of finan- 
cial admin i St. rat ioji i shall horrov. from a perspicacious oritjc 
of Coner^^s ional m-^thods who r cantly wroto thus to onn of thi 

'3t of American journal.s: "So lone as tho Dr. aide of the na- 
tin;.ni ;v.3 ■^'"•nr. ♦. Js ma)ia(^' 'T^ '"i'-' or." '^"^^ of r'"^, ..i.j^:' t, hT Cr.'!J!"? ^y 
anotbar set, both sets v/orkine separately and in r5 Tcret ,\/i t nout 
cii.^ pu'^1 ic re spons i bii it y , ail,: without any ii.t -^ --• -^.ition -"t * '^ "• 

rt of th--j 3xecuti-<,e official who is nominally responsible; 
so 1 on£ as thes3 sets.b^ing composed largely of n^v; m^. nery 
' ,,0 years, ci\e no attention to business except v/hen Congress 
is in session, and th\is spend in preparing plans the v/hole time 
Y.hlch ought to ^e spent in public discussion of pl an" ^1 r:?3<lY 
t /ired , so that an immense budget is rushed through without dis- 

>-.-.c.Tr.-- -i 1 , -J YieT''. or t .-» p. r'c5,-,'<^ - " ' [ "^ t qo lonp t '•'' T f j n.^.T. c e "^ '..ili 

fo from bad to worse, no m.atter by \/hat nam.e you call the party 

i:. pOY/er. Ho ot. -r iiut"ion or. earth attempts su.jr: a tiling ,or 

could attom.pt it without sooi; coming to grief, our salvatdon 

' ^us far coxislsting in an enormous income ,?.- it n practical iy no 

dr^in for i.nlitary expenditure." ^Inquest ionably this strir^as 

a very vital point of criticism. Congress spends its time 

r. r . i n_ sect ions, at pr^pariiit pi in- , ir.st Tad of confininr it- 
^or a numerous assembly, 
sT]f ' ' Js manifestly the much more useful and proper func- 

tion of debating axid revising plans pnpnr'*' s-^*"'- • *" - - it-: 



G. P . " , in N.y.Nation.Mo^ . 3Cth. , I 332. 



(r.5j 
eons idorat J r^n ^y a cor-v.iss ■'on of sitiljqd mran.old in political 

rac t iC'^ an'' ■'p. 1 Qf, i s ] > M-i -> h -i ', i t _ \ ^ r, r, -. r, r r i . i ] \ ^ r ^ i - n -i.-i r t 
f rot:; its ovai . thou£l-\ dflpandent upon it. a wiJJ. il^n.j. ot. (r^r 
v.f. rd-? , i "? ano t,h.->r fjii^ir no ji^tiii^^ t r> i.r.j'jll'?? quist, ioii Hi,g t, o 
th'? ^est, " 1 e£ j <3l at jve eomrni f??5 ion" . our Committees fall short 
of boinc the "best forr>. of conrni.'^R ion not only in heine too nu- 
merous -"'Ut also in ^ein^^: intTgral parts of f^e body whieh t-hey 
l9ad,ha\inc i'^ lif"? aparu fro;.: it. Probably t^.e '-^est v.'orklng 
,'r ■ ■• 1-i ^ ^ i OT- v/oul^" '^f? onT which should m.ak^ plans for c'^''"' f J~" ■Ti'^- 
independent 1 y of thi r ? p r "? s'^nt at Jv e body and i}i immediate eon- 
' ..' ,, ^ * '- ♦ ^ -• praatieal -y^^-xir-^ of adminis t rat ioii , '^vt \,^j..'h 
should in all eas?s look to that body for the sainit jonin; 
' -OS--? plans and should be injied i at ?i y r o s r.oiis ibi e to i* ' ' r 
* -^ir success \/hen put into operation. 




IX 



T il E S E N A T L, 



"This a Senate. a Senato of oquals.nf rnoii of Individu- 
al honor and personal chitrai: t e r , ano' of abgolut, -? inde- 
p^ndi^ne"}. V'o 't;no\, no rnasters.v/^ aeknowl odt*^ no dic- 
tators. This is a hall for mutual consultation an'1 
d i seuss ion , not an arena for the exhihitioi 
pions." -- Daniel V^ihster. 



The Sanatn of the 'Jnited States has 'leen 'both extra' 

raised and unreasonably disparaged, aeeordinc to the predis- 
position and temper of its various critics. In the 
soni^ it has a statliness of character, an emiixency of pr^rot,^" 

t i\- e , and , f o r thi nf-. s + part , a \ii:^c]r,TA of practice sue 

er deliberative body possesses, v/hiist in the estmation of 



* " "• r -^ 1' 1^ i.c \/ , wiia* ^■'- "^ " i* 



hra^^ ■'■■,rs.'-i'> f r r "> 



^iect company of leisurely "bosses", in whose companion- 
s .". 1 ;:' f ;"!-? fe,. ..;3n of cnaraeter aiid :iit,'i i^uryose \,r.o j^ai 

^m'ership find little that is encouraginp and no- 
*iinG that is congenial. Now, of course neither of thes^ ex- 
tf^me ooDnions so much as resembles the uiicoloured t ru or 
i,n that truth be obtained by a judicious mixture of their mild- 
■ _^ _ . r .T ' -i .-. r f -^ _ 'i^he tr'.'f- i '-■ , i.'' t ''O ■• ? i ^ •'' i. ■ is. ."^o man"' oth- 
rs , somethinr quite commonplace and practical. The Seniit"" 
i3t v;.iat t'.ii ;:'-.■; r ,.,.,. , , ^ ^ t , ,- . 



life in •■hi- country mn 



f? chosen fr 



ranks of active pr.iiiioians " mce v/itn a a aw r 

selection to v/hich ct. ^; 1 ■> i J si at u res are commonly 



(2) 

and It is probable that it eont ains , e onseqijf>nt 1 y , t he boat r.-. 
tn.at our r,yst9VA ealis into politics. If t ho 3 o host rnoi\ ar-^j not 
Cood.it is because our systaij of gcvn rnnont fails f- attract 
better nen b v its prizes, not "I'^eause the country affords or 
could afford no fimr natnriaJ. 

It has bean usual to suppose that the Senate v/as just what 
the Constitution intended it •■ ■ '^oj that because its pi • ^ • n. 
the federal system v/as exalted the aims and character of it-: 
•■^ ors \.ouad naturally be found to bo exalted as v/eilj that 
that because its term v;as long its foresi£'.ht woul. lone al so; 

or that because its election was not directly of the people dern- 
apo^y v/ould find no life possi'-Ue in its halls. Rut the Senate 
is in fact, of course , no thing more than a part, though a consid- 
erable part, of th3 public service, and if t h.^ general coiv' "• t i n; ^ 
of that service be such as to starve statesmen and foster dema- 

-ruen, the Senate itself will be fu'x of tue iattor i; tjid , s im- 
beeaus*^ there are no others available. There cannot i 

separate breed of pu -1 ic men rearerl specially ff'r t^ne iienate. 
It must be recruited from the 1 ov/e r '^ranches of the represent x- 

ve system, of which it is only the 'toprnost part. No stream 
can b-; p-irer t" ■,, ^ * -^ nr-i r.3 "^."^ . T^be "en^t-? a iv. ba-\-e ir. it 1.'- 

■tter men than the best men of the House of Kepresentat j\ as; 
uiid if the House r,f Rai^reaentat ives attract * . *" ^r.- in- 

•rior talent, the Senate riust put up v/ith the s i,:.:e sort, I 



(3) 

thin.: it safe to s<ay , thoref or 3 , f.hat , t hr.U( h it r.a- i.r.t b5 a 
good as could be wished.tha S'jnatT is as goot it oaii he un- 

our polities, v/hatevor that prr.duat may hn . 

In^^i^der to understand an,d ai-preeiaf * *"• ii it, j ,'■-*-■"*•■ > 
one must- rcnov/ th^ condition- '"•f public lif.-; li. this cc 
■ .' r? those conditions'' \'5ii,ni t iv^ first place. tr.?iy ars 
not what they v/Br3 in the early years of t-m fedoraJ governmert: 
they are not what they v/e r ? ■^ven tv/enty years ago: for in t 
as ill o^'her thir.gs.the v/ar ^^t\. •:3,->ii tl^o .States •■^ivi.'^ on-* distinct 
period and opens another. Betv/een the great constructive 
statesmen of tne revolutionary days -m.; the recoiist ruct iiit {'f^l- 
iticians of the 'sixties then caue into public place and leg- 
islative influence a great race of const itut i'"'nal la\,yers. The 
questions v/hleh faced our statesmen while the Constitution was 
a-makine v/ere in the broadest sense questions o^ p'-.lit3es; but 
the questions which dominated our public life after the federal 
eoverniient had been sueeessfuily set up were questions of legal 
int erpretat i ^ ^ -'i:*- ^.-^ oni " lav/yer.s cr.uld erannJe v/ith. /A 1 
natters of policy, all doubts of J et' isl at ion, even ail difficul- 
ties of diplomacy v/e re measured . ■ i ' ■'' ■ f cor." * ^ ^ ■; ' ^ ''•"^ "" ' '"''"- 
struct ion. The r ; \,'aa hardly a sinei*? affair of pubi ie eoncor. r 
wbich \/as not hung upon some peg of const a t at j '^ n -^ Of' ;"• 



w 



test ing- rooms '"•f on-; or another of tho contend injj sehools of 
const it ut ionaJ into rp r"? tat ion. Const ituM onal isauos v/ero ovi^r 
♦ '- "■ t idos , quf^s t i ons of adriin i "- * r i ♦ i-v '^ r.r,]i,3v saI ir.ri jt, f^ • 
the 9 dd ITS, of polities. 

Tho PepunJieans und t r ^'eff^rsoix dr^jw th-?ir nour istirMen^ fro:; 
constitutional b'3liof no le.'^s than did th=? Federalists; tht? 
Whigs and Democrats of a lat'?r d-iy lived on \.ncit w i^5 Tssential- 
ly the sane diet, though it was served in sliyhtiy different 
forms; and the parties of to-day are thernsel-\ es fain to £0 to 
th^?;e cooks '"'f the olden time v/henevar they desire strong meat 
to fortify them, against t^^eir present debility. The grea^ • - 

tions attenJin,: the admission of new Stat-^- to t.b^ 'Jnion ai: ! 
the annexation of foreign territory, as \,ell as all the contro- 
versies wnicn. ca;-;e in t ae train of the contest over slavery and 
the reserved powers of the Gtat3s, v/ere of the Constitution eon- 
stitutional; and v/hat other questions wer? then living -- save 
thoTi v;hlG>'. found root in the great charter's im.nl if^d powers. 

about v/hieh there was such constant no is 7 of debate? > I^ will 

; rememhared that -"^r- <"ew pu^M'i''^ ■ opposed li.tTrnal improve, 
ments.for instance. on the ground that they were inv.ise or un- 
called for. IJo one who tooit a s tate smaiil i",;e v ie\, ^f * '■^'^ r:mtt'>r 
could fail to see that the opening up of the groat wator-ways 
of the country, the construction of roads, tn; uaif. jnt '■' «^ 't'^ >••' 3 . 
or any public wor.--. which mig t facilitate Inter-btate conuaerce 



V making iiite ref.urse '^etweon the various portinns of the 'Jnlon 
o.isy and rapid, v;as sane t ioii;3d ;;y ovary cons id jrat ioj ..isdo;.i. 

as hain£ in eonfrornit. y with a poliey at onco nation^ 
spirit, and universal in its henefits. Tho dou'->t was, not a'- • 
v/!iat it \.ould ^if? ■'I'Jst all'' n'^st. provide, t •■ r, in/iut as t r, ..hat 
it would -^9 lawful to do; and the chief opponents of schemes of 
^ntarnal improvement ^ased thoir dissent upon a carofui medita- 
tion of the languaee of the Constitution. V^ithout its plain ap- 
proval they v.oui;' not rriove.evexi if they ha : to sta..u sti^i ai i 
t r.e 1 r days . 

It v.as , too ,^. ith many prof.-^ssions of tnis spirit tnat tne tar. 
iff was dealt v.itn. It ran suddenly to the front as a : ijitant 
party question in I 333, not as if a great fr^^e-trade movement 
h3,.-» •h->7T-' ^ ^t. afoot which v/as t.rv anticipate tV,"» ■ Ission ''•f Gol- 
den and Bright, but as an issui betv/een federal taxation and tm 
constitutional privileges of the States. ThT agriculturii 
States v/ere being, as they thought, very cruelly trodden down un- 
der the iron heel of tnat protectionist p'oiioy to wnos"? en- 
' i^ronement they had themselves consented , and they fetched thoir 
hope of escape from the Constitution. 'rh<-^^ federal govornm.ent 

. . .q i; O c; t i r,7i-.i V, ] Y :. 'i r; r; -» -^ 3 <5q f ]■ '\ ■ ' rt'lv 1 t. t r> ' anil t . , . j, t "•" c'ip'^ijt »" r mt 

of tie fundamental 1 aw , t ne right to impose dut ie«5 on inp'"'rt':; 
'jt Md that ritht carry v. i t h it • ■-. ^ .privilege of layint 'i=- 



(fi) 



ritninatinc dut.io?; for other piiri>ose3 than that, of raising Jop- 
iti;nat'^ rriyenu'i'^ Could t h.i^ Constitution h ivo rnoant that :joutn 
Carolina mieht he taxod to maintain t^-^ rnanuf aotuf^s of Nov/ tnf 
land? Q>^> 




%^^ 



(J 1 '^ s "^ unoii t '-- T h?.:?l.s of t •-, '^ . r"!.at t .v r i f f*^ jo nt rr,\- f> r - v f . f t*-'a1 



I time earno the stupendous eontost ov ir tna ri^ht of s'Jeession 
ad the abolition of siavery; an'l attain in tnis cjontost, as i.n 
ail that had gone before. th>^ party v/hieh was being hard driven 
souGi^t rgfu£e in tne Constitution. This too was, in its first 
stages at least, a lawyer's question. It eventually slipyjed out 
of all lawyerly control and was given over to b^ settled by tni 
: sterii and sa\-af ^ proe^sses of war; but it stayed with tiie eon- 
stitutional la..yers as long as it could,- and would have stayed 
•-Ti to the en'-I had it not itself boen bigger tnan t'le cor. 



T + - + 



stitution and nixed with such Interests and sucii passions as 
wen '--leyond tn? control of le^.isi t^ur-js or -- ; i a,,- oour t s . 

Such samples of the character v/hieh political questions have 

itherto borne in t:^is country are sufficient to remind all 
readers of our histr.ry of what have been the chief features of 

ur politics, and may serve without furtier elaboration to il- 
a ust ra'*' ^ * " "" DO in* ' . ' "■ ^ ''■ e* ^r*^'^ •"■ ■> t "• . T ■^ "i ;i : i f !■> ^ f ho\ 

such a course of politics woulc^ affect statesmanship and polit- 
ical leadersnjp 



\ .'. : J. e que s t a ons a f f '; : L j iit, t ;: 



(7) 

t ion of 1. 11-; Constitution won t h'^ etiiof and most imp^ratJ- • 
questions prossing for ge 1 1 1 eiiient ti^eat lawyers wero in deiuand : 

a.n^ fr-">at ]a\/verr; wa r^^ , ao oo rd inr ] v , f o r t heon J ni in satisfaction 
f the demand. In a land 1 ilc? ours.wher^ litigation is faoi.i- 
tat3d h^' ♦--> -^sta-il i shi.ient of many open and imi)artial eoif-* •, 
prsat lawyers ar^ a much m<^r^ i>lentiful product than gr-?at ad- 
ministrators, unless thsro 'ho also soi.-ie OAt rao r a j nar^/ L.';aiiK ' " " 
the encourageinent of administrative talents. V'e ha\ e , aoec rdin,:.- 
ly,alv;ays had plenty of excellent 1 awye rs , though v/e have often 
had to do without even toierahie adr.iinist rato rs , and seem des- 
tined to endure the ineoxwenienee of hereafter doin^i without 
any constructive statesmen at all. The constitutional issues 
of former times wer-5 so ^ie and so urgent that they hrought 
creat advocates into the f i el d , desp it e all the tendencies t ^ ^ r -> 
Y/ere in our system tov/ards depriving leadership of all place of 
authority. In the presence of questions affecting the very 
structur? and pov/ers of the federal government . part ies had to 
rally with definite purpose and espouse a distinct creed; and 
'^.. * ■'■'' maintenanc"" or ov;rthr'-^, of slaver'.' had ceased to be 
a question o^ constitutional right and had become a matter of 
■jf-nt ent i On '-.etv/een sentJ. tii' .i-ii - vested r ight s , betwoen i 7^ t •> r'-» ^ ' 
and nassionat-; f eel ing , the re was of course a hot enerf eon- 

^st between tw". compact host:^ and a quic; elevation of I'.jcj- 
ful leaders. 



The three stages of national prowth v/hich preeo<i»d tno v/ar 

Viq t. wien t. i^e ;':t-ito?; v/rt'I on.'h of ti^^n- ,2 r ^at. ix- r> r, f a distinct 
class of political leaders. In the period of Treetion there 
wer^ great architects ai. ' ' • ■^ t t r- bu 1 1 d-^rs ; ir. * '^ .^^--^ ■ -- f 
stitutional interpretation there v/er^, at a distance fror:: the 
peoiU e , reat political scnooiinen y/ho ponder3d and expo una ou tna 
letter of the 1 aw , and , nearer the people, great constitutional 
advocates v/ho cast the doctrines of tne schoolmen into policy, 
ar.r! lii the p^rinri of ah-"! i t j oni s t agitation there were great 
masters of feeling and leaders of public purpose. The public- 
ists of the second period kept char{_e r^f f ^^ oic-,.,-^r- nn,-> c t 1 r< .. 
as I ha- e said, as long as they could, and gave place ..itn bitter 
r3iuctanc3 to t ive ant i- slavery orators and :jr .-slavery cil-:^. :- 
pions who were t" talk th? v/ar- feeling into a flame. But it 
was of course inevitable t aat the ne\.- movement snouid ha-- e nev. 
leaders. It \.as essentially revolutionary in its tone and in 
Its designs, and so quite r.ut of tne reach of those principles 
of -' if'n v/hi 3" hari pr,\- r^r.^^i) t ' . e noiicv of t f. ■> ol'!-)r school of 
politicians. Its aim v/as to change, not to vindicate, the Con- 
st itut, ion. Its leaders ;/<■ .e , ^ir. t, wor^;^ O' oounsoi.hut 
passion and of eomnand. It was a crusade, not aVeampaign 
impetuous movement of a cause, not tn3 canvass o •" • ? l- 

sure. And.li..-! every big . s t i r r i iii, cause, it 1. r -- 



.. 3 



.3ad'5rs whos^ authority risted upon the affections and syrn; • - 
js of thf? p^npje rather than urjon any a^'tost-jd v;isdor.i or 3u^j- 

I C'^ss of s tattisrnanship . The war v/as the v/orK,rnedi at nil- 

ant b rr,n i c:+ c; ^ and the r -"■» -'T " *■ p-kj t ion?9 whi'''^"' f ''■ I ]'■■■■:'•''-' . r 

wG r ^ th-i hasty strokes of these same unbalianeed knit'f^ts of tho 
v2rusad3, fuli of old filling but not. of steady or far-sit 

' judgment . 

The ant i- si av-^ry movement called forth leaders who, from the 
■;ry naturi of their cal 1 ing , v/e re more picturesque than any who 
had figured on tho national stage since the notahle play of tho 
rei' ol 'J t i '-ll^ had p^ii'> ^^^ +'-'^ '•^''■arcJs ; '■^Mt it. v/^^ W' "■^r^f^ ^r 'i^gt 
m leading parts than had "been the drama v/hieh immediately pro- 
c"!ded it, V^hen the constitution of a s el f - gov e rniiit, i'-^' :^ ^ e is 

^ing consciously moulded "by the rapid formation of precedent 
during the earliest periods of its exis tence , fne re are sure to 
be antagonistic beliefs distinct and strong an ive enough 
to take shape in the creeds of energetic parties, each led by 
tne greatest adro,3ates of i t. s i^h^rishT.i o r 1 ne iri J er; . 'i'he season 
of our constitutional dev&iopment , consequent! y , saw as fane a 
race of statesmen at thi front of natioa.w ^<'\^r■^, -"^ <-'-' ..v^r 
directed the ci.-il policy of the country; and they in turn g3.vo 
place to men bra\e to encounter t.ne sirutLl'J' "* jiitUfU; " 
and fit to solve the doubt.s of a new set of events. 



ricj 

Sinoo the \.ar , howeve r , vv? ha\^ on;-} into a fourth period of 
national lifo and ar^i pf? rpi ■^xfJd at fiiidint: oiirg^Tiv^s lI'Ikj ■ 
mw order of statesmanship to suit t m altered eond 1 1 1'^n'^- 
gove riiment , The period of federal const rue t ioii is 1 onfc passed; 
questions of constitutional interpretation are no longer regar- 
ded as of pressine urgency; th? v/ar has been fought, even the 
er-'h'^rs of its issu.Ts: 'nr-^iiig now aJr-iost. "ixt int;u i ^h'-ii ; an' we are 
left, to that unexciting but none tne less capital iy important 
'"■isiness of civ^rday peaceful development and judicious adminis- 
tration to whose execution every nation in its middle age has 
to address itself \/ith v/hat sacac it y , ene r£y . and prudenci it c aii 
comman:.' . It cannot be said that these new duties have as yot 
raised up any men eminently fit for their f ul f ilnient . V/e have 
ha i nr. great ad'u ni ?? t rat o rs since the opening of this newest 
stage, and there is as yet no risi'^le sign that any such will 
soon arisT. The forms of government in this country ha^'' al- 
ways been unfavourable to the easy elevation of talent to a 
station of paraviount autnority; an: tnose forLu m t ri'"! i r ;.i j.s- 
ent c rystal i zat ion are more unf avoura^^l e than ever to the tol- 
eration of the leadership of the few, wniist the quTstions nov, 
most prominent in politics are not, of such a nature as to com- 
pel skilled and trustv/orthy champions to come into the field, 
as ■■? 1 1 t h r> ,>r, ■■ .'-: t 1 t itif.r; i] i'^ni|.^r: ail I T ev o i u t 1 r, na T V agltatlons 



{ I M 

of othor days. Thoy are matters of a too qui^t, bus inessi it^o 

sort to enlis^ f^ielint, or arousi •'jnt nus lasin. 

It is , t.h3ri3f orri ,v3 ry unfortunate t)iat only fueling or entnus 

/ 

iasrn can create roeognizad leadership in our polities. Them 

is no office set apart for the pr^jat party leadf3r in our po''-- 
ernnent. The povver? of the Speakership of the House of Kepn- 
gajit jtT, •:>c ^ X- -' t oq orampijd and .jovert; th" n r it i 1 -> t ^ ?? r.^ t hr» 
• ehairnianships of the chief Standing CoinmittTes are t c o limited 
la sof^psj the Presidency is too silent and j n i-ui. -iv i , t-^'' i ]f ■ . 
like a pr'^inlership and too much like a supe r intendeney . If 

there b"? any one man to whom a whole party or a gre it national 
majority looks for guidine counsel , he must lead v/ithout office, 
as Daniel V.'ehster did, or in spite of his office, as Jefferson 
an"! ."'a 3ks'-'ii d i i . Th^r? nust b? sornetrtinr in the times or In 
the questions which are a''^road to thrust great advocates or 
i_ . - :asters of I'urpose into a non-official leadershi.' ■ *^ "i ■ '^ 
is tneirs because they represent in the greatest actions of 
tn3ir lives some principle at once vital am; uiu'^iy iov^d or 
hated, or because they possess in their unrivalled power of elo- 
quent speech the ability to give voice to some such 1 i\ int 
theme. -phor-. ;-,u.'^t 'We a ^ause t f ^e advanced which is greater 
than the trammels of governmental forms and which by authority 
of its Own imi-erative voici cons t -i » -i^ -^ - i,.r.,. ,fr,^ fv,-, ] r. a <- 



of the nation, t.houtih v;ithout tivmc ther/i official titlo --with 
out, need of offioial tjtl^, M(^ one is authorize' to load by 
reason of any official station icnown to our system. V'e call 
our reai leaders by no names 'hut their ov/n: Mr. V.'ehster v/as ai- 

v/^1 V <:; Mr. '"^ '^ s t '^ r a,nd ri "'■^ "> r ^ r i ;■■ "> i ' i r i -*'''" . 

In a country which governs itself by means of a public moot- 
ing , .i J-ii(_ r^.ss or a Parliament, a count r- whose political a:; 
is reprose;;tat ive , the only real leadership in eovernment aJ af- 
fairs ri.ust be leeisiativT leadership -- ascendency in the pub- 
lie meeting which decides everything. The leaders, if there bo 
any, must be those who suggest the opinions and rule the action- 
of t h'? r? p r ^sei.t .it ive bod"'. V'e have in this count rv , t h^ re fo re^ 

no real leadership: because n""' man is ai lowed to direct tne 
,.,,r<3r; of (jon^T'^ss, and there is nn way of governinp th.-» e'^un- 
t ry save through Congress v/hich is siiprerne. Tne chairm.H,n of a 
gr-Jit coi.iuitcee like t n'i committee of Ways au i Means "f :;'", 
deed, at the sources of a very large and Important stre 
icy and can turn that stream at has pleasure, or mix \m.xt he 
v;i]l with its v/aters; but there are wh'''le provinces of policy 
in which he can hav^ no authorit}' at all. Ho neither directs 
T- /- f ;j 1 : '■' ^ ♦• eii influence t ho s "? r, f '-i >■> r i» ^-i i i rr i-^ n \. '■ !''i ! 1 r "■ J t all t he 
otner important affairs of government. lie, though the greatest 
of c ha i r;nen , and as i^C!\,l,if. i . t. i-.^t.s m,. ol..:i ■■». .; 



I 



.■« 



1, _ 



(13) 

\,hole eoveriv-'^.ental systan, is by no means at the head of to 
GOV '3 rni.'.'3iit . ilrj irs.tts n":; fi'is 'viry d.iy , oni y a i{j wn'j'ii v.a^'ro 
thera are many otiier whee J s , gome almost, as big as ne , and al i 
drivon.like himsojf.by fires which h^^ does n'">t KindJo or tond. 



In a word,v/e have no suprorno oxeeutiyg ministry, ii,;o the 
great "Ministry of th^ Crown" ovor sea, in whos^ hands is t ne 
gon?5ral rnanacenent of lecislation; and v/*? ha\e , oon^ ->' u'^nt. 1 v , nr. 
great prizes of leadership such as aro eaiexiiated to stimulate 
men of strong talents to ^cent and conspicuous public services. 
The Coi.-irnittae system Is, as I have already pointed out, the vary 
opposite of this. It makes all the prizses of leadership small 
and nowher? gathers power into a few hands. It eannot be de- 
nied that this is in ordinary times and in the absence of stir- 
ring themes a great drawback , inasmuch as it makes lef-islativo 
service unattractive to minds of the highest order, to whom the 
offer of really great place and po'wer at the head of the gov- 
erninr assem-'l y , t he supreme council of t ne nat ion ,v/oul d be of 
all thiiigs most attractive. If t a*; i r '. s i-z ^nc :■ -..•' r ■ competitive 
-- if it could be v/on by distinguished Congressional servic 
Y/ho ean doubt that there v/ouid be a notable influx of taients 
intr congre^!^ anrT a sif-nif leant elevation r,f tone and better- 
ment of method in its proceedings; and yet the I'regidency Is 
• ■■^ry far from '^einp. equal t /- i, ' i r ^ t - r 1 1 .-^ •> r ^:^i e r •- n i -. . 



;e -- 



• , ' t, I 



)•:>• 



m .^ ■' I 



( I-. ) 

There ir,,\ knov/.one d ist ine t. iv ■? f 'mature nf lopisi ; loa-.l- 

^rship v/hi'jh mak*^s j t. sunn t" soi::' iio ' li i (•l'-' ' •' •= ' 
t.hou^'h it. seareoly const ituf^s sueh an object, ion as to make tio 
iaadsrship at all seem preferable. It is tm ioadership of or- 
ators: it is tho ascendency of those who havT a e^m^s ^^>^ ta: - 
inf. Ii\ the eyes of those who do not like it it seems a lead- 
ership of artful dialecticians, th-i suec-T.sr; of r.rie.r. or ohras" 
the victory of rushine declamation -- eovernment, not by the 
ad\ ice of statesuanl ii;e counsellors, but by the v/aeciiii ^^ 
r^ady tonfues. Macaulay pointed out v . h 3 r 4 r\]s accustomed fore"' 
of statement just, the fact v.'hich haunts those v/ho h^l i ' j. 

objectif^ns. The pov/er of speaking, i^° said,Y/hich is so highly 
prized by politicians in a popular £overnment , "may exist lu tno 
highest. d:iFr->? without judem^nt ,v;it hout f o rt itude , v/ithout skiii 
in reading tne cnaracters of men or tn? signs of the times. v,fitn 
out any knov/ledge of the principios of le^ i ^ J ■■^^- ^ f^'' '"' '" '^^ prlit- 
icai economy, and v/ithout any skill in diplomacy or in the ad- 

iniotration of \.ar. Nay, it may v/e 1 1 happen t nat those very 
intellectual qualities which give peculiar charm to the speech-' 
es of a public man may be incompatible \.ith tn-; qualities wnicn 
would fit him. to m.eet a pressing emergency with prom.pt itude and 
firmness. It ..as thus with Charles Tov/nshend . It was tnus 
,. 1 ^ •■^ "'indham. It v/"^"^ + irlvijepe tn listen to those accomplish- 



( I ^' ) 

^ i and int'Qiiious orator \it, in a perilous crisis they would 

' ■; found inf^r^or m .ii i tm quiiiti'i;', '■ f ruior; to suon a man 

^ Oliver Uro:.:wel I , WHO talkov! nonsonsT.or as William tho Silent, 
who did not talk at ai J . " 

NevtT rt hel OSS , it is t '" he o^s'irved that neither Vindhar-: n^i r 
ToY;nshend rose to places of highest conTidQnee in t no assotnbly 
,, 1 -j >h t>^?y s?rv9d and which th'^" '?harrn^'-7 '■^'-' t >>■->-! r .ttr:^^^■'■" 
pov.srs of spe-'Jeh.and that (Jroinwe 1 ij would hav3 boen as unf i f 
r 1 1 ■" - :. ■*. n J nt; -ut a.i au t.o c rat, lo • cominonv/eal t h as would have b^oii 
' illiarn the Silent t^ -e anythjne but a Dutch governor. The 
people really had no voice in Uroinv/ei 1 ' s/ government. It was 

absolute. He \/ould ha'v e been as much out of place in a repre- 
sentative government as a bull in a china shrp, V/e would not 
hav? ^ ..isrnarck if v/e could. 

Every species of go\ erni:ient has the defects of its own quali- 
Mes. Represent at iv 1 government is go-<-°rnment by ar'-' - 

iseussion, by persuasion, and a g reat .iniscel 1 anef-.us \otint po/ 
ulation is often misled by deceitful pleas and .swayed -^y uii\.ii- 

ounseis. But if one were to make a soinev/hat freer cir-ice of 
examples than Macaulay permitted himself , it would be easy to 
multiply the instances f.f ruling orators of our race who have 
added to their gifts C'f eloquence conspicuous sagacity in the 
administratis- '-'f '♦" fairs. A* -^p.•' r>,te,th'' r-^'^i. v.br, h.a-< -> led 



' 1 



(IC) 

opular assGrnhlios hav n oft in "hian.liito Hampden . raral y endov/ed 

.ith judfrnsnt. , f oro 3 i^ht. , am; s t, o aiif as tiia r^.s of ijur.'os), i i,iJ V/ai- 

' pel e , amazingly quick in "riiadine the eharaet.ors of mon and tY^^ 

signs of th3 tinos"; lirie Chatham, maste rfui m orl'^rine the eoji 

quests and the policies of tho world; like Hurke , i earnej in the 

' profoundest principles of statecraft; like Canning , adrn i t in 

I 

' diplomacy; like Pitt, safe in times of r-ivojution, ii;--.? Peel, 

sagacious in finance; or, like Gl adst one , skil led in every branch 
o '^ political knov/ledg'^ s-^^-'A equal to any strain '■ ■^ '^•-lerge,.^ . 
/ It is natural that orators should be the leaders of a self- 
ov=?rning people. Men may "be clever and engagiiit speako rs , sucn 
as ar? to >-e found, doubtless, at half the bars of the country, 
without being equipped even tolera^^ly for any of the high du- 
ties of the statTsinan: but rneii caa scarcely be orators without 

Co 

that f^rc? of character, that readiness of resource, that clear- 
ness of vision, that grasp of intellect, that courage of con- 
■ iction, that earnestness of purpose, and that instinct and cap- 
acity for leadership v/hich are tm eight hrirses triat dra.. the 
triumphal chariot of 5very leader and ruler of free men. V'e 
jould not object to being ruled again by such men as Henry and 
Otis and flam. Adams: '^ut they v/e r ? products of r^volutioii. They 
.,en inspired by the great causes of the time: and the e<^'vern- 
i.'ent which thev --->♦• un h t .• ] ■' f t u^ ith^ut any or;! lin.rv , neace- 



(IT'} 

fui rnean!^ of ^rin^'inf; men li,."? th^tn int.'-. puMio lif'i. V'n shcuJd 
lii;3 to hav ■; mors like them, ^ut the violant axereiso of ravolu- 
tioii is too bi£ a price t. o pay for tharn. Soma loss pungf^nf 
diet is to ha desirod for the purpose of givlnc health to our 
1 e [] i s i 'I t i \' f> f^^ r^ ien . 7h e r ? o u c h t t r. '^ ■"> s f^ ; "^ u i li "> f , o ^ ^ '^ i^ t. i t- 1 
tor.io.some mild st inul ant , sue h as thi certain prospect of win- 
ning highest and J:;ost honourable office. to infuse th" — -♦ ♦ -> ] - 
ent of the nation into our puhl ie life. 

These , then , are the conditions of public life v;nicn rnai;e the 
House of Representatives wnat it is, a disintegrate mass of jar- 
rinc elements, and the Senate what it is, a smai 1 , sei ect , an.; ioi.T- 
ureiy House of Representatives. Or perhaps it would he nearer 

e v;hole truth to say that these are the circumstances and 
+ his the frame of government of v/hieh the tv^o ilouses form a 
part. V'er^ the Senate not supplied principally by promotions 
f roK! tne liouse -- if it had, that is, a membership made up of men 
specially trainil for its p-iculiar duties -- it v/ould probably 
be much more effective than it is iu fulfil lint the great func- 
tion of instructive and businesslike debate of .<ubl ic qu"!stion3; 
for its duties are enough uiil ike those of the ilouse to be cal- 
led peculiar. Men \;ho have acquir-^r' all their habits in the 
matter of dealing with legislative measures in the Houao of Po- 
p resent at. ives , \;he re coijiiaittee w^r.. is evirythiuc •-'•'■•^' pub] ' » r'l's- 



(I -S) 

ussion nothing, but "talking to thT oount ry " . f ind thetnseiveg 
, stall more deei.iirners v;heii tuey i^et int.' t, ws o^Jiia',-*, wnor-? no 
revious question utters its J lit "^ r rupt, int voico from the ten- 
uis of tyrannical eormnit ^ eemQn , and v.nero , consfjqu^nt 1 y , talk 

is free to all.' Cnly superior taleiats sueh as very few men 
o'5sess eould enable a Representative of long training to 

jhange his spots upon eiit-;rint ^'^^ oex.ate. Most mo., v/i j I not 
\ fit more than one sphere in lifi: and after they have been 

stretehe,' ^^r oornpressed to the measure •-' <" ♦ '^,at one thoy will 

rattle about lof^sely c r stick too tight in any other intr, v/hich 

they rnay be thrust. Stiil, more or less ac! jus tr-i.ent ' 

in e->-ery case. If a new Senator knocks about too loosal 
idst the fre^ spaces of the rules of that august body, he will 

assuredly have some of biggest corners knocked off and his an- 
ulariti^s thus made smoother; if he stjc'-; fast amongst the 

'■' igi^ii f i ^ ' ,>'- M '-+, es ie s and rvme t i i ious r.^^o r-v^ ^.n.; e ■= r.r t'^'i 'inner 
hamber, he will, if he stick long enough, finally wear dovm 

*■ " suen a siae, by jostling, as to atti<in .s(ji.i'3 motl^'ii :" 

less satisfactory. 

Rut it must be said, on the other hand, that even if trio L^n 

>re made up of something better than selections from the 

* An attempt was once made to bring the previous question into 
the practices of the Genate, but it failed of success, and so 
that imperative form of*eutting off all further discussion has 
ortunately never found a place there. 



I ' 



( I ^^ 

Housf?,it would pro^aMy ha able to do little morq than it, does 
in the way of givant;. fjffieiTiioy to our system r,f le^isiation. 
For it has those same radical defects of organization which 
.. ?aken the House. its functions ais'->, 1 : ,;e those he House, 

re segregated in the pre roca-^ ives of nurner'-ius Standinr Uor-init- 
tees.' In t^^is regard Coneress is all of a piece. There is m 
the S^nat^ r"'- r-,r>re opportunity than exists ii. *■'"' Hous-* "" ^ r 

fining such recognized party leadership as would he likely to 
""r.larte a man hy giving him a sense of ;)G\/er and to steady and 
' sober him by filling him v;lth a grave sense of responsibility. 
So far as its organization controls it, the Senate, notwith- 
standing the one or tv.'-' special excellencies which make it moT'' 

"^mperate and often more rational than the House, has no virtue 
.;;ien r:\ar'.-.'^ it as of a d j f f -? r-^nt nature. Its proceedings bear 

-"'St of the characteristic features of Committee ruie. |Its con- 



*" /.s regards all financial measures indeed Uommittee suporvi3- 
' ion is specially thorough in the Senate. "All amend;.ients to 

;neral appropriation bills report'^ J frrrn the Committees of the 
^nate, proposing nev/ items of appropriation, shall, one day be 
■re they are offered, be referred to the Committee on Appropri 
'ions, and all general appropriation bills shall be referred 
said Committee; and in like manner amendments to bill a mak- 
t ing appropriations for rivers and harbors shall be again rofor- 
ed to the Committee to which such bills shill be referred. •-- 
^nate Pule 30. 

1 "^ The twenty-nine Standing CoriTmittaes of the Senate are, ho\.- 
"r. chosen by ballot, not appointed by the Vice-President, 
o 13 an appendage, nr.t a m.em'^er, of the Senate. 



(20) 

elusions ar'a sutX^sted no\, ne sfit of its moM^rirs, nr>v/ by 

another set. aiid again by a third: an ar ranefirnont which is of 

course quit^ effective in its ease, as in that r, f tm ifnur^e, in 

depriving it of that leadership v/hiah is ^ alua'^lo in more v. 

eaus"" it concentrates party responsibility, attracts the best 
' •'i-'ii-J.s, and fixes .-'u'lii-j j;:f jr-^st. 

Some Senatr.rs are, indeed, seen tn be of larger nental stat- 
ure and built of stauneher moral stuff tnan t no ] r fei iow-rnern- 
bers. and it is not uncommon for Individual mem'->ers to become 
conspicuous figures in every great event in the Senat ? • s delih- 
->ratir.n-. 7'" "> 'U'llie nr>v/ and afia-in pick=; 'nt h-^r f '- ■> r ■ 

Senator v/ho seems t "■ act ai«d tr speak \.ith true instinct of 
^ atesmaiiship and v;ho unmistakably merits the .jonfidenee of co . ■ 
leagues and of people. But such a man, hov;over eminent, is 
no\ e r more than a oenator. No one is the Senator. No oi.e i:.;iy 
speak for his party as well as for iiimsTif; no one exercises th-^ 
spec4;al trust of acknowledged leadership. The Senate is merely 
a body of individual c r it ics , represent ing most of the not very 
di-'.esified types of a society substantially hom.otoneous ; and 
tbp weight of ■>- ->r' ''riticisr i)tt^r">^ in i t. ^ .•h.o-i'-'er deend?; 
upon the v/eight of the critic who utters it, deriving litti 
any addition to its specif I'j t^^vity f roi=: ^ji.mi ji^ ■■ i •"■Xi .. ' " " ~ "* 



(21) 

rissiens of a purposeful i^arty n r^ian] aat loii. i cannr-t insist 
too much upon this defoct of CoiiGross i onai govo rninent , bocausJ 
it is evidently radical. Leadership v/ith authority over a gr3at 

ru]in£ party is a prizr? t r attracit- pr"»at cr,T-) r» t i t o r s , a;.! 1 t ir. 
a freo eovernrnent the only prize that v.iii attract groat eom- 

ititors. Its at t ract j'-3n9ss is a'Mindantly i 1 lust rat-'^ " '^ *'-'" 

pa rat i ons of the British system. In England, wher ■ -lers of 

" :^.e uabiii^t, \,hier. i.s mer'^ly a (Joiiimit t ee of ta-T ji"us'3 ''1 ^oi.- 

-■liS , ar? the ruiors of the empire, a career in the Commons is 
'a£erly sought by men of the rarest gifts, "because a career 
» ■! ' is the '-lest. road, is indeed the only road, to men-ersnip 

*" the great Committee. A par^ in the life of Congress, Oi. ' 
Mtr^r--, though the best earr;-'r rpone.' f r, T^-^r. r.-r ai '-' i t t - 

if system, has no prize at its end greater than membership of 

r 

ome One of nu::i ? rf-us Cr,; itte'is between v/hiuh tnera is some 
■".oiee, to be sure, because some of them have great and others 
only small jurisdictions, but none of which has the distinction 
of supremacy iii policy or of recognized authority to do more 
than suggest. And posts upon such Committees are the highest 
posts in the Senate just as they are in * i-"' Tir-.us'^ -f Pepren-^nta- 
t ives . 

In an address delivered oi. ccn'-. ocjao lon,' in t - c-i..-a- 



* In the Birmingham Tov/n Hall, November 3rd.,l3'l^. ' quote 
from the report of the London Times. 



{^^) 



ity of ProsidfJnt of the Bimlnuham and Midland Institute, Mr, 



r 



.- »i f trt vr » 



r roud'? , haviiic -L;: iiiiii, " onu: — ^. -^ r ■ ^ ■■ 

It. lookinf mediately at all popular systerns, said vrary polntod- 
ly that "In party ecivsmiient party 1 if o bocornas i i#i9 a uou ' 
juatieG. The people ar? the judc-^, th--? pol it i ^^ ians , th^ ad- 

oeates, who", he adds eaustieally rather than jua tl y , "oni y oc- 
casionally and '^v aoeident spnak their nal r.p inir.ns . " "The 
truly great political orators", he txcI aims ," are the ornamenta 
n *■ mankinc' , the most finished examples of nohje feeiinp and -^nr- 
f=?et expression, "^ut they rarely understand the e i reumst anoes 
of their time. They f eei pass i^'natei y , but. for tliat r ,-c*aoii 
tMey cannot jud^e ealmiy." If wo are to aeeept these judgments 
' rom Mr. Froude in the faoe of his reputation for tniniiinc aor.;;- 

at f^o independently of evidence, v/e should congratulate our- 
selves that we have in this country hit up'"'n a system which, 

f -, -> t if n3~ r-'aehed if- ■>•-> r <"■-> .^ t i r.ii , has left. 1 1 1 1, 1 o or no 
place fr.r politicians to make false declarations or for the ora- 
tor to coin fine expression f '* r views \/.Tich are onl '■■ ■r ->-• ^ i r,,-- 
xcept outside of the legislative halls of the nation, upon the 
iatforn. where tal^ is all tnat is Qxpect-i„. it v."uiu s -"..m.i v;; 
if the seer had a much more favourable opportunity in th 
it tee- room than the orator can have: and lo t .r> com- 

i f- t- -. ^ - r ' ^ • "li.^^ iT,v •-> r I! -: t h ■> ]>r'islative chanber. The speech- 



■aking in tho latter aeithor makos nor r.ftnn seriously affects 
tiio plans franod in tho former: ''-le cause the plans are made "o- 
fore the speeches are ut-^^red. 'r'ni'^ i -, 33I f - e- i ' "^'f (^^ f''^^ •''>- 
^ates of the House; but even the speeches made in the Senate, 
free, full , anci earnest as they seem, are made, so to speak, 
after the fact -- not to determine the actions hut to air tne 
opinions of the body. 

JStili, it must he regarded as no inconsiderable addition to 
the usefulness of the Senate that it enjoys a much greater 
freTdnn of discussion than the House can alio\, itself. It per- 
mits itself a good deal of talk in public about v/hat it is do- 
ii.t f -s-nd it coi;imonly ta^/is a great deal of sense. It is s. .^ . 
enough to make it safe to al 1 o\; individual freedom to its mem- 
bers and to have, at t ne same time, such order and s3nse of 
proportion in its proceedings as is characteristic of si::aii 
-odies, like boards of college trustees or of commercial di- 
rectr,rs, v/''~o feel that their main ob^;ect is business, not 
speech-making, and so say all that is necessary v.ithout being 
tedj'-us, and d^ v/hat they are eall'^' r^-'n +n Tn v/it'nr,ut n-^--^ ' r. ' 
'riving themselves v/ith hurrying rule^. Such rules, they seem 
to feel, are meant only for big aos^iibiies wh ^ -...^ ^^ ^.-,.^^ 

of self-control. of course the Senate talks more than an aver- 
, -> " oard of directors \v6uld, because the corpo r .., * : 0.. 



(24) 

r.us popular oonst, it none io s to v/hieh Sejaators, no lass than Ho- 

;.' r^ s ^nt 'it iv? s , "1-+ '■i>'-.-'» r."'^-'' '''^^c. r.r ._• ,- r t v.'i i ■ .- ^ eons 1 d o r iii(_' 
I their f o 1 1 ovv-iaan'v^ r s aJono, vvoul unneei jsary , if not inpor- 

t In !ii^ and ovit of tast'J, in t n'= oonat ; o".a...')jr, ut ■••:\i, 
I sound best in thfj ears of the peopls, for v/hoso i3ars they aro 
intend-3d, if dfJliver^d therg. Speeches \/hich, so f' say, run 
m tho name of the Senate's busimss will e^inrally b-"? rnort? -)f- 
foetual for campaign us'is at home than any speech could be 
.,hich 8'"'''ul'' run in tb^ na'i^ ''■f +'n^ ■r^i-'i'^r tr.n-i.^c: rf t. ^^n «5^'i'"i. 
^ There is an air of doint <*'ne ' s duty by his party in spearvinc 
;.'.(,rfy piatitadeo or uttering party defiances on t tic fi ■'■■" '■' 
the Senate or of t ne Ho'-ise. 

Cf course, however, there is less temptation to sujn spi'-..- 
-laking 3n the Senate than in the House. The House ,;nows the 
terrible possibilities of this sort in store for it. were it tr> 
f i-. -> n-^rfeet freedori '-•'^ ^e'-^i. te to its tbre? hundred and twonty- 
^ive members, in these days when frequent mails and tireless 
tongues of teie^^raphy ^rine every constituency v.itnin easy ear- 
shot of Washinetoiij and it therefore s^e,vs to confine what lit- 
tle discussion it, mdul^e^ in to tne fe\. conu.iit teei.i-jn s^i-'oj.wiy 
in charge of the business of each moment. But the Senate is 
sm.all and of settled habits, and has no such bugbear to trouhli 
i*. It can affof' t r. m \,'ifboii* ^\n:' olr.ture or previous ques- 



(iir.j 

t. ion. No Senator is lij;oiy to \j,\nt to speai; on all tho t 

of thT session or to prepar-^ mora apeoehos than can eonv'»nl'»nt- 

] \' "■'« .q:ir,;<;3n hiTforr? a:i jf.ii rnrmn t. i r. ir-ip'? r.i.t. ivn ] v .Lt, hu^.d. ThT 
Hous'? ean be counted upon to wast 3 enough time to leave sonri 
loisuf ^^ t - -■ Mppar eharr!^'>r. 

And ther^ ean he no question that the debates v;hieh tatte 
piai3-3 every session in tiio oCJnatn aro of a - o ry nirr. ' cir of 
3xee lienor. The average of the ability displayed in its dis- 
cussions not infrequently rises quite to the love] of those 
er.nt rove rs J e s of the past \.h3>2h we are v;ont to eall £r3a.t be- 
cause they furnished occasion to meii like V/ebstar and Calhoun 
and vJlay v/hom v/e eannot no.. ' ^ "" '-'•^ + ■^"•^ in rn>^f^,-- r> f ■. n'-,^,i a ^n 

and of eloquence. If the debates of the present are smothered 
longst t ne iniiuiae r abi e folios of trie KecorJ, it is li' ■ t. ■ ; . ^ase 
.ey do not contain utterances <,orthy to be heeded and to gain 
currency, but because they do not deai \*itn questions of pas- 
sion or of national existence sucn as ran throut;h all the ear- 
ler debates, (^r because our system so obscures and complicates 
• '•■':l=; in 1 er i s 1 ' f i '"■ ?! ^ "^ ^ '"■ 1 e av « nothinr v i r ' interesting 
to the public eye dependent upon the discussions of either 
iiouse or Senate. V'hat that is p ] ct •■ --^ '•^^m'-' r. r vnnt tnr^t i .3 '-i- 
t'll in the esteem of the partisan is there in these wordy con- 
test • about contemplated lotislation? How does anybody Ano\/ 



(26) 

• iiat either party's pr^'S pacts vvilJ h^ much affected by v.hat Is 

sai."! v/lien nrsjiitr.rs ir> 'I'^'i > ^ i rit , or, f ■ r ! .. ....;.• ' -r, ''■■■ '..■>. i,t 

)s voted aft^r tnoir longest flirnts of controversy? 

iitiJi, thout^ii II'.' ■, i.iuv; 1 neaded, t ne debates of t n-i Lionate 



I are of great value in scrutinizin 



great value in scrutinizing and sifting matters v/hich 
coue up fro;n tm House. The Senate's oppr. r tuna t irs for opaj^ 
!,ad uur-^sticted discussion and its simple, comparatively unen- 
•un'->ered forms of procedure unquest ionaM y ena>Ue it to fulfil 
,. i t h •'•ery c^no j de raM o success its hire's functions as a chnnber 

f rev J s ion. 

\"hei. this has been claimed and admitted, hov;ever, it sti J 
remains to be considered v/hether tw". chambers of equal power 
strengtnen by steadying, or wea.-von by coi li'i -i j ■»-' inL , '»• system of 
representative government like our ov/n. The utility and excel- 
lence of a '-'icaineral system has never, T believe, been seriou.i- 

au'^ s t i r, 3-,e;1 in this e^untrv; but .' ' . Turgot s:niies v.'ith sone- 
' Mg li,ie contempt at our affectation in copying the House of 
Lords without ...... .^.t, ^..y lords to use f ^' r t -^ purpose, and ir. 

our own day I'.r. Bagf^hot, v/ho is much mor"? competent to speak o:. 
t.iis neau t na.. was l-l. lurgot. has avo\<'iw \>ry grave doubts 
to the practical advantat e of a tv/o- headed legislature -- each 
-ead having its ov/n ial?pen:lent \. a i i . il^ finds mucn to i •;com- 

.end the House of Lords in the fact that it is not, as theory 



v/ould have it, oo-o rdinat.e and co-equal with the H''>uae of Corn- 

: •• liitjraiy "a rjvisiiit ami s ispendint ilou.i^i ,^nt-jrim_, what 
tlv^ iJo' \ons ha\e doni hastily or earalassly, and gorae tiin'^g ro- 
ut; "Bills on v.-hijii the iIoust of o'oi/unons is not yit, thr,r- 

Jarnest,-- ipon which the nation i- iiot ygt dot'snnin- 

•K 

"^.i." Ha points out the fact that the House of Lords has nevor 
in modern times "been, as a House, co-equal in power v/itn the 
louse of Uorunons . Before the Reform Bill of ] 33^ tne pe:^rs 

,,'=jre al 1 - p'-'Y/T rf ul in 1 eg •> =: 1 ^ + ion; not, however, '-. r> ,2 r> ■. , ■= ^ t i^v 
..-Tre members of the Hous"? of Lords hut because they nominated 
■■■--.'■ nf t no in^r.:''-'"i rg of '■'".■' lIoUoO of U-- .....lOiis . oiuud tiictf. ;13- 
turhine reform they have heen throy/n hack upon the functions 
in \.'hich they ne-ve r \/ere stronc, the functions of a daii^r^ra- 
tive assembly. The.s-? are the facts which s^ern to Mr, Bagehot. 



to have made it possible for legislation to make easy and sati" 
fa'? + or"/ progr^'-s un'Ier a sys'^eri y;]-\r. <:: ■-> t''«r, rv p r'"'i i 'i'"^ i' ^rr f;i. ^^l 
f dead-locks between the two branches of the supreme legislature. 
I li nis vie-;.- "the evil of t ,.0 eo-equai i:ri)is-'?s of uistiji^f 
iiatur->.s is obvious." "Most cons t it ut i ons " , he decl ans , " have 
jommitted this blunder. The two most remarkable Bopubi lean in- 
stitutions in the v/orld commit it. in botb t '-e /u-i^rican and 



v/iss Constitutions the Upper House has as muci authority as 

7.;" 'i" 

* These quotati-ojis from Ba^ohot are ta.-cen from vanou'^ parts 

the fifth chapter of his •Ln^l ish Const itut-ion. " 



A: 



'''".!^.'- 



(23) 

thn second; it could nrf^duee t b -» naxirnnr-^ fif i'^-'>i-> ' ino, ^ -- n 
;9ad-look, if it, liked; if it, does not. do so it, is ov/inc not t' 
tno eoodiifJss of the legai const ] tut ion , but * - + -'- I iscri ? tnasa 
r^f the members of th^ Charnb'^r. In both these constitutions 

tr.is dant'.'^' rous di^-ision Js defended by a peculiar doctrine 

It is said that there must be in a Federal Government 

some institution, some authority, some body possessinc a veto 

i 

in v/hieh the separate F^tat^r; cri' 'r)r i s inp the Cnnf ede r.n.t ion are 

all equal. I confess this df-ctrine has to me no sel f - ev ideneo , 
an' it is assumed, but not proved. The State of Lei aware is 
not equal in power or influence to the State of Ney/ York, anr! 
you cannot make it so by givine it an equal veto in an 'Jpner 
•Jhamber. The history of such an institution is indeed most 
natural. A little State will like, and must like, to gee some 
t'''>en, sor^e Tn"^vir>rial narl-: of j t r^ r>l d indenenr' enee preserved in 
the Constitution by which that independence is ext intuishad . 
P.iit It is one thine for au institutj^ t- ■^ • natural, and an- 
--.ther for it to be expedient. If indeed it be that a hedaral 
'government compels t iie erectioji of an Jppir ^n.j.i/^r of conclu- 
sive and co-ordinate authority, it is '^ne more m a-ldition to 
the m.any other inherent defects of that kiiid of eove riii.ient . 

, •-, ^ neee ■:;r-;ar-.' tr have the blemish, but it is a blemish ,us^ 
as much. " 



(29) 

It '» ,' '^ ' 1 1 ' ' 'H => i I ! t >v» n i .--■>.-.. ♦ ^ -> ,-> i ■ 1 c^ . . r ■" "^ t t r ' i r r ■. f- 

ightly with any eonelusio which Mr. Rae^hot rnay have cor.-i"} 

].. vievvinr that fiei ' r. f oriticd-i ja^'o s J t J <'ii in Mo.icr. • :; 

supreme, the philosophical analysis, namely, of the English 
Jons t itut Ion: and it must be apparent to anyone \jt\o reads tno 
issai:'? I have just nOw quoted that his eye sees very i^eonly 
nd truly even when he looks across sea at institutions whioh 
we r -? re puprirint t. r, his own \.av of t hi j-i'.ln^' . But at is 'safe to 
say that he did not see all in this instance, and that ne v/as 
jonsequontly in error concerning th"; true na'!-"- of our f->deral 
legislative syster-'.. His error, nev =>rt hel ess , appears, not 
we loor^ only at the facts \.nacn ne neid u.j to \aeY/, -^ut ..:■ 
^oo'K at otner facts v/hieh he ignored. It is true tnat the ex- 
istence of tv/o co-equal Houses is an evil v/hen those two Houses 

re of -'istjnet nat ires, as \.as the e\sQ under the Victorian 
constitution to which Mr. Bagehot refers by v/ay of illustrative 

x-i...;ii. Jnder that Con;^+ ^ ■^ • t ion all legislative busine^- v/n - 
soi;^.et i; VJs to be seen quite suspended because 6f irreconcilable 
differences of opinion letween t iic Jyp-;r ilouse \,:i .j i r \- r 'ti^n,' - 
ed the rich wool -grov/e rs of the colony and the Lov/er Assembly 

eich represented the less^^r v,<^ol -grov/e rs , .'"^rnaps. and tn"? 
peoplQ v;ho \/ere not v.ool-grov/e rs at ail. Tm 'Jprior H'''Use . m 
other words, v/as a class chamber, and thus stood quite apart 



(30) 

which is no inoro a class chamber than is the House of Repro- 
s •?nt at i\'es . 

The prerocat 3^ '35 of the Senate do. indeed, remler our l'i(_- 
isla+ive system more complex, and for tnat reas'n possibly morT 
cumbersome, than the British,- for our Senate can do more than 
th? H<^use of LorJs. It can not only quest jon and stay th^ 
luripTTi^i-it of til? Co,v.rnons hut/ may alv/a""^ \,'it.>'. p'^rfTOt ^jn.fTtv aot 
uuon its ov/n judgment and ga-insay th3 more popular chamber to 
t . -' ^ii.: of * - ■> i0jit:'33t chapter of th^ bittor^st contrr.vars . '- 
is quite as fr^e to act as is any otner brancn of t a-? govera- 
lent , an.: quit'; eis sur- ' nave its acts regaru-u. i.' • 
is safety and ease in the fact that the Senate never wishes * 
jarry its resia.tance to the House to tnat point at »,hic,n resis- 
tance '^n^t St H.v al ] :irnrress in 1 e fj is 1 at ion; because ther? i^ 
really a "latent unity" between the Senate and ti-.e Houjje. which 
:ia:ies continued ant -<,t^.jiix o. : ■.ot»,een tnem nex* *' -j-vr, ■ , . -- 

certainly in the highest decree improbabJa. The S .id th 

II0US3 are of different origins, but • irtu^^^y '-'f ' • ' ■• - 

ture. The Senate is less democratic than tne House, and con- 
sequently less sensible to transient phases of public opinio;.: 

ut i* i '- T'.r, i?'"^ s -!iir^i-'M e than the H'^use of its ultimate ac- 
countability to the peoi i.nd is consequently quite as o-edi- 



(31) 



uit to till rnor-3 permanont and imporativa judLineiits of tno puh- 
.10 rnijid. It cannot h.? carried so quickly by ovory n 

i^nt , but it can be carried quickly rsiiout^h. Thor3 is m 

jhancf^ nf '"? 1 3 et i -^ri- t iiT? fr.r it as \/n 1 ] as f r, r t ho irons-* t ■'■ 
' rtink about . 

i,y l..'- node of its gI-^--^^— --' th3 greater lont,tii wi' tho 
' 3 r;n by which its s??ats an held, thra Senates is almost alto- 

■3tn3r minoved from that temptation to servile obedieiic'; 
,,hims of popular const ituonc ios to \,'hich the House is constant- 
ly sub-ect, without as much courage as the Senate has to g^^-rd 



r 



i r f in .' / But the meri who eorinose the Senate are of + '^ "! same 



I sort as the m^nbers of the House of Representatives and repre- 
sent quite as various classes. Nov/adays many of thf^ "^r-^itr r- 
re, indeed, very rich men, and there has com.e to V >-t 

eal of talk about tr.eir v ist w^aitii and t ne supposed :iris*n- 
jratie tendencies which it is imagin'ed to breed. But even tno 
len Senators cannot bo said to be representatives of a class. 
;3 If they \.er-! all opulent wool - cro\.G rs or [.r^at land-o^/n• 
n.eir v/eal th is in all sorts of st^oi-.s, in all sorts of raachin- 

1 r- • 2 j-^ -•, ] 1 „ , o + „ ^ r "- ' 1 ■" 1 ■ ' ■* n r^ "^ T1 O r. -:-;-> '^ o i O r, - O f :1- ] 1 the S O T t ' 

■ ossible in a land of bustlinr comrneree and money-making indu.T 



I 



'ries. I'hey nave made tr.Jir i.i'.'ii'i / ii. i- .I'uuir-; ^rr^--^ 

or have inherited it from fathers who amassed it ii. ^rprizes 



^ 



e. 

-^ 



•«:•= 



(3;:} 

»• oo numerous to irnaeina; and f iiavo it invjata^l here, then, 

\nd everywhere, in t;^. is, ty~ ■ 'thing. Their wealth 

r ■> res"'nts n'^ cl i.^ -, iiit -; f^st, i^ , hut, a^ i t h ? inf. ; r ; s t. a 'f t. h-i 
jommereial v.orid. It rertr^s-^nts the majority of the na^ ir. 



^ * ■/"■ 



sot i-ft- interests fi^r another; not to despoil the trader for t -A-i 
A 

sak"- *■ th3 fax';;i;r, or the fari:r3r for t nt? s ^.i .i : v.oOi- 

rov/or.'or the v.'Ool - grov/e r for the hehficf of t ne herder of 
ho rt- horned eat tie. At least thi Senate is quit=s as trust- 
.orthy iii this rof^ard as is the i-jous i of Re [irosontat ives . 

Inasmuch as the Senate is thus separaf^d from class inter- 
-> <5 1 c- a ;id q u i •■ ■> 'i *; r "" > > r ^ =^ ^ n t -' ^^ i •"■ e of t. '^ ■-> . ■ a t i o n , - i c f -o a ?; i r; 
the House of Repre s--?nt at ives , the faot that it is less iuickly 
s3nsitiY-i to tne nasty o '' ii-ijulsiv"; !.;i_'\ uiSi.t" " '" p'i" ^ 
constitutes its value as a cheer., a steadying weieht, in our 
- ery democratic system. Our Enc-iish cousins nave v/or it. 

"^r themselves a v/onderfully perfect scheme of tov^ri.. ^y 

radually making their monarchy unnonarchical . Thr- > :r> 

r.' If \ r^ •')'-•] "i ■ -^ ♦■ -^ -5 ; i •> ' ■■->" .1, rr?vTrenced aristocracy and . t. - 

X stable thron- ad just as the English sys' 

^ .,»-,■ - ^ • -r ,..,/%;, - an'"' c-" ^ ">'■'* t r.-]r^- ""^e 

7iJd to "e a limited democracy because of the Sonat .'his has 

m the trial of schoi^.^ proved the chief xalue r ^ \t \jppor 



(33) 

chamber v.'hieh was instituted principally as an '^arniat of t.hfJ 
a^Jdint equalit^' ■;' sove ro i tjut y '••^ * ho .Stat.f^s. At any rat^, 
this is the most conspicuous and \.ill prove to ba the most laat- 
iiit use of t n-3 ouiat"; m our systei:;. It i ;- ■ aiua it in our 
democracy in proportion as it is undemocratic. I think that i. 
philosophical analysis of any successful and beneficent system 
of s3l f - gov?? rirnent will disclose the fact that itr, r.nly offeetu- 
al cheeks consist in a mixturi of elements, in a combination of 
s'^-^^^inpiy C'-'n-'- rn.d i e t. ory political ;i r inc i pi ^.'^ : that, t'm nriti?;'-! 
government is perfect in proportion as it is unmonarehi cal , and 
"urs safo in prop''rtion as it is undemocratic: that tne Senato 
saves us oftin froiu headlong popular tyranny. 

"The value, S; irit, and essence of t ac HO'ise of Co::i;:oxis- , 
said Burk^ . " cons ist s in its being the express image of the 

?el in£s of the nation"; but the image of the nation's feelings 
sh^ul'^ not -''e t-^e or 1 v f'^inr reflected by the constitution of a 
-" ree government. It is indispensable that, besides tho House 
'.*■ Representatives which ru: - '"'- ^11 ^-m'-- ■■ i * - nn.Ml^r •:•-., ,ti- 

■^..^ . we should have a body like tho S'3nate which may refuse to 
I ruii v< 1 1 -. It at ill «;hei. it G3Ji.is to ■: ; ^jC'-.n.^ -- , 

1" time and security enough to keep Its head, if only now an l 
then and but f^r a little \.!-iii-!, tiii ot.ier peopie na" • na 
\ time the think The Senate is fitted to do deliberately and 



(34) 

v/^ll the roviginc whioh is its propor-jst. function, boeau. ; 

positioi^ as a representative of State sovereignty in one of 
emlmnt, d i i:'na t •• , seourinf, for it r'^ai-Tv an.l y^iiioen r'^'? r.e,it. . ami 
because popular dei.iands , ere they reach it vnth definite ani' 
"It hor it at IV f3 sull^ s ^ "^ '-'v '' f ' "jlut'^'' '-v passage through * '^ "" 

"^elincs and eonelusions of the State lej^ isl atures , whie^. an 
' \^ Senate's only iniraediate constituent.". The C'-incit ; coi-i-iOiwy 

"■e^s with the House, but it does iiot , s r. to say, feej S'- 
It at least has a chance to he th? express image of tnoso judg- 

Tnts of the nation v/hieh are slo\,'er and more temperate than 
its feel inps . 

This it is v/hich makes the Snnaf> "the mr.?:t -jov/erful a..d 

'ficient second chamber that exists", and this it is which con- 
stitutes its functions one of the effectual checks, on'^ or t h-. 
real balances, of our systemj though it is rnad^ to seem very 
insignificant in the literary theory of trio Cons t i tut loii , \.;.m'.- 
the cheeks of State upon federal authorities, of executive pre- 
roj^atives upon le£islatxve po\;ers, and of Judiciary upon Presi- 
ri Q n ' ^n'"! oonB»"-ss, t '"■Uf'-h .'^ orT! of then m r>5aJx' j.nopff raf. i\'e 
^ rom thj fiisr. and all <>t o n ;i by many "ifs* and "buts] 

■ - t, o f ii_;ur 1 in t . ' . ;.v:nt, roles, a- t > > .. ■-. r > ,• t - r i «; ♦ i c 

irtues. triumphing over the eharaete r i st i e Vices, of our ne\. 

?: These are the v/ords of Lord Pose'^ary -- testi;..ony f rm.; tne 
oi.^-jTt ,;,d most celebrated second chaher t'^.^f •=>:--i'^+'^ 



(3r.) 
md original political Moral it.y-pl ay . 

It. r;hr,;i' ' i>ovM-.-.Tr^ ^ -. aooount-"' ' '''^uction from ♦>"' •^■"r- 
it.a's usefulness that, it is seldom suf? of more than two-thirds 
of itsoif for .''.or-" t ii,:i,i, four y 'ars at a t i:.i? . In or..'»r tr.at 
its life may be perpetual, one-third of its nemi-'oship is ronov,- 
v! or changed every tv/o years, each thirdl taking its turn at 
-"hange or renewal in regular succession: and this device has, 
of course, an appreo ia'-ily weakenine effect on the legislative 
sin-^v-'^ ^'^ the Senate. r><^eaus'^ the Senaf; nixes the part"''?'^ in 
the composition of its "Coriimit tees just as t, he House does: 
t no s e Commit t^Ts must, c onseque nt j '• , ' -; subject-:: 
t ion whenever the bi-jnnial Senatorial elections nrinf; in ne^. 

">- , fresnly promoted from tno ifouse or from, gube rnat'pr lai 
jnairs. Places must be found for them at once in the v/OrkinL; 
'rganization which busies itself in the enmjnitt -je- rooms . bix 
years is not the tern of the Senate, but only r, f each Ssnator. 
Reckoning from any year in v/hieh one-third of the Senate is o- 
lectod, th'> ^-r- ^ '' * -^^ '•■majority,-- t h ■• t ,.r. - t h i r ' c ,^^.i j rf -.,-. t ->,i 
-y the election.-- is an averai "^ of the four and the two years 
,.nijp. It has t" 1 i'- e . Ther^ is never a luvi l' ..nij:-, t*,o- 
thirds of the Senate have more than four years of appointed ser 
vice hefore them.. Aiid this constant l:i'i]ity to change must, 
of course, materia]]-/ affeet ■ j policy of the ^>ody. The time 
issure I it in \,'hieh to carry out any enterprize of policy upo.. 



(3C) 

.loh it may atnbark is soidoin mora t aan t%vo years, the term of 
>.e ]lou??Q. It. may hn chQcko 1 no ] ^ .=; t o rf ">r?t.u.T. ; i •.' t nari t l^a jn.,- 
r House by the biennial elTet.ions, albeit ohaneos b; 

,• i-! Tt'^ • 'r..M-(^ ^ r ^h ip ar ^ ■-''''■-»•<■ -^d , not d 1 r-» •♦ 
lO , but, in(iinGtly and mor'? sl^v/ly by thi mediate operation of 

puhiio opinion throutjn f. n* Ijtjisiat,urr?T of tn? otat^s. 

In estirnatine the value, of th9 Senate, therefore, as a 

branch of tne national log isl at ur'? , v/e should offset the Coi::- 
ittee organization v/ith its denial of leadership whieh disin- 

tsgratis the Genateand that liability to th^ biennial infusion 

<-^^ r.^'s; =len-ints which nay at any M'-> intorrupt f '^ -,r,}T,-.-' -,p,-! 

break the purpose of the Senate, agaiiist those habits of fr?-? 

ai. 'jtjen deate which clear its r.iind , and to some extent ♦ - -• 
ind of the public, with ngard to the nation's business, doin> 
i'j towards making legislation definite and consistent, and a- 

gainst those great additions to its efficiency whieh spring 

from its observation of "slow and steady forms" of procedure , 
.-'■•ri th"? rier'iate eie^tion \;hieh rives it independence, and from 

Its having a rational and august cause for existing. 

V'h e n V.' e t ■ l r I'i ^ ''' ^ r. i . r^ ^ .'i n r f ^ r, ". r> i \ . t -> \ < . i f r; r "> ] \ t 1 r 

' e Executive, we see it no longer as a lORiaiativo e^ 

as a consultative exeG'ltl^'"? council. ;.ji^: ^uo' n • . 

be noted an interesting difference between the relations of 



[27) 

■'iaate with the Pnsid'int and its r'^iations with the depart- 

';.' :, ..'■ioh ar-^ in o '^ns t "i <• ' + i '■•rv^ 1 + .-- .^ r^ r. . ^ •■' t - ♦ " ■• ' ' r • t j - 
■int. It dfjais dinotly with the President in acti. on no;.i- 

Uirj,t. ions an.. UiM.;: treaties. It go^s int.c "Txocutivo no;ision" 
to handJe v/ithout gloves the acts of t nc chief maeist rate . Its 
dealings with the depart/.ient s , on the other hand, an 
•lose of the House, only iiidireet. its legislative, not i 
ec'it ive , function is the v/hip v/hich eoetrees the ijeeretaries . 

I t - \. 1 1 J i .s the sUr'.'r"!T'n ] .a--- ir\ t '■v; r, ffi,v>'; ^' r t i-i •-» pr,^■■~^r■, 

and yet it orders policy hy nn direct word to the depart;,ient s . 
'* rlf.es not ccsuit aiid iie^otiate \.ith thoin as it ' - - - 
resident, their titular head. Its invnediate agents, the CJorn- 
itt?es, are not tha recognized constitutional superaors of 
Secretary A. or Cjoinpt rol le r B.; but these officials ean^inove a 
f infer or plan more tlian a paltry detail v/ithout looking to it 
t!\at thev TTn'er <=: t r i e t nh ■?(] j f?7i.je t r, the \/ishe.^ of these out- 
side, uncoinmiss ioned , and irresponsible, but none the less au- 
*'oritativa and inpa rat ^'' ^ , masters. 

This feature of the Senate's pov/er over the Executive dons 
not, no\,ever, caii ^or s.'Ouiai ei.ijjna.-s irj i\'i c '■ , I'.jcaua .• i' 
a po',.er peculiar to the Senate, this overlords •" the de- 

partments, but one v/hich it possesses in common v 
of Pe •• r"> sent it i ve s , - - simply an innat 



(J i) 

the ahsolut.isin of a suprome lacislature. It ir: s 

siti'ii -is •■ :i ? ■ ' ' ■ Council in .'soi.v'^ gr.-.i'. aiiu i:iany 

small matters which ealls for particular di souss ion. Its 6**^^" 
eral tyranny over the depar tiiients '-lalonts rathor with 
to say presently v/hen looking at Con^rass ionai governinent 
the standpoint of the ExoeutivT. 

T n ■> r r •> n. t. ■> t t. '■ 1 1 3 u 1 t. . i, t 1 \- ■> n r i ^ i j ^^ > ■ . ? Of f- )^ n f; n , . ,-, t ■■> _ - - t r.'i 

ereatost in dignity, at least, if not in effect upon the int^r- 

-""*•• '■ -^ t no eount ry,-- is i^3 rir-* * '' ^ rul iut -.'"'lo'^ in t ne 
ratification of treaties v/ith fonign pov/ers. I tw- :; already 
aiiudei to tnis pr i->.- i J o^t , for tne purpos :; of sno\<mfc ».nat 
weight it has had in many instanerjs in disarranging the ideal 

ilanee supposed to exist between the powers of Congress and 
the oon.s t i t. u t ir,)i:i.] n rem ra,t iv t s r. f the President; but I did not 
en stnp to discuss the organic reasons which have made it im- 
-■ '"■ r; ::: i '- 1 e that there should "'^e -xny real consulta^'- ■',afv.-».'> 

resident and the Senate upon such business, and v/hich have. 
consequently, made disagreement and even aiitat-oiii i. i - Jtween 
them probable outcomes of the syste,;. I .:o not consult ' 
ditor who scrutinizes my accounts when I submit to ii ii ooiia^ 

mv - rMiahe r.-, , an.i a v/ritten report of the 'lusii^^ns I have ne- 

tiated. I lis ad"' ice and seek his 

ply as.^ Ill: jnu'-ro ^ :Jnt or lL^^'- ^ ' ". ...jv^^- ^p . t i ni; i ot 



(3 1) 

sun for his GOopo rat, j on , ^tut, chall3nrT his g r i t ii2 Inn. y'.nt' 
malogy betv/eon my rolati^ns v.if i^or an rsia* 

Tiaid^iit really has no voice at all ir: oonclusiona of th? 

-■nat 3 v.'itji r^^ ' ■ •,. ■■ to nis d ipi oiaa tu t rans .iu '■ J -^'iis , ^ " 
raf-irenee to any of tin matters upon which he consults It: anl 
'3t Y/Jthout a 'oieo in the conclusion thori is no consul tat aoa. 
.'.rgurn^nt and an uno"^st ruct ed int ^ rt;han£3 of views upon a eJ'*'"-'^"^ 
of a'^isoiute equality are essential parts of the substance of 
i_enuine consultation. Tm S^nat^, v/'nen It elo:^Ts its d'~""'rs, 
upon ooing into "executive sess lOn" , el os ";s ttie;.i upon the Presa- 
'^;.' 5,s rnue.i ci,s upon the rest of the './'■•rid. '^ iannot in .At 
their objections to ;-iis courses except throuoh the elogged and 
inadeqiiat^ channels of a written nessat^ or tarjut^n f ilJ friexid- 
.L y but unauthoritative offices of some Senaf^r \,ho may volun- 
fi-ic his act ive J su pport . Nay, in many eases the President may 
i\r.-t q, -. ' :nc>\j what t '^e :"??nnt.:T's O'' o ^ c t J ons \.ore. He i .^ r.nade to 
■.pproach that body as a servant conferrint v.itp. nis Master, and 
-" iourse def-^rrine ■ t.iivt .aast'-'r. Ilw^'nl, < r -- f • - 

. ing eomplianeo on the part of the Senate lies in his initia- 
^ '■ ^ in negotiation, v/hich affords ni:a a cnni'j-^ f.r^ l" 
country into such scrapes, go pledge '^^ 

'0 certain courses '- ' 'ion, that the Senate hesitates to 



'"irinc a^out. t ne appearane^ of hishoxiour which ,.ouid foilcv; it.rj 
r'^fusal t.o ratify the rash promises or to support the indis- 
ora?t threats of the Department 6f State. 

!V3sidc?iit is of course the Cormnit tee machine r; Senate 

.s-^nds treaties to its Standing Coiuaittee on Foi'^ic'-^ Ho a .j,t aon.j , 
which ponders the President's lessa^es accompany ine the treaties 
ani sets itself to understand the situation in the light of ai . 
tne information availaole. If the President wishes some more 
satisfactory rn.od.^ of communication with the Seiaate than formal 
:.^3 s sa^e - wr i t int , his only door of anprnach i =: t'-ii-^ cn- -'-^i t f ^-^ n. 
Foreign Relations. The Secretary of State may confer witn its 
chairman or wit.n its more influential mem'-^ers. But sue . a ...Ovi^ 
of confe-renc5 is manifestly much less than a voice in tne de- 
liberations '-■f tne Senate itself,-- :;iuen loss t lan ineotiHL tiui* 
body face to face in frn-; consultation and equal de-ate. It is 
almost as distinctly dealing with a fortJign power as v/ore ' ■> 
neeot iat ion?; nncedinr the r.roposed treaty. It must predispos 
the Senate to tne temper of an overseer.'' 

•■* There seems to have been at one time a tendency towards \ 
better practice. In I8I3 the Senate sought to T<^viye the y 

custom, in accordance with which the President -rod his 

T.^.essages in person, '->y requesting the attendaiioo of the Presi- 
dent to consult upon foreign affairs; but f!r. I'adisoi; ' - • 1 m -^ ' . 



(41) 

Still, treat, ios .\. r ^ not every- Jay aff.iir ■ i.;, 
eeptional business may ereato iii Gonatorg an oxcoptional senso 
of responsibility and tlisposs tnQi:i to an uiiv.'Cii' • :; i r ■ • lO 
dispassionate and fair. The ratification of tr'3ati^3 i 

ueh more serious matter than the eons iderat io. nommationr; 
.,aieh every session constitutes so constant a diversion from 
the mora ponderous business of legislation. It is in dealing 
,. i t h nominations, hov;ever, tiuxt there is tae :^r,.^f f ,- 1 ,. t. i r, r, i r 
the contact '^etiveen the President and his overlord, the Senate. 
'^ne of the most notev/orthy inf3taii.jes of " "' improper tactics 
' which r-.iay arise out of these relations v/as the case of that Mr. 
Snythe , at the tine Collector for the port of New York, \<nom, 
in TIC?, President Grant nominated Minister to the Court of St. 
etersburg. The nomination, as looking towards an appointment 
to diplomatic service, m-is r-.f.r,~.d t - t.he CoT.^mi tt e t r,n Foreign 
i Relations, of. .which Mr. Charles Sumner v;as then chairman. That 

Jommittoe recocted tr.3 no; .mat i on, but Smytho had tjra,.'- ..*.;* .- 
^ ence at his back and was himself skilled beyond most men in the 
irts of the lo"-.'y. He aecordineiy succeeded m sscuriiij^ n 
support in t ne Senate as to become a very formidable do(j in the 
anc^r, not himself ^jainine the appointinent , but for a time 
loe'-. J--' -^11 '-'t'-i-'r 1 n;,r, i i.tT^Tit. n and nrinrinf the business of 
the Senate altogether to a standstill, because ho could nr ' 
^ -jr.rt'^ A -^ri..!! r-^viT. "'■'■. f ^ , p. 625 . 



(42) 

"rnythQ himself is f'^rcottin; "but, no ohsarvor of t.ho actual con- 

' it. inns (~i f R T n .1. t. r, r i .-1. ] .tny.-^.r onri f:). il f r, r,.'^r* thi> ^■r:\.^ '> Itmi'- rt -. f 
t lie lesson whieh his eas^ teaches: because his ease was "by no 

eans an isolat-*' or->. There ha-. ; oen scor""- *■ *-.-.»-.. •,^t> 
\3 '^ad; and we could have no assurance that thor? inifeht not in 
t.-^e fui-un bJ iiundrods r.ior ? , nad n':+, r-ijeiit rnoveiaGiit 3 1, 

'ireotioii of a radical reforu of the civil service begun t*-. 

^.ak3 nominations represent, not the personal preference of ' 
resident or th^ intrigues of other people, hut honest, demon- 
strated worth which the Senate is likely to feel forced to aj- 
j T p t \,ith'"'!t question, v/hon the rerr, .<- r ^ -< > ' v' -3 t. '•^'> >i i . •■ r t 
grades of t n e s e rv i e e . 

In diseuosiii;: tne Senate's connection v/Jth t ne civil sor- 
• ice and the abuses surrounding that eoniiection, one is, there- 
fore, discuss i lit a phase of Congressional governnent whicn 
promises soon to become obsolete. A consummation devoutly to 

e wished*-- and yet sure v/hen it comes to rob our politics of 
a feature very consp icn'-"!-^ ^,.,,1 v-'rv ^' - ^ r 1 > t ^ r i .i t i ? . ani in a 
sense very entertaining. There are not many things In t rr.- 

eeedings r,f Cont^-ss which th? peopl^^ oar-^ t ^' -■■^.^r, - 

liligenee, and it must ha |eonfessed that acaiidalous transact 10:. 
in the Senate with reference to nominations v.erj am.o^.t '■'«' '" 
thint;s that t '^e country v/atched and talked about vr "" ■» - 



(43} 
ish and iiit^r'»s*. 'lis was tho pfjrsonal olemont which aiv^aya 



xd spie-? ii. it. V.Tien "onator O'onkl int rofjicnod in i huff bo- 
iuse hp. could not, have whom he liked in the ool 1 octo rshin r,T 

the sa;:'-? imp3rious politician sout;ht ro-election as a vindica- 
tion of fnat Uue '''iis t i t Ut ional cOiitrol ^'f no. nxiU, '. -oiia Y.;.it:;i : : < z- 

u:3rad8d as "th^ courtesy -f the Senate", the country discus^od 

is chances with real zest and chuc'r.l ed oyer <■ e v/hole affair 
in c-nume gle?. it, was a b'g fifjht worth seexnt. it \;ould 

AX e hien too had to miss i'. . 

.''efor? th-T s ej't i^-in lio ^f rr>r,r:^ h.i.r' h-Tcor;; .c;tr^i; 

It, this abuse of the consultative privileees of the 
^te in tho matter of nominations had assum^^ ' '^"'^ -. rr,-,o rt ir, - 
■s to seem to soi^.e the ugliest deformity in our politics. It 

ookori as if it \;?r^ becr.i.iing at oiict In": v/c;i,r;'^3t -m'.'j 
'Tied and strained joint of our federal system. If t-ere v/as 
'o be a break, would it not he ther^, wher") „h*»- ^ ...is the so- 
•. ■-^r-'-^t \/ear aiwi te.T.r'' The Tvil practices seemed ' in- 

eradicable because they had arisen in the most natural manner. 
,'-- ^'resident was co; -el ] -^ -' , 3 1.1 ' ■■"^■'^ ^' ^ f r --, t ^ v<. . to r.s. 

tain the sanction of Senate v/ithout beint allo^.^d any 

hance of consultation ■,,'i* , '-.. ' 'n^irj sv 

the privacy of "executive session* a.i. .dint 



r . i 



] -. 



i 



('i'*) 



ishes ar.'-i <-■ > iniwi. '< ^ 



'•> 't .1 • ^ 



r^ r» ., ■, f - r- ■ )• r, 



./n party shr>ul ] have more \. 



11 Qvozi tho a 



of 



10 i:a J '-'r I f ,, xii dticidxiit; upon t no fitiioss or i, 
arsons proposed tr^ be appointed to offices in 



n <- r ' 3 



tats. Then \.as the requisite privacy to shield fr ahlic 

condemnation the prajtiee arisine out of such an understand in; , 
nd the President hiiiself v/as always quits out of earshot, 
^•^^^■•:'-' o,-,]- r, r r •> s u 1 1 s , of final ^ ot,=»s. 

All through the direct dealings of t ne Senate with the Pres- 
iMnt then runs toAs char ic t -^ r as t I'j spirit, of i r r-^y jjoiia . " 

ictation. The President may t i r? thR Sanat-? ^y dogged persis- 
t?nce, out he can never deal v/ith it upon a groun ' * nn ?sui.i 
' ity. He has no real presence in the Senate. His pov/er loa- 
'•t extend beyond the most general su|^e- s^- i f^"- The Sena' 

■Q i^-. ,• t -1 1 >i s t ■ " f •' . No one v/oulr'' 'r>??ir-; t r. r5ee :'resi- 

d Tnt possessed of authority to overrule t r-.e decisions of the 
tT_ to treat v.'it.'\ forei^ii - *. ) r -: an^ c r,,-,^. -i ..t tv,r,M- of 

•iblic officers v/ithout any other than that shadov/y rosponsi- 
ility which he owes to tho peoplT tnat eaci^' ■ -ii i 

-^rtainly an unfortunate feature of our government that Uon- 

ress governs without be in£ put into eonfi ■\i c ns 

.,it,h t 1^ ■,. V t^ through v/hrm it rovTrnn. It dictates to an- 
t.h-?r branch of the goverm.ient which v/as intended to be coor- 



diziato an' eo-equal wJtn it, aatl over which it has no le^dlz- 
Qd aut,h(^^ity as of a master, but only t ho autf^nritv of , Mrr-..- 
stook-holdor . of a monopolist Indeed, of ail tn? -^nortotic pro- 
rogativ'^s of th"? povnrnnij-it . it 1^ ■-<-■■ 'f t ,i ,,. p ,Y^^^ Nai y Do- 

partinents wen to be mad3 eo-ordinat^ and eo-equal, bu' 

of \,ar given to the one and denied the yt^Tr, The llxecut, ivo i-; 

' tri'^i- Jiito partnex-snip wJtn tne leeisiatun upon a salary whii."^ 

v/ithheld, and is allowed no voice in the nanaf^i.-iont of 

the business. It is aiiaply eharged \/itii tne supe r liiteiidenee o' 

t hfl ernp 1 o y e ^ s . 

It was not essentially different in th? early days \.'h 

Pr"? r; i ! '>tit in pernovi r^.n.r'. hA-< mc;;^;-,,' n to t h"^ n-:?natT aiii' t r . t> 

an 
together as address, and the Senate in a body carried its'-^epiy 

to the executive maasion. The address \/as tr.-^ ■^-'■•••i] eorninuiw, - 
tion of an outsider just as much as the messape of to-dav is, 
and the reply oS the :ienat 3 \/as no less a for;.iai uOoui.rjnt wnic ■. 
it turned aside froi; its re£ular business to prepare. That 

etinc face to face v/as not consultation. The Eiigiish i'ari la- 
ment does n-* jOnsult with tne sovereign when it assembles to 
hear tne add res; frOT.! the throne. 

from an assay on the Ce, . ention of the Senate 'r^ -. ] - 

•at: and yet t.-nr; i s ve ry i 1 1 t i • ' 



(46) 

r.Trjadarit, of tn'i 'JmtoJ o tat -is. His positioii J mornai- 

is ins ipnif ieanee and curious uneert. Apparent!. 1 r^ 

• t, strictly speakintj. a jiart of t no 1 o t isl aturo , - - h'J is 

_ J ■■».■. r 1 ".' ..<".t .-(. rn'"»Tn'^-» r , - - VT t. n^it.hr-^r i •: '^"i :\:: r,rf i,?^r r, r ■ 
^jutiv?. It is one of t ho ramarkable things a out , • it 

is rij.r ' +' find ir. " ""' ' " ^c,x.. ■!,,■■ .iiiv r-- ■■■^ r 

discuss him. He comes in most naturally along \.ith .onat-> 

' "• ^.'nlcn n'3 is taer:-d: but no doos not coia-; in tiior • 
nat cons id=?rat i On. Us is simply a judicial offic^ 
od-JratT tho pfoce -9d ings of an asseubly v»nos3 rul.Js ha nas 
■ oiee in franinr and can have no voice in chancinc- His 
official stature is not to he eoraparad v/ith that of 

■;.', lie is inseparable officially from the Senate: his 



^ance consists in the fact tjiat ha may eeasT *- 



■ .-\ ^T •^ -k_'>n?lc^S_ 



■:.'. His c^-f dignity, next to presiding <)\ ^ r tho oTi.vti, 
ITS in th(>' circumstance that he is await j.ig tho deati. 
■ i ] 1 1 ■' nf thT '""r-is i i^nt . And the chief embar rassmeait. 

issine his office is, that in explaining >^ov; lit i- 

, .-. -, -i ,-1 -; ■ r, . . t T ► r. • T ^ i ,'■->: 1 1. j ■" ?? 1 i '^ all t h e r ■» 1 



THE E / E U 'J T I V E. 

•ivery political constitution in which dif feroiit, 
bodies sharfj the supr'arne power la only enabled to 
exist hy the forhearance of those ainonc whom this 
power is d ist rlhuie 1 . ' - - Ld. John Russelj. 

■Gimplleity and lotical neatness ar3 not thT tood 
to he airmd at in r.olitlcs, '■^ut fre^lor.i and ord^r. 
with proi^s against the pr3ssnre of tiii^. and arbit- 
rary will, and sudden crises."-- Theo. V^ooisey. 

•Nothing, indeed, will appear more certain, on any 
tolerable eons iderat ion of thia matter, than that 
eve ry gor t of eov«rnrnent ought to have its adnin- 
ist r ation cor respondent to its legislature^."-- Rurke. 

It is at once curious and instructive to not ^ hov/ we have ^aon 
forced into practically amending the Constitution without con- 
stitutionally araendine it. The legal proeess'is of constitution 
al ehan£e are so slow and cumhergone that we have been con- 
8train=»d to adept a serviceable framework of fictions which en- 
ables us easily to preserve the forms v/lthout labouriously obey 
ing the 'jpirit of the Constitution,-- which will stretch as the 
nation gro\.'s. It would seem that no Impul s"? short of the im- 
pulse of sel f - pr** s"* rvat 1 on. no ff^rce less than the force of re- 
volution, can nowadays be expeet=?d to mo\ e the cumbrous machin- 
ery of formal amendment erected in Article Five That must be 
a tremendous movement of opinion which can swa two-tnirds of 
•^aeh House of Coneress and the people of t hree- f ourt hs of the 
Statos. Mr. Batehot has pointed out that one consequencT of 
the TxistencT of this n'^xt to irTTno^able machinery "is that th** 



#-» , 



most o>^vlous evils cajinot. he quickly rermdl '^■1* , and 'that a 
clumsy working' and i curious f^chnicality mark the poiit. ijs of 
a rou£h- and- ready per.pje. The practical artunr^nts aiv' l-^ial 
disquisitions ii\ An9 r lea" , cont inuo s hQ,"ar=' off^n 1 ik-^ those o' 
trustees earryine out a misdrawn v^lli,-- the aens-^ of ,.hat they 
mean is good, hut it caii never he v^orked out fully or defende.1 
simply, 80 hampered is it by the old words ©f an old testvnect. 
But much th"? great'^r cons'jquence Is that v/n have re^jort-jd, a.- 
nost unconscious of the political significance of what v.e did. 
to extra-constitutional means of modifying th? federal system 
v/hire it has proved to '^^ too refined '^y halances of divided 
authority to suit ,-racticai uses,-- to h<» out of square with 
the main principle of its foundation: nacieiy. ^overij.ient hy thi 
people througn their representatives In Congress. 

Our method of choosing Presidents is a notahie 11 lust r at lo.. 
of thes ^ rai.iarks. 'i'he difference hetv.nen the actual and t ne 
constitutional modes is the difference betv/een an ideal non- 
partisan choice and a choice mad ; uiid^r party whips: the dif- 
f=?renae between a choice mai^ hy independent, unpledfed eiTo- 
tors acting apart in the States and a choice made by a i.ationai 
party convention. Our Executive, no less than the Ln^.lisr and 
French Executlv-^s, is selected by a representative, delibera- 
tive body, though in England and France the electien Is con- 



' 'f * t-^S* ^T'*- -J^IJ ) 



-e 



(3) 

trolled '-^y a permanent .eEisla^lve chamber and here by a tran«l- 
eat ass'3inbiy chosen for thi purpos'? anfl dying with tn^ execu- 
t ioii of that purpose. In LngJand the whole Cabinet is practi- 
cally elective. Th^ Frinoh Qhai.b^rs fori;:a-ly •Jeet th-* Pn-^l- 
dent. the titular h^ad of the gov irnijient , and the !*r->eidTnt. n- 
gards only the ..ill of the Assembly in appointiu^, the Primi 
K'lnistir. who is th ? '^nirgetie head of the government, and who. 
In his ^urn, surrounds himself with colleagues who have the con- 
fidence? of the legislature. /vnd the French ha\ e but cpied t no 
Entlish constitution, which makes the executi-^ e Ministry the 
r epr-es^ntat i^ es of the party majority in the Commons. V'ith us, 
on the other hand, the President Is elected by one representa- 
tive body, which has nothint to do with him after his 3le«jtion. 
and the Jabinet must bo approved by another repre sentat i\ ■% body 
which has nothing dlrectl to do with them after their appoint- 
ment . 

Cf course I do not moan that thi choice of a national con- 
vention is literally election. The convention only nominates \ 
e?.ndidate. But that candidate is the only man for whom t ne o- 
iTct'-. re of his party can vote, and so th? 3X? re sal or. of thi pre- 
ference of the convention Of the domlnai.t party is practicaiiy 
equivalent to election, and mifcht as well be called eiaotioii by 
any one v/ho is writinc of sr^ad facts an' not '^ f fine dlstlr.o- 
tions. The aovorelgn In England plc'rcs out the man who iq to bo 



i '-'ItfJ J.-.i.; It 



i Jr 



» V 



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(4) 

Prirm Mini;5ter, hut hi must picr; when the Conmons point, ani 
so it is sjnpl'ir, as well .is perf-^otly true, to s ly th\t tho 
cornnons ^1 5ct th« Prlino flnis^Tr. My ag^nt dc^s not q^J 'ct tm 
particular hor*?-? I iiistruot him to buy. i'hjs is „u3t tni ,'ialn 
fact, that th^ alootors are the agents of thT national cnm en- 
tion.'^: and this fact eo.st Itute ^j morn than an amendmei.t of that 
orJcinal plan which \/ould have had all the -^lectors to he what 
the first electors actually were, trustv/orthy men given c arto 
M_ancjTe to vot"? for v/hoin they pleased, castint tlvoir hailots !»» 
thirteen State capitals in the hop^ tnat th-^y would happeri upon 
a majority at raiment. 

It Is \.orth whil?. too, to notice another peculiarity of 
this elective system. There is a thorough- goinc minority re- 
presentation in the assemhl lea which govern our elections. A- 
cross the ocean a Liberal Prime Minist-ir is seiectii by th-J re- 
pns^ntatives only of thosT Liher.iig who 1 i\ e in Lih^rai con- 
st ituene i e-^ : those who live els'^where in a helpless minority, 
in a Conservative district, having of course no \0ic-5 in th.i se ■ 
Isction. A Cons'? rvatlvs Premier, In Ilk" manner, owes notnlng 
to those Conservatives v/ho were unable to returi* a member to 
Para lament. So far as hi Is concerned, they count for Liberals 
since their representative In the Contnons Is a Lih^rii. The 
Parliaments which select our PrasJdeiita, on the contrary, are, 



(5) 



aaeh of then all of x kiad. Mo 3t. it ^ 'l-^trlot. « an har- ' ^ "> .. 
Rapuhlicans in it as not to be entitled to .\ r ?pr agentat Iv e In 
the national Rapublican convention equal to that of the nost 
unanimously Popu'^^l i can district In the c-.untry: an' a Hepu^->1 le- 
an State Is accord -Jd as full a representation In a Democratic 
convention as is th<9 most D^m'-'cratic of her sl^^ter States. 

V'« had to pass through several stages of devol opmont before 
the prisent system of ■>l"^ction by eonv-ntion v/as reached. At 
th? first two presidential alactlor.n the eJsetors Y/ern left 

fr-^o to vote as their consciences and t'^e Const i ti^ ion b;ide 

t* 
them: for the C^nst itut ion bad e them vow*. as they d-jerned best. 

and It did not require much discretion to vote for Genera, rash- 

Ineton. But when General Vashlngton was out of the rac? and 

new parties began to dispute th^ field v/ith the Fede ral i s t f? , 

party managers couli^ not help feaiinL- anxious a'-'out the -otes 

of the electors and some of thos.' naned to choose the second 

President .,->re, aecordingly. pledc«d beforehand to vote thus 

and so. After the third presidential el -action th^re be^an to 

be Congressional oversight of the matter. From I 3ro to I J24 

there was an unbroken succession of caucuses of the Hepubl lean 

members of Congress to direct the actio,, of the part.- electors. 

and nomination by caucus died only when the Peoublioan p^rty 

became virtually the only party worth recconiub with,-- the on- 



Lttat 



"^.e tf 



(6) 

ly party for whorn nomination wis vvnrt.h while,-- ami th9i. pu^i lo 
opliilon '^'ife'an t - cr- out against sucjh s'^crot direction '^f tn-* 
monopoly. In I T-ge the F'^d^raJlat Cong reasiion had h«ld an In- 
formal eaueu.-s to ascertain th-^lr minds as to th«< approaohlne '»- 
lection: but aftar that thoy refrained from further experiment 
in the same direction an^^. eontentid thomaelvea with nrw an(! 
theii a sort of convention, until th^y had no party to convene. 
In 1329 ther') was a sort of dropping fire of nominations from 
State legislatures: and in 1332 sat the first of the gnat na- 
tional nornlnating conventions. 

Th^T"? was, therefore, one f'->rm of Cong r^ss iona,! (..overiu.ient 
which did not succeed. It v/as a very logicil mode of pa.rty ^o"^" 
e rnnent , that of nominating the chief magistrate by Congres- 
sional caucus, but it was not an op«n enough way. The French 
chamber does not select premiers by shuttinp up the memT?rs of 
it'^ majority In caucus. Neither does the nous^ of Uor.Tnions. 
Their selection Is made by Innt and open trial, in de'^ate and 
in business management, of the mei* in whom they disc-ver most 
tact for loa'iing and most 8>;lli for planning, as well as most 
power for ruling. They do ii»t say, by vote, give us M. Ferry, 
give us Mr. Gladstona; but Her Majesty knows as wsll as her 
s\ibjects know that l^r. Gladstone Is the only man whom t ho Lib- 
eral majority will obey; and Pr-^sid^nt Grevy perceives that »!. 



^-iCf. 



f^ 



> r,. :. .1^ "' •"' * 



•.»fiivO 1« crar T « , •T*tf>'J^■ 



''»/ t« ».. 






#Art* !r*/ltMfq v/fiO #ari)is?l^ 



{7) 

Ferry Is thn only maii whom tho Chainber.s can he rnaJ'? to f'-ilow. 
taeh his 9lec;t»ci hinseJf hv wlnnlnf; the first place In hi-; ,-)ar- 
ty. Th-i faction has opsnly prograaaed for y^are, aj\ \ is qulta 
dlff">r8nt from the private vote of & caucus about an outsider 
who Is to sit, not In >Joner'83, ^ut In the executi- o mamlon: 
who la not thfllr man "but the people's. 

Nor woul.i nominations by State liglalatures ansv.er any ra- 
tional purpose. Cf course 'jvsry State had, or thoutht she had, 
v/hleh Is m.ueh the sane thint , soma citizen vvrthy to hseome 
Presld^ntj and it would have been confusion v.or^e confoundad to 
hare had as niany candidates as there might be States. So uni- 
versal a oompetitlon between •favourite sons' would have throvm 
the election into the Hauae of Representatives so regularly as 
to replace the nominating caucus by ^n elect Inf caucus. 

The virtual election cf the Cabinet, the rea. executive, or 
at least thi Prima Minister, th > rea^ head of the exeoutire. by 
the Commons in England furnlshos us v/ltli a contr.vst rather than 
with a parallel to the electien of our premier, the neai! of our 
exeeutive, by a deliberative, representat i\ e body, because of 
the difference of function and of tenure between our Presld^its 
and English Prime Ministers. William Pitt was elected to rule 
the House of Commons, John Adans, to hold a constitutional bal- 
ance against th> Hous'^s of Congrnss. The on^ vra- the leader of 



- . : , .lA ipOti* 9-Vt 

i SttdsmHA .'^a f»-***^ -iitxrr p:'tijo " " 



-:i^ lH^n^tt^O e 'Ifl'W «if »©rt»llH1C*x'^ [ at 






'■"t* • i 



(3) 

th*? 1 -jglsl at.ur'i , the othor, sr. tn say, thn coHeafUT of t.h"* J»p- 
isiature. Besides, t, h > Cormnons can not only make but aino Ui.- 
mak3 Ministries; whilst conventions oai- do iiothiiit '^ut Mnd 
their parties by nomination,, anl nothing short of a v.eil-nlgh 
impossible Impeaehmant can unma/is a Preslrlent, exc«pt four suc- 
cessions of the season-?. As has b« en very happily said "^y a 
shrev/d commentator on our system, it Is essentially as* r'^nonio- 
al . A President's usefulness la measured, not by effieiency, 
Hut by callendar months. It is ree-toned that if he he good at 
all he v/111 be good for four year*^. A Prime Minister rust ic9«p 
himself In favour with the majortiy, a President need only Keep 
al i\e . 

Tnce the functions of a presidential elector v/er^ very au- 
gust. He was to speak for the people; they wori to accept his 
judgment as theirs. He was to be as eminent in the qualities 
which win trust as was the greatest of the Imperial Llsctors in 
the power which Inspires fear. But now he Is merely a register 
Ine machiiie,-- a sort of bell-punch to the han'^' of Ms p.^rty 
eonv->ntion. It gives the prjssure an' he rlnis. It is, thers- 
f ore, patent to everyone that that portion of the constitution 
which prescribes his functions is as thou£h It were not. A 
very simple am.! natural process of party o r> aalaat ion. tAklnfi 
form first in Coni. ressi onal caucuses and later In n'^mlnat ing 



hiii'' Sue' jut'iiuu Ob .W'- * .vi o <•• '■■'■■kft '*?»• 

>A to* , 

•ant ixrol ^q«i»x» , 4/««tNj!«fii(| £ <i>i«aiB0 4Uii 

"8 etf ed ti '►«'<1' fc«n«3»*T 8t tl .mr -r^f.n* 

©lew *t rtgiMirt* e« «£ s;iiv*'X'ii.airt am godf. 



(9) 

conventions, hag radlealJy .ilt«r-?d a constitution whloh daclar* 
tnat, it ea^i be amended only by tha concurreneo of tv,o- thirds of 
ConL'ress and thrsa- fourths of th; Status. Tha sagacious men of 
tha constitutional eonvontion of I '^3 7 cartainly axp'^ctad thalr 
wor;; to ba al tared, bu ' can hardly ha^e axpaet-=»d it t -. be 
changed in so infornal a ma. .nar, 

>/ Tha conditions which daterwine t ne choice of a nomli, it la^j 
^convention which names a Prasident are radically diffannt from 
to eon^litions which facilitate the choice of a rapra g-jntat ive 
chambar v/hleh selects f^r itself a Prime I^iinistar. ■Among tha 
graat purposas of a national parliamant are these tv.o'.says Mr. 
Partrn,""* first to train men for practical statasmanship j and se- 
condly to axhibit them to tha country, so that, v/hen m.e. of a- 
Mlity ara wanted, thay can ba found v.ith'^ut anxious saarch and 
P'^rilous trial." In those gova rn;:ie nt s which ara administ ar ^d 
by an ex cut iv j committea of tha lagislative body not only this 
trainine but also this exhibition is constant and coiiplet ■> . The 
caraar which leads to Cabinet office is a carair of salf-axhl^- 
itlon. The sel f- revel at ion Is made in dabate, and so is made 
to tha naMon a^ larce as well as %<■• tha Ntinlstry of tha day 
v,ho ara looking out f'^r able recruits and t r. tha uoruions whoa a 
ear Is quick to t^ll i voice which it wlJl c'^ns-'nt f^ ha'-r, a 
knowladt,a which it will p.iusa to head. But in eovarni.ient a ilka 
f.ti -iiit ie *>lont h ^ y, Vol. ^R.p.MI. 



t© ,iH(.i p 



\BT fit*: ti-»to^n'^T 



rnn 



(10) 

r>ur ov/n , in which I9i£i9i ^liva and ^x•e^tl^•'^ s'jrxiens an al- 
io tether dissociat-Jd, this trainiiif l.<? IncompJeta and tnjs ex- 
hibition aJrnost. qntinjy wanting. A nomlnatinfe eoiivintirn d'-oa 
not loo'.. on/TT th*? rolls of Coner?gs to pic'r. a man t '^ suit Its 
purpose: and If i^ did it could n^t find hlin. heeaua* Coner^s-? 
is not a school for th^ pnparation of adnlnlgt ratori , and the 
cr.iw>ntion is supposed to he searehing ,not for an e.perienced 
eo-Tunitteernan, hut fnr a triad statesman. The proper test for 
its application is not the test hy which Congr ^ssmen are assay- 
ed. They make laws, but they do xiot have to order the execu- 
tion of the 1 av/s they rna:-:e . They have a great deal o* experi- 
ence in directing but none at all in beiiife directed. Their 
3are is to pass bills, not to ke-^p them in running order after 
thev have become statutes. They p »g g their lives wltr.out hav- 

A 

me anything to d% directly with administration, though admin- 
istration is dependeijt uf-'^n the measures v/hich they enact. 

A convention, tnerefore, when it nominates a mai. who is, r>r 

A 

has been, a member of Congress, does not nominate mm -because 
of his congressional experience, but because It is thoughit that 
he has other abilities which were not called out In Congress. 
Andrew JacksOn had been i mori'^er of Congriss, but M*^ v.as chose. 
President because he had won the battle of Nev/ rrlems and ha i 
driven the Indians froi:i Florida. It was thought ^hat his mill- 



I» ^ t. f -n f « f ■ 



intr^ 



*^h'i ..«Ma0#t^< 



-« ^% 4 






'jxij . o in*^ v>'9V f r 



(in 

tary genius evinced oxocutlvi c^iil^a. Th^ in^n whoa? fan'^4 
nst. s alt't'ith^r upon launls wOn in Coxigrasa hav"» s«idorn bisi; 
L;or3 suce<33sful than V'abstQr and Hanry Clay In th'^ir candidacy 
for the chl'^f magistracy. raahln£toxi was a soldier, J'fferson 
out '^ut a sorry fi^^ura in dahata; Monroe v.'aa a dlpioiiiat i st , it 
required diligent inquiry to flml out what many of our Presi- 
dents had b39n bsf'^re thsy hTcaiir? candidafJs; and '?niineiitj" in 
legislative service has always b'^en at b^^st but an uncart iin 
road to official preferrnont. 

rf late years a tendmey is observable which seens to be 
rnakint th© gubernatorial chairs of the greater States the near- 
est offices to the Presidency: and it eaiinr>t but h^ allo\.ed 
that there is much that is rational In the tendency. The f,ov- 
nrnorship of a Stato is v3ry i ik.3 a smaller Presidency: or, ra- 
ther, the Presidency Is very like a big governorship. Tralnint 
in tha duties of t h.e one fits for the duties of the ot;iir. This 
is the Only avenue of subordinate place through which th'» hlth- 
est place can bo naturally reached. Under the CabinU gnv irn- 
rr.ents abroad a still more natural line of pr^m<-.tloii is arrant^d 
The Ministry is a legislative ministry and draws its life from 
tne leg islatur ■;. wher- strong talents always secun executive 
place. A loiig career In ParlJament is. at least, a iOnt «-'on- 
tact v/ith practical st at ismanshlp , and at 'nst a lont scr-^oilni 



♦ v»> • {tO- 



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t . ? I 



4t(*ia 4#f'< ^tHI 



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-.iOU 3kA.0» <{• ,.1k^-' 



(12) 



in the duties of the pra^jtlcal st at 'isrnan. I3ut. with us thon In 
n« such intimate ral at innahlp hetweon l^gislatlvo and executiv-> 
sorviee. From expari^nc? in State adininlst rat iox^ to trlnl in 
thQ larger spher'? of f-jtieral adrnlnlst rat Ion la the only natiirii 
order •^ promotion. V'e ought, th3refor9, to hail tne reeoL^ii- 
t ion of this fact as In k coping with the general plan of the 
federal Constitution. The business of the President, occasion- 
al i y great, is usuaJly i:iot riueh a^^ove routine. Most of tne 
time It is mere administration, mere •bedlejics of directions 
from the masters of pulley, the Standing Confjilt tees. Lxcept la 
so far as his power of veto constitiJtes him a rart of the 1 ^p- 
islature, the President might, not Inoonvenient 1 y , be a perman- 
ent offiear: the first official of a careful 1 y- graded and im- 
partially regulated civil service system, through Y.hose sure 
series of merit-promotions the youngest clerk mlgnt rise even 
to the chief magistracy.'^ Ho is part of the official rather 
than of the political machinery of the government and his du- 
ties call rather for triinlng than for constructive gejilus. If 
there can be found in the official systems of tne States a low- 
er grade of service in which men may be advantageously drilled 
for pres J lent i il functions, so much the better. The Stites 
will have better governors, the 'Tnion better Presidents. and 

"^ Somethliig like this his ^^eon actually proposed by Mr. ..i-'ert 
Sticknoy in bis Interest Int, anl Jiiclsive essay,* A True Hapubi ic 



c .• . . _ ^iim . ^ . . , .... .. .: - 

(it irtH ♦ t a'*'t *«•» * 

0r$ t# trt^M .lisf ♦ir<^1 »'?«>'*« fl&iKi ton ytl^tunJ- 

-y t»fi« fur {Rl^ "/^^ iff* t« ti<»<t^rtdB'(i lnviitl^^ii t^r*t " 

II .«2;tit«g ert tdUiJmndO not iMtfft $rtJtflt/^'*» ■« " '• i<^'#'-« 
-wfti ii Bff'.t/itg f<f^ t t* •nfij'BYr I«t»Mto frr 









t.hera will ha^■o boon supplif^^I on"? of t, ho I'lost. sorlous neods ^4- 
laft unsup[jl I'fd by tno Const itut i on, - - tho noed for a proper 
scjhool in v.hlch to rear fedaral adrnliiist rat ors . 

Administration is something that mei^ must learn, not sone- 
thing to skill in whieh they ar^j born. Americans ta.-.e to h-isl- 
nass of all kinds mora naturally than any other nation evor did 
a-nd the ixeeutive duti'^s of tovernnent constitute just an ex- 
alted kind Of business:-- but even Americans ar? not Presidents 
in tneir cradles. One cannot hav^ too much preparatory traia- 
in^; and experience who is to fill so hifch a matlstraoy. It is 
difficult to perceive, therefore, upon what safe ground of roa- 
son are built the opinions of those persoiis who regard short 
terms of service as sacredly and peculiarly re;jubiican in prin- 
ciple. If repu'->l Icanis) ! is founed upon good sexise , nothint 30 
far removed from g^^od sTnse cai. be part and parcel of it. Ef- 
ficiency is the only Just foundation for er-nfidojice in a pu'-^llc 
officer under republican institutions no lass than under ron- 
archs: and sh'^-rt terms which cut off the efficient as surely 
and inexorably as the inefficient are quite as rapu^naiit to re- 
publican as to monarchical rules of wisdom. Unhappily, however 
this is not Ai.ierican 'octrlne. A President is dismissed almost 
as soon as he nas learned the duties of his office, and a man 
who has served a dr>zon terns in ConLress is a curiosity. V^a 






-Jt 



-»«t ig. fit«i .J«dw is<»'?tf , «t'^t«n>^e* .^rtfifisri ot r 



(14) 



are too apt to think ^oth th*? ..orx of iTRiaiation an' tno worx 
of adrniniat rat lon easy enough to he dom o.^ oil y , with or with- 

r 

out praparation, hy any m.iii of discretion and charaefr. No 
on"? Imaeines that the dry-goods or the hardware trade, or even 
tl-i.e cobbler's craft, can he successfully conducted e/cent hy 
those who have worked through a labouriojs and unrernunerit i-> e 
app r-^nt ice ship and who have devoted tneir livers to perf^otinc 
themselves as tradesmen or as rjiok e p y of shoes. But ie£islatlon 
is 'Esteemed a thing which may be taken up witn success hy any 
shrev/d man of middle ape, which a lav;yer may now and acain ad- 
vantageously combine with his practice, or of which any intel- 
ligent youth may easily catch the knack; ani adminlst ra» 1 <^n Is 
ngardod as somethinfi which an old soldier, aii ex- Jiplomat ist , 
or a popular poiiticlan may bi trusted to take tf^ by instinct. 
No man of tolerable talents need d-^spalr of ha-* ing b^en borii a 
presidential candidate. 

These must be pronounced very extraordinary conclusions for 
an eminently .iractieal people to ha-' -» accepted: ant! it must bo 
received as an awakening of good sense that there is nowadays 
a decided inclination nanlf este ! on the part of the nation to 
supply training-schools for the Presidency in like minor officer 
such as the governorships of thi greater States. For the sort 
of Presidents need under the present arrangement of our fe'erai 



A • , ' * » « ' . 



t« t 



ft. 



~.t»qm' f\ 



Jl.*ie ti', ,t T ^i .r» * - *■ 



KOv? rru.'.ont it. is host, to chooso amontst, t.ho abi'^at and moat •>- 
porianuod St it 3 govs mora. 

So rnuoh for nomination and ei-Jction. Hut, aft-ir fjj -^.j t ion: 
what th9n'' Tha President Is not ail of the txocutive. tin can- 
not g-'t along without t ^e men whom he appoints, with and by tm 
Consent ari.T advice of the Senate; and they are rea^.y intepral 
parts of that branch of the c^vernnent v/hich he titiiariy con- 
tains in his one single person. The characters an' training of 
the Secretaries are of almost as much importance as his own 
gifts and antecedents: so that his appointment a^.d the Senate's 
confirmation must be add'sd to tha machinery of nomination ^y 
convention and election by automatic electors before the v/holo 
process of making up a working executive has been noted. The 
early Congresses seem to have regarded the Attorney General and 
tne four Secretaries who constituted the first Cabinets as 
something more than the President's 1 ieutenaiits . Before the 
republican reaction which foil owe.! the supremacy of the Feder- 
alists, the heads of the departments appeared in person before 
the Houses to impart desired information and to ma^e v.hat euf 
gastions they might have to venture, just as the President at- 
tended in person to read his "addreas". They were always re- 
cognized units in tne system, never me r-» ciphers tr> the preai- 

' State, Treasury, War, Ni\y. 



■m T 



(16) 

dontiaJ figure which led them, Thilr wills counted as Indepon- 
d'3nt ¥;ills. 

..-' The limits of this indepeiil^ncj ^4 will seiiM, however, nev- 
ar to have been very clearly defimi. Whether or n-^t t^e Presl 
dTnt was to ta.;e the advica of his appointeia and eolleat;ues 
appears to have depended always upon t e character and teMp-jr 
of the Presidant. Hero, for example, is v.hat was report 3^1 In 
I 362. *\-'e pratand to no State secrets" . said the New York Lve- 
ning Post . * but wt have been told, upon what we deern £ood autnor- 
ity, that no suoh thing as a combined, unitary, deliberative 
administration exists; that the President's brave v.illintness 
to take all responsibility has quite neut ral i-sod the idea of a 
joint responsibility; and that orders of the highest Importance 
are Issued, and movement^ oominanded , which Cabinet officers 
learn of as other people do, or, what is worse, which the Cab- 
inet officers disapprove ancl protest atainst. Each Ca'^inet of- 
ficer, aeain, controls his own departineiit pretty much as he 
pleasTs, without cojisul tat Ion v/i*h the Presideiit or with his 
coadjutors, and often In the face of det er.iinat ions which h ve 
been reached by the others." A picture this v.hlcb forcibly rn- 
ninds one of a certain imperious Prime Minister in his list 
days created Earl of Chatham. Those reports may have beei. true 



L -JH- 



As quoted In Macmlllaiis Macazine, Vol . VI I , p . 67. 



nrfl \o »^^^!IO fi 



.j.t<ft . 't ( 



Tj'lotcr J- 



(17) 

or they nay have he in mere rumours: but, they (leplct a perfeoliy 
possible state of >.ffalrs. There is no Influence exaopt the 
aseenrienoy or tact of tne Pr^glvient himself to Keep a Cabinet 
In harnony ani to dispose It to cooperation: on that it '..ould 
'e \8ry dlffieult to lay down any rula.s as to what eleinnts ro- 
al 1 y constitute an Executive. Those elements can ba determined 
exactly of only one B < toou*ive at a time, and tnat only aftir it 
has closed and some one who kn'^./s its secrets has cor-ia forward 
to tell them. 7^e think of Mr. Lincoln rather than of his Sec- 
retaries v^heii v/e look back to the policy of th.3 war-timoj but 
we think of Mr. Hamilton rather tnan of President V'aaniiit^on 

when we look bac». to the po^ciy of tne first administration. 

I 

Daniel Vehster v/as bifter than Prasideiit Fiitnore, and Preiaont 

Jackson was bigger than Mr. Secretary Van Buran. It dO; ends 
for the most part upon the character ami training, the previous 
station, of the Cabinet officers whether or not they act as gor 
erning factors in adi-iinist rat ion. Just as it depends upon the 
President's talents and preparatory schoolinj. whether or not ha 
is a mere figure-head. A weak President may prove himseif wis- 
er than the convention v/hlch nomliiated him by ove rshadov. li^g 
hinseJ f with a Cabinet of notables. 

From the necessity of the case, howe-^er. the President can- 
not often be really supreme in matters of administration, ex- 






t4»i rti* ,<iii %• ? .men* i 






"^ * r- t - .^4»ou- 



.» 



oept as tho Speaker of the House of Ropr^jsentat iv'^3 Is supfjnio 
In 1 et isl at. ioi. , as appointor of tlioso who ar.3 suprei.ri iji its 
several departinent s. The Pr?8Jdent is no ^rriAX'ir than nli pro- 
rcfativT of vatp makes hinj he Is, In otner v/or-Is, povftrful ra- 
ther as a branch of t h -i Jatislature than as tho titular hea' of 
the Executive. Almost all distinctively executive functions 
ar« spocifieally bestowed upon the heads of the departments. Mo 
Pnsldent, however earnest and industrious, can koep the Navy 
in a state of creditable effiei-^ncy if he have a eorr-jpt or In- 
eaable Secretary in the Navy Depart) lent; he cannot prevent the 
army frora suffering the damage of demoralization if the Secr^t- 
arv of Tar is without either ability, experiencT. or ^ionscl^ncT 

there v/ill be corrupt ^obs in the Derartnent of Justice, do 

/v 
\fhat ho will correct the methods of a deceived or deceitful At- 

torney General; he cannot secure even-handed equity for t ne In- 
dian tribes if the Secretary of the interior chooses to thv/art 
himj an' the Secretary of Ctate may do as much mischief nenind 
his J-'ack as can the Secretary o^ t.h-; Treasury. He m.lght master 
the details and so control the administration of some on^ of 
the departments, but he can scarcely oversee ther^ all v^lth any 
detre^ of strictness. His kno\/ledee of what tney have don" or 
are doiat comes, of course, from the Secretaries t ner is ^Ji ve s . 
and his annual messates to uonuress are in iart^ part hut a re- 



-'■•' r .^N S -l- ;>>-.'•■> ; Off ft 

-'.-.. i» « 4 ., ^t»js Kfi 8 « 1} ^o It 1 1 1 tfboJl ^4M #«*a9 ■*■*' ^ * ^* - 

•. J -J • 

'■ ■ s ■ 

. . ' : •{• 1 t V ♦. I -.fit' ". 



capitulation of th'> chi'jf contants of th'? dotaJlevi r'^ port 3 «-*■ 
Y.!".i(2h the h'jads of t h? depart, outs thei.iseivas submit at t n^ 
same tlm^ to the Houses. 

It is "^asy, however, to Txatt^^at'? tne pov;-)r of tne CaMno*. 
Aft3r all has been said, it is -■)\'ideiit tnat thoy diffjr froii 
♦he permanent officials o..ly In not being pernanen^. Th^ir 
tenun of office is made t '"• ^iepTnd upon the supposition t f^.it 
their functions are political rather than sim.ply minlst t r lal , 
independent rather than merejy Inst ruinentai . Thiy ar3 mad^ 
party repre sezxt at ive s becaus3 of the fiction that they direct 
policy. In reality the First Comptroller of the Treasury has 
almost. If not quite, as much weight In directing departinental 
business as has the Secretary of the Treasury himself, ani It 
v/ould practically be qiilte as usefui to have his office, v.hich 
is in intention permanent, vacated by every change of aiminls- 
tration as to have t ^.at rule with regard to t.hn office '^ ' his 
officiaJ chief. The permanent organization, the clerical for- 
ces, of the departnents have in the Secrstaries a sort of 8_il_d- 
ipg top ! though It would probably be just as eon-' oniej.t in prac 
tice to have this lid permanent as t» have It mo\.ibio. That 
the Secretaries are n'^-t in fact the directors of tne axocutive 
policy '^f the eovernnent. I ha-- e shown In pointing out the Ihor 
outh-going supervision of oven the details of administration 



T T - ■: ^ ■ '- [ ■ ^ ^ ■- 



'i r-. . . • -.4 . . . 

« 



,iua*«tT <«rtl ^»> '0*.*»'» •'^ *^"* *^''' * 



•pJn ' T f it!Uiii^ yi^TiNi --' •.»-, 



1 1 —- / ■ 



t f 



: •"< !'■ 









(20) 

which It is th3 disposition of rht Stand int Conimi 1 1 1 is or cr.n- 
frf>gs to exercise. In the actual control of iffain no ojn can 
do v?ry much without eainii\£ the ears of the Cn^jnit f'''>3 . Th*? 
heads of the <.■ epartnent 3 could, of course, act much riore v/lseiy 
in many matters than the Cormnit t le s can, because they hav "? an 
intimacy with the workijits and the wants of thoge departmeijts 
which no Committee can possibly possess. But Uor.u.iitte is prefer 
to eo\-ern in the dar»; rather than not to t.o^e^n ,\t all, and the 
Secretaries, as a matter of fact, find themselves hound in ail 
thines larger than routine details ^y laws \/hich have been made 
for thern and which they h.\ve no leeltlmate means of modifvlnf. 

Of course the Secretaries are in t e leading- strint s of 
statutes: and all their duties look towards a strict oervl^j a o f 
Congress . Congress made them ant' can unmake them. It is to 
Congress that they must render account for the con.'uct. <^ t admin, 
is^ration. The head of each department must every ye ir make a 
detailed report of t,he expenditures of the depart; ent ai.d i -l . 
ute account of the facilities of work and the division of func- 
tions In the department, nar.ine -"ach clerk of its f'-rce. The 
chief duties of one Ca'^inet officer will serve t.o jllus^rita 
the chief dutie? of ais coileatueg. It is the Jut- of tiie .uc- 
retary of the Treasury'^ 'to prepare plans for tn.e improvement 

* I quote from \i\ excellent haj.d>>ook, "The '/nlted States Govirn- 

r'.(ent'',by Laun.here. 



rt^lJ 



io Rti 



•£ c. 



(21) 

and manatsinent of th^ revenue and for the support of tho ,ju')I 1j 
er-^ditj to pr^acriha f-'-rus of X'^'^pinc and ron lerlnt '^J pu^lio 
accounts; to G^ant aj 1 v/arrants for moneys to he In^i'jed from 
+ hT Tr'^agury in pursuant; of aiiprop r iat ioiis rnad'i hy ^<>in^i vi < , 
to report to the Sonata or Housf in pors<-ii or in v/ritlnt; Infor- 
. at ion required by th >(> pertaJnint to his off jee, and tn per- 
form all duties relating to finance that h'i fhail ho directQd 
to perform." "Ho is reqiiired to report to congress annually, 
on the first Monday in June, the results of the infornaMon ion 
piled by the Bureau of Statistics, showine th f condition of 
manuf aeturis , domestic trade, currency, and hanks in th-' sever- 
al States and Territories." ■He prescribes retuiationr, for the 
killing in Alaska Territory and adjacent waters of ninKS, mar- 
tens, sable, an I other fur-bearing animals." • Ai\d. ho rsust lay 
before Coneress each aessloa the reports of the Auditors, show- 
ing the applications of the appropriations mad3 for the V/ar and 
Navy Depart, lents, and also ahs+racts and tabulated forms shov.-- 
ine separate accounts of the moneys received from int-rnal du- 
ties . • 

Of course it is of the utmost importance that a Socritary 
v/ho has within his choice some of the miner plans for the man- 
aeownt of th ^ revenue and for the maintmance of the public 
credit should '-^e carefully chosen from amontst men skillnd In 



(22) 

financial admini s* r it, ion and ex;*-? r 1 ojicid In ^I'lslmss r f wntio.-. 
^ut it. Is no mor? n'TC'5gsary that the maa s'll^cted for sucn n- 

, si'onsi^l'5 duties should "b*? an active I'Oiltioiaji caliTd to pro- 
sid*^ over hlg department only so lone as ^^9 Pfrisidont v^ho ap- 
pointed bin continues to hold office and to J Ik ; hir.',. than it 
is to hav ^ a strictly political officer to fulfil his other du- 
ty, of pr'^sc rl'hlnc; game 1 a-./s for Alaska and Alaskan v.aters. 
Fur-bearing animals can have no cnnection with .'olitlcal par- 
ties: except, perhaps, as "spoils.* Indeed it is a positive 
disadvantage that Mr. Secretary should he ch^seii upon such a 
principle. Ha cannot have the knowledge, and ; ust therefore 
lac'C the efficiency, of a pernanent official separated froin the 
partisan conflicts of politics and advanced to the highest of- 
fiCT of his department by a r-»eular aeries of promotions v/on 
by long service. The general policy of the goverxjnent iii mat- 
ters of finance, everything that affects the greater operations 
of the Treasury, depends upon legislation an"! is alto,etner In 
the hands of the Committees of Ways amd Means and of Finance, so 
that it is entirely apart f ror-; good sense to make an e^s-^atlal- 
ly poiltlcal office out of the post of that officer who control 
Q^ly administrative details. 

And this rei.iark would seem to apply with still grei»er 

/ force to the offices of the other .'eor.et ar les. They have even 



-•'I ;:r T'T 'rt". «I>B. 



' n ..' 



CAWO 



■J " 



to y 



-ri t« i 



i'W 



-f-."' 631:*, 



(23) 

1-333 ener^nie se^,3 thaxi tho Siarotary of th^j Treasury his. 
Th-rrj Mus^ unlTr any syst^n '.e eonsld^ rah] e power In tho nandn 
of the offic«ir v.ho handJea ann Aiopi afu vast ravanuoa ev-^n 
though he handle ani ^ cli o p>^9 Q then as dlrecfj' -hy his enpjoyern. 
I'onoy in its golnfcs to and fro i-.a^tea various /narea k,o by the 
way. so to speak. It cannot move In groat quantities without 
moving a large part of th^ eomin?rcial world vvitn ar. Mamee- 
nent even ©f financial details may be mad^ inst rumOi:t al in tun. 
ine the money-markets upside down. The Stc rotary of the Treas- 
ury is, therefore, less a mere chl^f clerk than are his ooai„u- 
tors; an! if his duties are not properly pol it ioal theirs cer- 
tainly ara not. 

In view of this peculiarity of the Secretaries, in being ap 
pointed as partisans and endowed as mora ©fficiais, it is inter 
as^ine to enquire v/hat and whom they represent. They are clear. 
ly meant to represeat the political party to which they belong: 
but It very often happens that it is impossible for them to do 
so. They must sometimes obey the opposite party. It is our 
habit to speak of the party t© which the Pre^lclTnt is kn'^\ r. to 
adhere and which has control of appointments to the offices of 
the civil service as "the party in power": but it is \ery evi- 
dent that control of the executive machinery is not all or even 
a very lar^e part of power in a country ruled as ours is. In 



,B.' n 



rtf '« 



' .si I'/O ; f 



• ft")*"^ I" ••* nttf vK 



» 



ill»),t i£,^i^ OtC 



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O \"t 



SflfCf »♦' 



f «( <« *. 



..v» »-. 



, e c^ •. ^ : e"j. ii *.v «;: . 



.1^ 



fttqf " 



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; ^1 titJii 9<v 



r ♦> 



t' 



C£ Bli/t^ 



so far as the Pr^gidTnt Is an Txeout.lv^ offl^or he Is t.h? 3«»r- 
vant, of Concra.ss: and th-i members of t ho ^aMnet, , s-^lnt eoiifln- 
9d to cixeeutiv'; funeMons. ar ^ alt.ocether run gorvanta of con- 
cr:^ss. The President, howe-vT, besidos bMnt titular he.t'! of 
the executive service, is to the extent of his veto a third 
branch of the 1 e£, i gl ature , an-l the party v^hich h^ n:. resents is 
in power in the sain^ sense that it \,ouJd be in po>.er if it had 
on Its side a majority of the members of either of the ot. i-tp 
t',,o branches of Contress. If the House and Senate are of one 
party and the President and his ministers of the opposite, the 
Pr3sid3nt'3 party can harlly be said to •->'? in pov.er beyond the 
hindering and thwarting faculty of the veto. The Deiioerats 
\/er^ in power durint thT sessions of tne twenty- f if th Unntr'Jss 
because they had a r.:ajority in the Sen.vte as well as Andrev/ 
JaC^son in the V^hite House ^ but later Presidents have had both 
House and Senate atainst thei:!.**' 



'^•In America the Pr-^sldent cannot pr->vei.t tny 1 a\, frcm being 
passed, nor can he ?vade the obiitiation of enforcing it. His 
sincere and zealous cooperation Is no doubt useful, but it is 
not indispensable, in the carrying '^n of public affairs. All 
his important acts ari directly or indirectly submitted to the 
le£; isl ature , and of his own free authority h"? can do but ll^tl-; 
It is therefore his weakness, and not his .ov/er, which enables 
him to ronain in opposition to Coiij^ress. In Luropo hari-.ony 

must reign between the Crown in ^ the other branches of the leg- 
islature, because a collision between ther.i may ^r''\ f serious, 
in America, this hari>ony is n^t, i i.dl spensabl e , because sue*- a 
collision Is impossible.* -- De Toquev 11 1 e , I , p. 124. 



J ■• <• '> n 



♦ c 



4.-1 T 



ai/»li wr 



t htt^B ^<< YA 



TT ,/* 



(25) 

It is this constant po?!slMlity of _\rt.\' div trsity h»jt\vo.iii 
the Lxecut iv^ an-! Cr>n{ r^ss which no much coripjicatos our systir.i 
of r'arty t^vernnent. Thn history of adi.iinl at rat Inni is art w^ 2 ■ 
essarily tho history of parties. Presidential ej-ctlons may 
turn the seal? of party ascendency one v/ay, aniJ thi Intemedl- 
at e Con£r9ss lonal ei actions may quit? reverse the balance. A 
st rone party adrainist rat ioix, hy which th-> energy of the state 
is cr.neent rated in t h ■> hands of ,i sixic-"". wel J - reer>fc.ni ^ '''^ P * •! - 
it leal orcanizat J'-'H v.-hich is by reason of its po„-!r saddled 
Vrfith all responsibility, may sonnet li.ie s be possible, but It ..ust 
often be impossible. V^e are thus shut out in part from roai 
party Loverninent such as we desired, and such is it is unques- 
tionably desirable, to set up in every system 1 ik,o ours. Party 
eovernip.ent can exist only when the absolute eontr'-^l of ad:.anis- 
t rat ion. the appointment of its officers as well as the direc- 
tion Of its m^ans and policy, is given ii;«iediat el y into tne 
hands of that branch of the governraent whose I'Ov-er is paramount, 
the representative b'-dy. Poger Sr.ernan, whosT [.erception vas 

amongst the keenest and whose sagacity was anontst th? surest 

out spo'ften 
in the great convention of 1737, vas very bold an ? unnnftn o n in 

declaring this favit and in proposing to (ive it caiidid r ieog- 

nitlon. rercei\ing very clearly the omnipotence which must la- 

e\itably belong to a national Congress such as the conveiition 



(26) 

was about to eroata, h*? avoy^ed tr.at 'ho eoiisldir jd th^ ♦ixoou- 
tiva magistracy as iiothint inori than an ins t i t, ut i r,!! for uarry- 
in£. the \.lli of th-» i -^eisi uturi Into effect; that thi pors'^n or 
persons [who shoultl const itut'} trva Lxocutive] ouf^t to o? aj>- 
polnted by, aiid accountable to, the iTgislaturi oni " , wnicn waa 
the depository of the suprer.e v/iii of th"? society*. Indeed. tno 
Lxeeutivo was in his viev. so entirely thi servant of t no legis- 
lative will that h? savi good riason to think that the ie^lsia- 
ture shoul' judge of the nuriber of persons of >.hieh t n •• -?xecu- 
tl\-3 should be composed: and there seem to have been others In 
the eonv^jition who v/iiit along \iith him in suhstantiaa a£re^rnent 
as to thes=? matters. It v.ould seeu to ha\ e been only a iisire 
for the er'ation %f as many as possible of thos? balances of 
poY/er which now decorate the "literary theory* of t h ■• vJonstltu- 
tion which they made that prevented a universal acquiescence lii 
these views. 

The anomaly v.hich has risuited is seen i.iost cliarly In the 

party relations of th=3 President and his vJablnet. Tr»e Pr->3i- 

becauee h'i la 
dent is a partisan,-- is ejected ••-^a partisan.-- anl yet ne 

not Infrequently notatives the i^tlslation passed by th? j.arty 

whom he represents: and it may be said to be nowadays a very 

rare thint to find a Cabinet riade up of truiy r <?.. r isont at iv ^ 

r.arty nen. They are thi men of his t>arty whom the I'roaldent 



-1 J' 



(27) 



llk^s, hut not necessarily or al ...iy.s the men whom that, party 
nlishes. Go low. Jndand. has tno r Tput at i on of son* "^ f our 
lat'^r Cahlnets fallen, avex^ in the eyes of men of their ovai pol- 
itieal connection, that v/rit->r'3 in t h -» best, of public prints 
f?ei at full liberty to speaj; of their membors with ope;, ooi*- 

t.empt. "When f'r. was made Secretary of the Navy*, 

laufcjhs the Mew York Nat ion . *no one dcu"hted that ho \.oul<i treat 
the Department as 'spoils,' and coiisequenti y nobody his hien dis- 
appointed. He is Oxii of the statesiiian \.ho eai: narliy cr^ms'i wn 
of a branch of the public Administration havint no spoils iii it. 
And that this separation of the Uahinn frnm r jai part influ- 
ence, and from the party leadership which would seem prr.porly 
to belong to its official station, is a natural result of our 
oonst itut ional sch-Jiae is made patent in the fact tnat the Cab- 
inet has advanced in party ins ig^^ ' i'^^'^'^e as tl^.e system has 
grov/n older. The conniction bet\.een the early uahliiets and the 
early Contresses was very 1 lk.e the relations between leaders 
and their party. Both Hamilton and Gallatin led rather thai\ o- 
beyed the Houses: an' it was many years before th> sufct^s* lorn 
of heads of departments ceased to be sure r.f respectful anJ ac- 
quiescent consideration from the legislative Uomnittoos. iiut 
as the JOMiittees f^inaJ facility and pov^er tm ieadersni-,- of 
the Cabinet lost ^iround. Comr^se too"; comman : of the l;'^vern- 






• • •■ 



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4 1 1 



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(2V 

raent 30 goon .is ov^r it ^ot coniian^i of Itsej', and no mor-r.ry 
--f to-day oaii uMii;n by -irtu.^ of his office r9coi;nir, ion as i 

^rty authority. Conerass looks upoi. a-' 1,.^ o".r-i! to it by 
anybody but its own rnombers as gratuitous Inpert InOiico . 

At the sar.-i9 tine It. is quit". 3vldeiit that thi moia^ yrnl;i:^ 
Coneress has of contr-lline the departnents and of exerolslnc 
thT searehine oversight at \.h3eh it aims an limited and Jefoc- 
tivQ. Its intercourse with the President is restricted to th9 
exeeutlve rnessaees an! Its intercourse v/ith the departments has 
no easier channels than private consultations betv/een execu- 
tive officials and the Coninlt teos . informal interviews of the 
ministers with individual members of Contress, and the written 
correspondence v/hleh the Cabinet officers from timi to time ad- 
dress te the presldine officers of thi t\.o Houses, at stated 
intervals or in response to fortnai resolution.- of inquiry. con- 
er-!ss stands almost helplessly outside of the dopartj ;ant s . tven 
the special. Irksome, untracious Invest ifcat ions which it from 
time to time Institutes in Its spasmodic endeavours to dlsi^el 
or confirm suspicions of malfeasance or of v/ant^n corrupt loi> do 

A 

not afford It more than a glimpse of the inside of a small prov- 
ince of federal administration. Hostile or desitniiit '^f *" !•.• 1 vl 3 
can always hold It at arm's lencth by dextrous evasions and con^ 
eealments. It caji vlo]ontly distur*^. >^ut it cannot -■.'♦■»!. t'lth- 



«n-. .1 r-t\^ iff- 



(21) 



orn the waters of the sea in v/hioh the blggor fish of the civil 
servivZ'? swim a.nA f38d. Its drafiiet stirs v/ithout cJ'?i»8inF 
the >iottorn. Unless It have at the head of the departnents cap- 
able, fearless laen altot^ther in Its confidence and entiriiv In 
sympathy with its designs, it is clearly helpless to do more 
than afright those officials whose consciences are their accus- 



^rs 



U" 



And it is easy to see hov; the eorrmands as v^ell as the ques- 
tionr? of Congress may be ?vaded, if not dirsetly disobey ?d. by 
the executive agants. Its Committees may conrnand, '^ut th^y can 
not superintend the execution of their commaiids. The Sicr-it- 
ari^s, though not free enough to have any independent policy of 
their own, are fr«e enough to be very poor, beca'ise very unman- 
ageable, servaiits. Once installal, their hold upon their of- 
fices do^s not depend upon the will of Congress, If they 
please the President a,i»a itaa^. u^on llvlnt terms with their col- 
leagues, they need not seriously regard the displeasuri of the 
Houses, unless, inieed, by actual crime, they rashly nut them- 
selves in the way of its judicial wrath. If tneir folly ^e not 
too overt and extravagant, their authority may continui theirs 
till the earth has four times made her annual Journey round th"^ 
sun. They may make daily blunders in administration, and re- 
peated mistakes in business, may thwart the plann of Coiignss 



<..^ 



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(301 

In a hundrfJd sinal . , v'?xatlou3 v.avq, and yo t i ] th^ v.hlj'i snap 
th^Jir fintars at Its d issat isf aij t ion or dlspi o.isu r«. They iro 
denied thn g rat if leat ioji of po-ssassint: r«al po^.^r, hut triey 
ha\ tl\3 satisfaction of baliit seeuro in a petty In-I^^; endanc i 
YtJ^ioh f^ivos thain a ehance to ba tricky and schamlng. 'pn-^a ar^i 
vays and v/ays of oheyint : and If Congr^gs ha not plaasid, wny 
naad they care*' Contr^ss did liOt give thani thair iiiacas. and 
cannot easily t^^aka them away. 

Still, it remains trna that all th^ big affairs of tha de- 
partments are conducted in ohedianca to tha direction of tha 
Standing Jommlttees. Tha President nominates, and v.ith legis- 
lative approval, appoints to the more ii;iportai.t offi*-'es of tho 
govarnmant, and the members of the Cabinet haie the privilege 
of advising him as to matters in most of v.hieh ha has n-"' pov/er 
of final action without the concurrene-? of th? Senate: ^ut the 
gist of all policy is decided by J agi a^ '^♦' ive , not hy exec rive. 
will. It can be no great satisfaction to any mai* to possess 
the barren privilege of suggestlnL the best maan?i of manatlng 
the every-day routine Susineas of the several hureauxao long as 
the larger plans which that business is meaiit to acivance are 
made for him by others v.ho ar"; set over hi:'. If one la ooinnan- 
de i to go to this plac-> or to that place, and must go will he 
d4J 1 he., it jaii be hut si lal 1 solace to him that ha is 1 "' f » free 



rr tP 



ZiUf 



(31) 

to datannim whotmr h-i v;ilJ rid"* or w-ilk in tnint; t,h^ journoy. 
The r.nly serious questions are wh'^ther or not, this so tnit and 
r-^aJ control '^xert-Ti by Joneress can ^e -jJterais^d efficlintly 
and with sufficient rosponsihil i ty to t,hr.8-> whom Crsngress r->- 
pres^nts, and wheth'jr good e^v^rnnent is pr'^noted by tnn arra..,, 
inent . 

No one, I take it for crantid. is iiaposed to ,iisi.lio«. tm 
prineipie that the representatives of the people are tne proper 
ultimate authority In all matters of go\ -jrnmant: and that adciln 
istration is merely th^ clerical part of governiaent. Lo^iaia- 
t ion is the orifclnating force. Tt deternims what shall ^e 
done; and th=? President, if he eann'-'t or y/111 n^t stay iee. Isl^"^- 
tion by the use of *iis extraordinary pov/er as a '-"ranch of the 
lee 1 si ature , i^ piainJy hound in duty to render unquis t ioning 
Obedience to Congross. And, if it. ^e his duty to obey, still 
more is obedience th"? bounden duty of his subordinates. The 
Pover of makinfi lav<s is iu its very nat ire and essence the pow- 
er of direetlne. and that power is given tn Coneress. ThT prln 
cipl? is without drawback, an! is inseparably of a piece v/lth 
all Anglo-Saxon usate: the difficulty, if there be any, must 
1 i-^ in th-i choice of ra^aus \/here">y to ei.ertlz"! thT ;'rinclplo. 
The natural means would seem to be the right on the part of th"? 
represeiit at 1 ve body to ha^ e all the executive servants of its 



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II to 



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(32) 

wlJ 1 un'.'=ir Its elo3'? and constant auporvlBlon an! to no id tmrn 
to a strict account abll Ity :- - In oth^r wor>!s to hav9 the j-rl- 
il9C2 of disnissinc them whenovor thrjlr sorvici bicarne unsatis- 
factory. This is th"? matt -jr-of - cour-3n prn.ljee^ of Tviry othor 
mastir; and If Congress do^s not possTss it, its rniateryls haii- 
pered without ^-^^inc d«nl«d. Th*» ox'JO'jt. iv ■! ^'♦'Ijials ir-' it i 
servants all the sanfl; the only dlf^'inne'^ is that if thoy 
prove negi igent or IncapaMe or df^ceitfui s'?r\ant8, Con^rag.s 
must rost content v/lth the h-jst ti^.at caii b? LC'^t out of tiw;.: un- 
til its chief administrative agent, the Presid3nt. chor.se.i tn 
appoint better. It eann^-'t inaKG thern doaile, though it. inay . - 
pel thern to be obedient In all greater matters. In authority 
of rule o'ontress is made mast'^r, but in means of rule it 13 
made mere magistrate. It comiaan Is with a^solut^e lordship, but 
it can discipline for disobodlenci only by slow and formal ju- 
dicial p Tree 33 . 

TJpon Macblavei 1 1' 3 d^ cl arat ion that •nothing is mon ir:ipor- 
tant to the stability of the state, than that facility should 
bo given by its constitution for the accusation of thos*^ who 
are supposed f have comnltted ai^y public wront'.* writer lii 
th^ V^ostminster Review ma'^es this thoufehtfui commeiit: 'The bona 
fit of such a provision Is two-fcJ '. Pint. t>io salutary fear 
of the probable coming of a day of accou..t will restrxln th-* 



(33) 

&vil practices of sonv? had rnon and sej f - sto-^o r •; j s-^c^ndiy, t, no 
l';£;al outlet of accusation tJ"''*3 \ent. to ,> recant humours iu t no 
^ody politic, which, if checked and driven inv.ar', would work 
to tho utter riiii of the constitution- the distinc- 
tion is lost "between accusation and calumny."" And of courso 
it \.as these benf?fits v/hioh our fei^ral Const i tut i""'!! was meant 
to secur^j by means of its iiachinery of impeachment.. No servant 
of the State, not eveii the President hii.iseif, v/as to be beyond 
the reach of accusation by the ilouse of Representatives and trf- 
trJal by the Senate, But the proeess^Js of impeachment, like 
those of amandnent , are ponderous ana difficult to handle. It 
requires somethln£ like pass'ion to set them a- going: and n'^t n- 
int short of th? grossest offences against th^ piaiii law of f.io 
land will suffice to give them speed and effectiveness. Indig- 
nation so gr ?at as t "^ overcrrw party Interest may sicurc a con- 
viction: nothing less can. Indeed, judging by our past experi- 
ences, impeachment may b^ said to be little more than an er.pty 

enace. The House of Representatives is a tardy grand- ^ury and 
the Senate an uncTrtain court. 

Besides, gnat crimes such as might speed even impeachment 
are not ordinary things In the loosest pubi Ic service. An open 
eyed public opinion can generajly giv-» them effective check. 
That which usually and every day clogs and hampers good 60\-»rn- 

^ V/e_atmin8^jjr Rev_ie_w . Vol.6e,p.l93. 



■• t 



SJbBU 



p.* vtrf 



(34) 

raant Is folly or ineapaoity on th? part, of tht miniat'^ra of 
Stat^. Even mon necessary, therefore, than a power c J ""'t md 
with authority to aeouso, try, and punisn for puhi ie orii.ie ia 
some ultimate authority \.h08e privilege it shall be to dlsml js 
for In'^f f le ieney . Impeachment Is aimed al to t^^'^'^r abrve the 
head of business management . A m3rehant v.'"uld n^'t thixik. it 
fair, eveii if it -./^re lav/ful, to shoot a clerk v/ho could not 
learn the business. Dismissal is quite as effective for his 
purposes, and more mercifuj to the clerk. The cryin£ Ineonvon- 
iene^ of our system Is, therefore, that the constitutional au- 
thority whosi prerogative It is to direct policy an<^ overs=je 
administration has fev.er facilities for totting its ..o rk tell 
done than has the humblest citizen for '^htaJnirig satisfactory 
aid In his own undertakings. The authority most interested in 
appoiatnent s and dismissals In the civil service has iittie to 
do with the one and less to do with the other. The President 
appoints with the sanction of the Senate, and cannot dismiss 
his ad\i3ers v/ithout legislative consent; yet the ministers in 
reality serve, not the President, but Congress: and Congress 
can neither appoint nor dismiss. In other words, th-" President 
must in both acts take the initiative, though he is not t ne 
real master; and Congress, which i«5 the real master, has in 

■^Tenure of Office Act, ai ready discussed. 



(3r.) 

these vital matters only a consuitativ^ voIct, v^hian it nay ut- 
tar, through its uppir eham'b^r, only whei. its opinion is asKo 1. 
I should re^arc' my business as a hopelos"? undTrtaking if my 
chief agent had to be appointeJ by a third party and. besides 
beinL himself put beyond my powsr of control, were charged v;ltn 
the ehr ic! and discipline of ail his subordinates, subject not 
to my directions but simply t '" my acquiescence.' 

The ralations existing bet\.een Congress and the departments 
must be fatally demoralizing to both. There is and can be be- 
tween them nothing like confidential and thorough cooperation. 
The departments may be excused for that attitude of hosMiity 
\.hioh they sometimes assume towards Congress, because it is 
quite human for the servant to f^ar and dec-jive the master whom 
he does not regard as his friend, but sMspects of being a dis- 
trustful spy of his movements. Congress cannot control t h -j of- 
ficers of the executive without disgracing them. Its only whip 

examinat ion 
is investigation, semi- judicial ^i^tvQ ot ig at ion into corners sus- 
pected to be dirty. It raust draw the public eye by openly avo,, 
Inc a suspicion of malfeasance, and must then magnify an i in- 
tensify the scandal by sotting its committees to cross- exai.un- 
ing scared subordinates and sulky ministers. And after all is 
o\ ^r and the nurtier out, probably nothing is done. The of find- 
ers, if any oni has offended, generally reiiain in office, sham- 
ed before the world and rtiined in the estimation of aJ i honest 



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(30) 

people, but still Jrawint th^lr salaries au;I comfortably ii.ait- 
Inf T^r the sh'- rt uomory of tho public r.^.iiid t -. f- r. ■> t t-r. rhy 
unaarth th^ carcass if you caiuiot removfl if 

.*>>'^7h9n, toq th=? d'5part:nent s frequontly coinijlain of the in- 
•^ eessant exactions made upon them by Coner^ss. They grumble 
that they are kept busy in sat igf vine its curiosity and in moot 
iiig the demands; of its uneasy activity. The clerks have ordin- 
arily as much as th^y can do in keeping afoot the usual routine 
busiiiess of their dipartments: but Uoneress is continually cai.- 
1 inp, upon them for inff^rmation v/hieh must he labouriously col- 
lected from all sorts of sources, remote and acees.sible. A 
great speech In the Senate may cost thim hours of anxious toil: 
for the senator who makes It is quite likely befnrehani to in- 
troduce a resolution calling upon one of the Secretaries for 
full statistics with reference to this, that, or the other top- 
ic upon which he desires to speak. If it be finance, he must 
have comparative tables of taxationj if it be eor.vnerce or tho 
tariff, he cannot dispense with any of the minutest fit^res of 
the Treasury accounts; v/hatever be his them.-*, he cannot lay his 
foundations more surely than upon official inf ori.iat Jon , and tho 
Senate is usually unhesitatingly ready with an easy assent tr 
ti ? resolution which puts the whole cleriea] f- rce '-'f tie adi^in 
istration at his service. And of course the House too asks in- 



(37) 

numerable questions v/hloh patient el?rks and protest jng Sgeret- 
aries must answer t" the last and nost minuts particular. This 
is What the departmental officials testily call the tyranny of 
Concrsss, and no impartial third person can reasonably forbid 
them the use of the word. 

I know of fov/ things harder to state jlearly and within rea- 
sonable compass than just hf.v/ thT nation keeps control of poli- 
cy in spite of these hide-and-seek vagaries of authority. in- 
deed it is doubtful if it does keep control through all the 
roundabout piths which legislative and executive responsibility 
are permitted to tak"?. It must follov/ Congress somewhat blind- 
ly: Congress is knov/n to obey v/ithout altogether understanding 
its Committees: and the committees must consign the execution 
of thiir plans to officials \/ho have opportunities not a few to 
hoodwink them. At the end of these blind processes is it prob- 
able that the ultimate authority, the people. Is quite clear in 
its mind as to what has b=ien done or what nay b^ done another 
time"? Take, for example, financial policy,-- a very fair ex- 
ample because, as I hav« shown, the legisl at ive/ stages of fin- 
ancial policy are more talked about than any other Congression- 
al business,-- though for that reason an extreme exai/iple. If, 
after appropriations and adjustments of taxation have been tar- 
dily and in much tribulation of scheming and argument agreed 



4* --. 



X iA V* 



(33) 



h 



upon the House, the imperative suggestions and stubborn insis- 

A 

tenee of the Senate confuse matters till hardiy the Conference 
Committees themselves know clearly what the outcome of the dis- 
agreements has be-inj and, if when thes? compromise measures are 
launched as laws the method of their execution is beyond the 
view of the Houses, in th? semi-privacy of the departments, how 
is the comprehension,-- not to speak of the will,-- r.f the peo- 
ple to keep any sort of hold upon the course of affairs? Thoro 
are no serews of responsibility v.-hleh they can ttirxi upon the 
consciences or upon the official thumbs of the Congressional 
Committees principally concerned. Congressional Committees are 
nothing to the nation: they are only pieces of the interior 
mechanism of Congress. To Congress they stand or fall. And, 
since Cr.iigrass itself can scarcely be sure of having its ov/n 
v/ay with them, the constituencies are manifestly unlikely to bo 
able to govern them. As for the departments, the people can 
hardly do more in drilling them to unquestioning obedience and 
V>ocile efficiency than Congress can. Congress is, and must be, 
in these matters the nation's eyes and voice. If it cannot see 
v;hat goes wrong and eaainot get itself heeded v/hen it commands, 
the nation likewise is both blind and dumb. 

This, plainly put, is the practical result of th? piecing 
of authority, the cutting of it up into small bits, which is 



.C iU 



.«• tttn:\n 



(39) 

(jontrivRd in our constitutional system. PJaeh branch of th.^ 
govermn'^nt is fitted out with a small seetion of responsibility 
whose limited opportunities afford to the conscience of each 
many easy escapes. Every susp'jcted culprit may snift tm re- 
sponsibility upon his feliov/s. Is Conerass rated for corrupt 
or imperfect or foolish legislation. It may urge that it has 
to foilov.' hastily its Committees or do nothiiiO at all but talk; 
how can it help it if a stupid Committee leads it unawares in- 
to unjust or fatuous enterprises? Does administration blunder 
and run itself into all sorts '^ f straits? The Secretaries has- 
ten to plead the unreasonable or unwise eonxMands of Con£raf?s, 
and ConBress falls t'< blajnine the Secretaries. The Secr3».arias 
aver that the whole mischief niight have been avoided if they 
had only been allowed to suggest th^ proper meaauresj and the 
men who framed the existing measures in their turn avow their 
despair of good goveriv-aent so long as they must entrust all 
th^ir plans to the bungling incompetence of men who are appoint 
ed by and respoiislble to somebody else. How is the school-mas- 
ter, the nation, to know which boy needs the whipping? 

Moreover, it is impossible to deny that this di\'ision of 
authority and concealment of responsibility are calculated to 
sub;3ect the government to a -^ ery distressing paralysis in mo- 
ments of emergency. There are f^w, if any, import aiit steps 



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(40) 

that ean be ta;;en hy any One 'braneh of the governraent v/ithout 
the consent or cooperation of some other branch. Congress must 
act through the President and his Cabinet; th« President and 
his Cabinet n^ust wait upon the v/jll of Congress. There is no 
one, supreme, ultimate head,-- whether mafcistrate or representa- 
tive body,-- which can decide at once and with conelusivT au- 
thority what shall be done at those times when some decision 
there must be, and that iminediateiy . of course this lack is of 
a sort t <^ be felt at all times, in seasons of tranquil rounds 
of business as well as at periods of sharp crisis: but in times 
of sudden exigency it m.lght prove fatal,-- fatal either in 
^reakine down the system or in failing to meet the emerc-ncyV 
Policy cannot be either prompt or straightforward when It must 
serve many masters. It must either equivocate, or hesitate, or 
fail altogether. It may set out with clear purpose from Con- 
gress but get waylaid or maimed by the Executive. 

If there be one prinoipie clearer than another, it is this, 
that in any business, whether of government or of mere merehan- 
dizint, somebody must be truste d, in order that whei; things go 
wrong it may be quite plain v/ho should be punished. In order 



* These 'ifs' are abundantly supported by the executive acts of 
the war-time. The Constitution had then to stand asidethat 
President Lincoln be as promt as the seeming necessities of 
the time. 



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(41) 

to drive trad? at the speed and with the success you desira.yn'i 
must confide without suspieioxi in your chief clerk, giving him 
the power to ruin you, "because you thereby furnish him with a 
motive for serving you. His reputation, his ov/n hOiiour or dis- 
grace, all his ov/n commercial prospects hang upon y^ur success. 
And human naturs is much the same in government as in the dry- 
goods trade. Pow e r and strict accoun tability for its use are 
the essential constituents of feood eovernment. A sense of high- 
est responsibility, a dit^nifyint anc elevating sense of being 
trusted, together \/ith a consciousness of being in an official 
station so confspicuous that n*"' faithful discharge of duty can 
go unacknoY,'l*dged and unrewarded, and no breach of trust unt^'is- 
Govered and unpunished,-- these are the influences, the only 
influences, which foster practical, energetic, and trustv/orthy 
statesmanship. The best rulers are always those to whom great 
power is entrusted in such a manner as to make them feel that 
they will surely be abundantly honoured and recompensed for a 
just and patriotic use of it, and to make them kiiOw that no- 
thing can shield them from full retribution for every abuse of 
it. 

It is, therefore, manifestly a radical defect in our fed- 
eral system that It parcels out pov/er ai.d confuses responsibil- 



t •* 'f,^ •■ « tS'"'^ 



',r ■•^w 



(42) 

ity as it does. The main purpose of the Convention of I787 
ae^rns to have been to aeeornpligh this grievous mistake. The 
•literary theory of cheeks and balances is simply a consist- 
ent account of v/hat our constitution-makers tried t- do; and 
those cheeks and balances have proved mischievous just to the 
extent to which they hav. succeeded in e stabl i shine /jthems elves 
as realities. It is quite safe f. say that were it possible 
to call together again the members of that wonderful Jonventio.. 
to view the work of their hands in the 1 ieht of the emtury 
that has tested it. th-y would be th? first f admit that the 
only fruit of dividing power had been to maive it irr.3s,.onsibl ?. 
It is just this that has made c ivii- servie ^ reform tarry in 
this country and that makes it still almost doubtful of issue. 
V'e are in just the cas? that England was in before she achieved 
th- reform for which we are striving. The date of the nform 
in England is no less significant than the faet. It v^as not 
aeeompiished until a distinct responsibility of the Ministers 
of the Crown to one, and to only one, master had been establishod 
beyond all uncertainty. This is the most striking and sugges- 
tive lesson to be gathered from Wr. Eaton's interesting and 
valuable history of Civil Service in Great Britain. The reform 
was originated in 1153 by the Cabinet of Lord Aberdeen. It 
sprang from the suggestion of the appointing officers and was 



« .-. • 



.J T 



(h3) 

carried throueh in the face of opposition from th^ hous'. of 

Commons, because, paradoxically -nough. the Ministry had at. 

last eome to f^el their responsibility to the Coniraons , or ra- 

tner to the nation whom th'? Uornnions represented. 
K 
Tpse great improvements which have been made in the public 

service of the British empire since the days of \vaipole and 
Mewaastie have gone hand in hand with the perfeetine of the sys 
tern now known as responsible Cabin<^t government. That system 
was slow In coming to perfection. It was not till lone aft-r 
Walpole's day that unity of responsibility on the part of the 
Cabinet,-- and that, singleness of responsibility which made 
them look only to th^ ^-ommons for authority.-- came to be re- 
cognized as an established constitutional principle. "As a 
consequeMce of the earlier practice of constructing Cabinets of 
men of different political views, it followed that the members 
of such Cabinets did not and could not regard their responsibil- 
ity to Parliament as on^ and Indivisible. The resignation of 
an important member, or even of the Prime Mini.'jf^r, was not re- 
garded as necessitating the simultaneous retirement of his col- 
leagues. Even so 1 at ^ as th^ fall of Sir Robert Walpole, fifty 
years after the Revolution Settlement (and itself the first in- 
stance of resignation in deference to a hostile parliamentary 

vote) v/e find the Kinp requf=»qtinD i"air.^i»» 

life '«Mu .sting VaJpole' s successor, Pulteney 



6(lf 



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:■ f. 



- .t 



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(44) 

'not to distress thT Gove rnrnent .by marine too many ehai;ges in 
th"? midst of a session; and Puiteney replying that he would be 
satisfl-^d, provided 'the main forts of the (love rninent', or, in 
other v/ords, the principal offices of State, were place:' in his 
hands. It vvas not till the lisplaeement of Lord North's min- 
istry by that of Lord R'-'Ckineham in 1732 that a v;hole admiais- 
t ration, with the exeeptioii of the Lord Chancellor, was changed 
by a vote of want of confidence passed in the House of Crinrnoiis. 
Thenceforth, hov/sver, tha resignation of the head of a Govern- 
ment in deference to an ad\erse vote of the popular chamber has 
invariably been accompanied by the resignation of all his col- 
leagues.** But, even after the establishment of that precedent, 
it v/as still many years before Cabinets were free to please 
none but the Jommons,-- free to follow tlieir own policies v/lth- 
out authoritative sugtestion from the sovereign. 'Jntil the 
death of the fourth George they were made to feel tnat they 
owed a double allegiance: to th? Cormnons and to the ki2:ig. The 
composition ^f Ministries still depended largely on the royal 
whin, and their actionswere hampered by the necessity of steer- 
ing a careful middle course between the displeasure of Parlia- 
ment and the ill will of His Majesty. The present century had 
run far on towards the reign of Victoria before they were free 
■^■Central Government" (Eng. Citizen Series J , H. D. Trail 1 , p . 20 . 



(45) 

to pay undivided obsdionee to the representatives of th« people, 
V'hen Once they had become responsible to the commons alon-^, hov/ 
»ver, and almost as soon as they \irir<9 assured of th^ir new po- 
sition as th'3 servaiits of the nation, they -wen prompted to 
even hazardous efforts for the reform of the eivil service. 
They v/er? conscious that the entire weight and respoxisibii i ty 
of governneiit rested upon their shoulders, and, as men regard- 
ful of the interests of the party which they reijresented , jeal- 
ous for the preservation of their ov/n fair names, and anxiou3, 
consequently, for the promotion of wise rule, they were natur- 
ally and of course the first to advocate a better system of ap- 
pointment to that service whose chiefs they wer? recognised to 
he. They were prompt t -" declare that it was the "duty of the 
executive to provide for the efficient and harmonious working 
of the civil service", and that they could not "traiisfer tnat 
duty to any other body far less competent than themselves v.itd- 
out infringing a great an l important constitutional principle, 
already too often infringed, to the great detriment of the pub- 
lic service." They therefore determined themselves to Inaugu- 
rate the merit system without waiting for the assent of Pari ia- 
;ent , by simply surrendering their power of appointment in the 
\arious departiaents to a noii- part isan examining board, trusting 
to the power of public opinion to induce Parliament, after the 



thine had be.n done, to ^ o t e^jutfie lent rnon.y t.o put th. .ehone 
inf^ successful operation.! And they did not rec;.on without 
th.ir host. Reluctant as the merahers of th. Hous. of commons 
vv^re to resien that control of the national patronage which 
th.y had from time Immemorial hean accustomed to exercise by 
means of various crooked indirections, and which it had been 
their pleasure and their pov.er to possess, they had not the 
face to avow their suspicious umvil 1 ineness In answer to the 
honourable call of a trusted Ministry who were supporte.; in 
their demand by all that was honest in public sentiment, and 
the world was afforded the gratifying but unwonted spectacle of 
party leaders .acrif icing to the cause of good governm.ent. free- 
ly and altogether of their own accord, the -spoils" of office 
so long dear to the party an' to the assembly which they repre- 
sented and served. 

In this country the course of the reform wag quite the re- 
verse. Neither the Executive nor Congress began it. Th^ call 
for it came imperatively from the people; it was a formulated 
demaiv-I of public opinion made upon Congress, and it had to be 
made again and again, each time with more determined emphasis, 
before Congress heeded. It worked its v.ay up from the convic- 
tions of the many to the purposes of the fe-.. Amongst tne 
chief difficulties that have stood In Its way, and which still 
bloc, its perfect real i.at ion. i s that peculiarity of structure 



-T sehern« of 



(47) 

which I have .ust now pointed out as Intrinsic in th 
'ivided power which runs through th. Constitution. One ofl^n 
ditions precedent to any r,a] . and lasting, reform of_ th. livil 
service in a country whose public service Is moulds J by the 
conditions of sel f - gove rx.nent . is the drawing of a sharp line 
Of distinction between those offices which are poetical and 
thos. Which are n_ox.- pol it ical. The strictest rules of business 
discipline. Of merit-tenure and earn.d promotion, must rule ev- 
ery office whose incumbent has naught to do with choosing be- 
tween policies^ but no rules except the choic. of parties can 
or should make and unmake, reward or punish, those officers 
Whose privilege it is to fix upon the political purposes which 
administration shall be made to serve. Thes. latter are not 
many under any form of government. There are said t- be but 
fifty such at most in the civil service of Great Britainj but 
these fifty go in or out as the balance of power shifts from 
party tr. party. in the ease of our own ci^ il service it would. 
I take it. be extremely hard to determine wher- the line should 
he drawn. in all the higher grades this particular distinction 
■U quite Obscured. A doubt exists as to the Cabinet itself. 
Are the Secretaries political or non-pol it leal officers? It 
would seem that they are exclusively neither. They are at 

least s emi- pol i t icaJ tihai;^ ^».» ^ * i- 

loiiziQAi. ihey are. on the one hand, merely the 



$1 



(48) 



servants of Congress, and y^t, on the other hand, they have t- 

n'-'Ugh freedom of disc r-^t ion to mar and eolour, if not to choose, 

o 
political ends. They can wreck plans, if they cannot make them. 

Srould they be made permanent official a heeausi they ar-^ mere 
Secretaries; or should th^ir t^nur^depend upon the fortunes of 
parties because they have many chances to ren'er party services? 
And if the one rule or the other is to be applied to them, to 
ho\/ many and to \/hich of their chief subordinates is it t <"i be 
extended? If they are not properly or necessarily party men, 
let then pass the examinations and run the gauntlet of tne usu- 
al tests of efficiency,-- let errand-boys work up to Secretary- 
ships; but if not, let their responsibility to their party be 
made strict and det erm.inate . That is the cardinal point r f 
practicable civil service service reform. 

This doubt as to the exact sjtat^us in the system of the 
chief ministers of state is a moat striking coirsnentary on the 
system itself. Its complete self is logical and simple. But 
its complete self exists only in theory. Its real self offers 
a surprise and presents a mystery at every change of view. The 
practical observer who seeks for facts and actual condition?; of 
organization is often sorely puzzled to come at the real methods 
of government. Pitfalls await him on every side. If constitu- 
tional lawyers of straitlaced consciences filled Congress and 



^ '-I 



(49) 

offiesred the dspartrnont s , ^ve ry elauso of the Constitution 
\.'Ould h^ accorded a formal ohodlehee and it v/ould be as easy to 
know beforehand just what th3 government v/ill be like inside to- 
morroY/ as it is nov. to know v.'hat it v/as like outside yesterday. 
But neither the knowledge nor the consciences of politicians 
keep them very close to the Constitution: and it is \<ith polit- 
icians that W3 have to deal nov/adays in studying the government, 
Every goveriunent is largely v/hat the men are who constitute it. 
If the character or opinions of legislators and administrators 
change from time to time, the nature of the governmeii't changes 
v;itn them: and as both their characters and their oi^inions do 
change very often it is very hard to make a picture of the gov- 
ernment which can b^ said to havi been perfectly faithful yes- 
terday and can be confidei^tly expected to be exactly accurate 
to-morrow. Add to these embarrassments, which may be called 
the embarrassments of human nature, other embarrassments such 
as our system affords, the embarrassments of subtle legal dis- 
tinctions, a fine theoretical plan made in delicate hair-lines, 
requirements of lav; v.hich can hardly be met and can easily and 
naturally be evaded or disregarded, and you have in full the 
eoiiception " f the difficulties which att3nd a practical exposi- 
tion of the real facts of federal administration. It is not 
impossible to point out v/hat the I'xeeutive was iiitendid to be. 



♦ J •> 



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(50) 

vvhat is has sometimes been, or v.hat it liiight be j nor is it for- 
bidden the diligent to discover tho main conditions whien mould 
It to the forms of (jongressional supremacy; but more than tnis 
is not to be expected. 



id: 

/" conolusion 



"Political philosophy must analyze? political his- 
tory; it must distiixguish what is due to the fix- 
eellenee of the people, and what to the oxeeileace 
of tho la\/sj It must carefully calculate the ex- 
act eff»et of each part of the constitution, 
though thus it may d'^stroy many an idol of th*? 
multitude, and detect the secret of utility v.hsre 
hut fev: imagined it to lie." -- Raeehot. 



Congress alv/ays makes what haste it can to legislate. Tt is 

L 

the pr^me object of its rules to expedite 1 av;-makint; . Its eus- 
torns ar^ fruits of its characteristic dili^enee in enaetr.nnt. 
Be the matters small or great, frivolous or grave, which busy 
it, its aim is to have 1 av/s always a- making. Its temper is 
strenuously legislative. That it cannot regulate all the ques- 
tions to which its attention is weekly invited is its misfor- 
tune, not its fau^t, is due to th? human llm.itation of its fac- 
ilties, not to any narrow circumscription cf its desires. If 
its (Jornjrittee machinery is inadequate to the task of brijitiiig 
t*- action more than one out of every hundred of the bills in- 
troduced, it is not because the quick clearajace of the docket 
is n'- 1 the motive of its rrganlc life. If legislation, there- 
fore, were the oxily or the chief object for which it should 
live, it would n^it be p<^ssi■^^J'> to \/ithhold admiration froii". 
those clever hurrying rules and those inexorable customs which 



(2) 

H9^.K to facilitate it. Nothing:, but a dr.ubt a.-s to \.hQther or 
not Congrass should confine itsQjf to law-making can ehallencQ 
v/ith a question the utility of its or^janizat ion as a facile 
statute-d9visin£ machine. 

The political philosopher of these days of s ?i f -tove rnrnant 
has, however, something more than a doubt v/ith vnieh to gainsay 
the usefulness of a sovereign representative body which con- 
fines itself to legislation to the exclusion of all other func- 
tions. Buckle declared, indeed, that the chief use and value 
of legislation nov/adays lay in its opportunity and pov/er to 
remedy the mistakes of the legislation of the past; that it was 
beneficent only when it carried healing in its wings; that re- 
peal was more blessed than enactment. And it is certainly true 
that the greater part of the labour of legislation consists in 
Qarrying the loads recklessly or bravely shouldered in times 
gone by, when the animal which is now a bull was only a calf, 
an' in completing, if they may be completed, the tasks once un- 
dertaken in the shape of unambitious schemes which at the out- 
set looked innocent enough. Having got his foot ixito it, the 
legislator finds it difficult, if xiot im.possibio, to get it out 
again. "The modern industrial organization, including ^anKS, 
corporations, joiiit-stock companies, financial devices, nation- 
al debts, paper currency, national systems of taxation, is 



rt-^ t.'\ 



(.3) 

largely th^ ar--»ation of legislation (not. in its historical ori- 
gin, hut in the mod-3 of its existence and In its autnority) and 
is largely regulated hy lagislation. Capital is the oreath of 
life to this organization, and every day, as the orcanJzation 
becomes more complex and delicate, the folly of assailing capi- 
tal or credit '^eeomes greater. At the saune time it is evident 
that the task of the legislator to ombraee in his view tne 
whole system, to adjust his rules so that the play of tne civil 
institutions shall not alter the play of the eeonornie forces, 
requires more training and more acumen. Furthermore, the gr.aat 

er the complication and delicacy of the industrial system, the 

-er 
great the chances for cupidity whei^ hacked hy craft, and the 

task of the legislator to meet and defeat the attempts of this 

cupidity is one of constantly increasing difficulty." 

Legislatioii unquestionably generates legislation. Every 

statute may be said to have a long lineage of statutes behind 

it: and v/hether that lineage he honourable or of ill repute is 

as much a question as to each individual statute as it ^an bo 

with regard to the ancestry of each individual legislator. Ev- 



*Prof. Sumner's Andrew Jackson {/an. Statesmen Ser ies) . p. 226 . 
'^'Tinally* , adds +4*-. S.,''tho methods and machinery of democratic 
republican sel f -gov =i rnment , - - caucuses, primaries, comKiitteos, 
and conventions,-- lend themselves perhaps more easily than any 
other methods anl machinery to the uses of selfish cliques 
v/hieh seek political influence for interested purposes." 



(4) 

sry statute in its turn has a numerous prn^^'ny and only t irno 
and opportunity ean d'?Gid3 whether its offspring will bring it 
honour or shame. Cnee begin the dance of legislation, and you 
must struggle through its mazes as best you ean to its braath- 
less end,-- if any "*nd there be. 
K^ It is not surprising, therefore, that the enaeting ,. revis- 
ing , tinkering, repealing of laws should engross the attention 
and engage the entire energy of such a body as Congre tis . It is, 
however, easy to see how It might be better empioyedi or at 
least hov/ it raight add others t '" this ove rshadowinf function to 
the infinite advantaj^e of the government. Ouite as important 
as legislation is vigilant oversight of administ rat ion; and 
even more important thaii legislation is the instruction and 
guidance in political affairs which the people might receive 
from a body which kept all national concern-; suffused in a 

road daylight of discussion. There is no similar legislature 
in existence which Is so shut up to the one business of ^awyma- 
klng as is our Congress. As I have said, it in a way superin- 
tends administration by the exercise of semi - judic ial pov/ers of 
investigation, whose limitations aiid insufficiency are manifest. 
But other natio, al legislatures command administration and veri- 
fy their name of 'pari lament s' by talking official acts into no- 
toriety. Our extra-constitutional party conventions, short- 



rTach- 



(5) 

lived and poor in power as they ar.B. constitute our only 
in.ry for that sort of control of th. exeeutiv. which consists 
in the award of personal i^ards and punishments. This is the 
cardinal fact which differentiates Congress from th. Cha^nber of 
Deputies and from Parliament, and which puts it beyond the 
reach -f those eminently useful functions whose exercise wou;d 
so raise it in usefulness and in dignity. 

An effective representative body, gifted with the pow^r to 
rule, ought, it v/ould seem, not only to speak the v;lli of the 
nation, which Congress does, but also to l.ad it to its conclu- 
sions, to utter the voice of its opinions, and to serve as its 
-^yes la superintending all matters of government.-- which U-n- 
eress does not do. The discussions which take place in Uon- 
eress are aimed at random. They now and again strike rather 
sharply the tender spots in this. that, or the other measure: 
hut. as I have said, no two measures consciously ^oln In pur- 
pose or agree in character, and so debate must wander as v;idely 
as the subjects of debate. Since thero is little coherency a- 
bout the legislation agreed upon, there can be little coherency 
about the debates. There is no one policy to be attacked or 
defended, but only a score or two of separate bills. To attend 
to such discussions is uninteresting; to be instructed by them 
is impossible. There is some scalidal and discomfort, but in- 



(6) 

finite advantage, in having every affair of admixiist rat ion sub- 
jected to th-j test of constant exajnination ^n tne part o| tne 
assembly which represents the nation. The ehi3f us ^ rf sucn 
inquisition is, not th^ tlirectioji of those affairs in a v/ay 
with which the country v.ill he satisfied (though that itg^lf is 
of course al 1- import ant ) , but the enl ightenraant of the peoplo, 
v/hich is alv/ayg its sure consequence. Very fev.' men are unequal 
to a danger which they see and understand: all men quail before 
a threatening which is dark and unintelligible -- and suspect 
what is il'^ne behind a scr93n. If the p'-;ople could have, through 
Congress, daily knowledge of all the more important transae- 
tion.T of the goverm.iental offices, an insight into all that now 
seems withheld and private, their confidence in the Executive, 
now so often shaken, v/ould, I think, be very sooxi established. 
Because dishonesty can lurk und^r the privacies nov/ vouchsafed 
our administrative agents, much that is upright and pure suf- 
fers unjust suspicion. Discoveries of guilt in a bureau cloud 
v.ith doubts the trustworthiness of a department. As nothing is 
open enough for the quick and easy det-iction of pf?culation or 
fraud, so nothing is op^i. enough for the due vindication and 
acknOY/ledgement of honesty. The isolation and privacy v;hich 
shield the one from discovery cheat the other of rev/ard. 

Inquisi t iv?Be ss is laeyor so forward, enterprising, and ir- 



(7) 

rapressible as in a popular assembly which is given l^^av^ to 
ask questions and is afforded ready and a lundaxit means of get- 
ting its questions ansv/er'jd. No eross-'^xarninat ion is rnoro 
searching than that to v/hieh a Minist^^r of the Crowii is subjec- 
ted by the aii -curious oomrnons, "Sir Robert Peel once asked to 
have a number of questions carefully \.ritten do\/n which they 
aske ■■ him one day in succession in the House of uonunons. They 
seamed a list of ev^rythin^ that could occur in the British em- 
pin or to the brain of a member of Parliament." If one con- 
sidered only the v/ear an' tear upon ministers of State which 
the plague of constant interrogation must inflict, he could 
wish that their lives, if useful, might be spared this blieht 
of unen-ing explanation; but no on-r? cai. overestimate the imrnence 
advantage of a facility so unlimited for knowini all that is 
going on in the places where authority lives. The conscience 
of every member of the representative body is at thi service 'f 
the nation. All that he feels bound f knov/ he eai. find out: 
and what he finds out goes to the ears of the country. The 
question is his, the answer the nation's. An i the inquisitive- 
ness of such bodies as C-nigross is the best conceivable source 
of information. congress is the only body \,hich has the pr'--per 
motive for inquiry,, and it is the only body which ha-? the power 
'^ Bagehot , Essay on Sir Robert Peel, p. 24. 



T 1 f 



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to 



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L'iii- 



(3) 

to act sffeet, iveay upon ths kno>vled{:;3 v/hieh its inquiries ga- 
>3ur'?. The Prflss is msrely eurinus or merely partisan. The pao- 
pl 3 ar^ scattered and unorganized. But Cnn£ress is as it v/or'? 
th'? eorporat3 people: the mouthpiece of its vill. It is a sov- 
ereign delegation which could ask qu'3st ions with diGziity, ba- 
caus-? v/ith authority and \,'ith pover to act. 

Congress is fast b«eoming the governing b-'dy of the nation, 
aiiJ yet the '^nl y po\/e r v/hich it possesses in perfection is the 
power which is but a part of government , the power of iegisia- 
tion. Legislation is but the nil 'f gov eriirient . It is that 
\/hieh lubricates its channels and speeds its wheels: that which 
lessens the friction and so eases the movement. Or perhaps 1 
shall be admitted to ha\e hit upon a elf-ser aiid apter analogy 
if I say that legislation is like a forem.an set over the forces 
of government. it issues the orders v<hich others obey. It di- 
rects, it admonishes, but it does not do the actual heavy work 
of Government. A good foreman does, it is true, himself take 
a hand in the v/ork which he guides: and so i suppose our legis- 
lation must be likened to a poor foreman because it stands al- 
together apart from that work which it is set tr see well done. 
Members of Congress ought not to be censured too severely, ho>/- 
ever, -..hen they fail to check evil couri^es on the part of th? 
Executi\e. They have been denied th-'S means of doing so prompt- 



^ * ■ • 

''■-' . • ■ Hit I r 



f;-fc' 1, : af ti »«*«t iOJk'VT'^^ Al- 

ii'*- h«M 



(9) 

ly and with ©ff^et. V.Tiatever Intention may hav? eont rolled tng 
eornpromlses of eonst i tut ion-raakin£ lu ITar, their rssult \;a3 to 
give us, not govsriiinont hy discussion, which is th3 only tolsr- 
abi e sort of a governnant for a pfjopia which tries to do its 
own governing, "but only legisl at ion by discussion, which is no 
moT'^ than a small part of gnv^rnnent by discussion. What is 
quit3 as indisp'^nsabl e as th^ d'?bate of problems of legislation 
is the debate of all matters of administration. It i^ even 
more important t <"• know hov; the house is being buiit than to 
know how the plans of the architect were eoneeived and how his 
specifications were caleulatad. It is b«tter to have skilful 
work,-- stout v/al 1 s , reliable arches, unbending rafters, and 
v.indov/s sure to "expel the v/inter*s flaw",-- than a dravnng on 
paper which is the admiration of all the practical artists In 
the country. The discipline of an army depends quite as much 
upon the temper of the troops as upon the orders r.f the day. 

It is the proper duty ^f a representative body to look dili- 
gently into e\^ry affair of go\ernment and to talk much about 
what it sees. It is meant to "^^e the eyes and the voice, and to 
embody the wisdom and will of its constituents. Unless con- 
gress have and use every means of acquainting itself \/ith the 
acts and the disposition of the administrative agents of the 
government, the country must be helpless to learn how it is be- 



(IC) 



inG ser-<ed| and unless (Jon^rsss "both serutiniz"; these thiii^s 

and sift, them by every form of discussion, tho country nust re- 

l 
nain in ^rnharrass ine , crl],)r)lin£ ;Krgnoranee of the v^ry affairs 

which it is most important that it should understand and direct. 
The inforrninfc function of Congress should be preferred «ven to 
its 1 ac i si at i-^-e function. The argument is not only tnat dis- 
cussed and interrogated administration is the only pure and ef- 
ficient administration, but, mor> than that, that the only ra- 
aliy self-governing people is that people which discusses and 
Interrogates its administration. The talk Oii the part of Con- 
gress which we sometimes justly condemn is the profitless squab- 
ble '■■f words over frivolous bills or selfish party issues. It 
v/ould be hard to conceive of there being too much talk about 
the practical concerns and processes of government. Such taJk 
it is which, when earnestly and pur;iosef ui i y conducted, clears 
the public mind and shapes the demands of pxihi ic opinion. 

Congress eould not ^e too diligent about such talking: vnore- 
as it may easily be too diligent In legislation. It often over- 
does that business. Tt already sends to its Committees ^ills 
too many by the thousand to be given even a hasty thought: but 
its immense Committee faculties and the absence of all other 
duties but that of legislation make it omnivorous in its appe- 
tite for ne\/ subjects for cons ide rat loii, it is greedVj^^^lfHj^,, have 



a tast3 of every possihle dish that may bo put upon its tahia, 
as an "extra" to tha eoi:i3t itut i oi\al hill r.f fare. This dispo- 
sitiozi on its part is the more notable because there is eer- 
talnly loss need f •: r it to hurry ami overv/or/t itself at law-ma- 
kine than exists In the eas'^ of nost other great national legis- 
latures. It is not State and national legislature combined, as 
are the Uorninons of Engi :ind and the Uhaunbers of France. Like 
the Reiehstae of our cousin Germans, it is restricted to sub- 
jeets of imperial scope./ IjLS-^t.l^ought s are m a nat - to be kept for 
national interests. Its time is spar-jd the waste of attention 
to local affairs. It is even forbidden the vast domain of the 
laws of property, of commercial dealint, and of ordinary crime. 
And even ii. the matter of earint for national interests the v/ay 
has from the first been made plain and easy for it. There are 
no cloeelng feudal institutions to embarrass it. There is no 
long-continued practice of legal or of royal tyranny for it to 
cure,-- no clearing away of old debris of any sort to delay it 
in its exercise of a eomnonsense dominion over a thoroughly 
modern and progressive nation. It is easy to believe tnat its 
legislative purposes might be most fortunately clarified and 
sim.plifled wore it to square them by a conscientious attexition 
to the pararaount and controlling duty of understanding, discus- 
sing, and directing administration. 



» . ^ . 



Ji\^iSt, 



>^^ '''^ 



If the people's authorlz'Jd f ep r^^isant at ives do n'">t t ak ^ upon 
th-^rnsalvTs this duty, and by id'^ntifyine themselves with the 
actual work ''f government, stand betweei. it and ^ 4» ^ irresponsi- 
ble, hal f- informed arltieism, to what harassraent s is the Execu- 
tive not exposed? Led and cheeked by Congress, the prurient 

L 

and fearless, because anonymous, an^adversions f-f the Press, 
nov/ so often premature and inconsiderate, might be disciplined 
into serviceable capacity to interpret and jud^e. Its energy 
and saeacity might be tempered by discretion, and strengthened 
by knowledge. Om of our chief constitutional difficulties is 
that, in opportunities for informing and guiding public opinion, 
the fr-^-'-'OT'i of the Press is greater than the freedom of Con- 
gress. It i.s as if newspapers, instead of tha board of direc- 
tors, were the sources of information for the stockholders of 
a corporation. We look into co r respondex:it s * letter;^ instead of 
into the Congressional Record to find out what is a-doint and 
a-planning in the departriants. Congr'jss is altog-ether exelud3d 
from the arrangement by which the Press declares what the Execu- 
tive is and conventions of the national partie;^ deoJde what the 
Executive shall be. Editors are sel f - cons t itute d our guides, 
and caucus delegates our government directors. 

Since all this curious scattering of functions and contri- 
vance of frail, extra-eonstitutionai machinery of gove rij.ient is 



;i t e A 



(13^ 

th5 result of that entire s'?paration of the legislative and ex- 
©eutivs "oranehss of the system which i^s with us so eharaeteris- 
tically md essentially const it ut ir.uai , it is exceedintily in- 
terestlne to enquire and important to understaiid how that sep- 
aratir-n earne to be insisted upon in the making, <^f the constitu- 
tion. Alexander Hamilton has in our o\;n times, as well as be- 
fore, been "severely reprcaehed with having said that the Brit- 
ish government v^as the 'best model in existence'. In 1787 this 
Y/as a mere truism. However much the men of that day differed 
tr.ey v/ere all agreed in despisint and distrusting a prior i con- 
stitutions and ideally perfect govari-iments , fresh from the 
brains of visionary enthuf? iast s , sucn as sprang up rankiy in 
the soil of the French revolution. The convention of 1737 was 
compo.sed of very a'^le m.en of the Engl ish- spea^vixit ^^^i^e. They 
took th^ system of government v/ith v/hich they had been familiar, 
improved it, adapted it to the circumstances with which they 
had to deal, and put it into successful operation, Hamilton's 
plan, then, like the others, v/as on the British model, and it 
did not differ essentially in details from that finally adopted, 
It Is needful- however, tC' remember in this connection what has 
already been alluded to, that v/hen that convention was copying 
the English constitution that constitution was in a stage of 
* H.C. Lodge ' g Alexander Haimilton (Ain. Statesmeii Se r i e s ) po . 60- 61. 



(14) 

transition and had by no means fully deveiop'^tl tm f?atuns 
Y/hieh are nov/ reeocnized as most eharaot "^rist icj of it. Mr. 
Lode'? is quit"? right in sayin£ that the convention, in adapt in^^ 
improved upon the English constitution with which its members 

•?re familiar,-- the constitution of George III and Lord North: 
the eonstitutiou which had failed t-- crush Bute. It could hard- 
ly be said with equal confidence, hov.-ever, that our system as 
then mads y/as an Improvemei.t upon that scheme of responsible 
Cabinet govermient which challenges the admiration of th^ wrrld 
to-day, though it was quite plainly a riark^d advance upon a Par - 
liamont of royal nominees and pensionaries and a secret Cabinet 
of "kint's friends". The Enei i sh constitution of that day had 
a great many features which did not invite republican imitatioxi. 
It was suspected, if not known, that the Ministers who sat in 
Parliament were little more than the tools of a Ministry of 
royal favourites v/ho v/ere kept out of sight behind tne strict- 
est confidences of tne court. It. \;as notorious tnat tne sub- 
servient Parliam.ents of the day represented the esates an' the 
money of the peers and the influence of the king rather than 
the int el 1 igeziee and purpose of the nation. The whole "form, 
and pressure" of the tine Illustrated Only too forcibly Lord 
Bute's sinister suggestion, that "forms of a free and the end.^ 

A, 

cf an arbitrary tovernment are things not altogother inconpati- 



ti III 



♦ .T«^/' 



tt 



dj-r, t 



■■^X !■ 



(15) 

M '^ . " It v^as . thorofon, psrf.^ctiy natural that til-? \.arnin£s 
to be so lasiiy drav/n from the sight of a despotic monarch bind- 
ing the usages and privil?t,-s of s3l f- tiove rnmeiit to th^ ser- 
vie3 of his own intemperatQ purposes should b-^ gi"^«n grave hood 
by Americans, who vven the v«ry persons v/ho had suffered most 
from th^ existing a'^uses. It was something more tnaii natural 
that the convention ^f 173"^ should desire to erect a Congress 
v;hich would not be subservient and an Executive which could not 

3 despotic. And it was equally to have been ^xpected that 
they should regard an absolute separation of these tv.o great 
branches of the system^the only effectual means for the accom- 
plishment of that much desired end. It was impossible that 
they could believe that Executive and legislature could be 
brf^ugt^t into close relations of cooperation and mutual confi- 
dence without being tempted, nay, even bidden, to collude. Hov, 
could either maintain its indapendence of action unless each 
„ere tr- have the guarantee of the Constitution that its own do- 

i,in should be absolutely safe from invasion, its own preroga- 
tives absolutely free from challenge? "They shrank from plac- 
ing sovereign power anywhere. They feared that it would gener- 
ate tyranny; George III had been a tyrant to then, and come 
what might, they v/ould not make a George ITI."' They would con- 

* Bag e hot , "Eng. Const. • .p.293. 



(16) 

qusr, by diviclint, the po\/.3r they sr> rnueh faarid to s-*=? in any 
s ingi ■; hand. 

"The English constitution, in a Vvord,"sa'"s our most astutT 
English oritie."is ^ ( - r ^am i d on ths principle of ehoosint. a siii- 
gi3 sovereign authority, and making it good: th-^ Amjriean, upon 
the prineipig of having many scver<5ign authorities, and hoping 
that their multitude may atone for their inferiority. Vh3 Am- 
ericans noY/ extol their institutions, and so defraud themselves 
of their due praise. But if they had not a genius f-r politics; 
if th = y had not a moderation in action singularly curious wh^n 
superficial speech is so violent; if th^y had not a r^iard T<^r 
la\,', such as no great people have ever evinced, and iiifiniteiy 
surpassing ours,-- th? multiplicity of authorities in the Ariier- 
icaxi Constitution would long ago iiav e br-^ught it to a bad end. 
Sensible shareholders, I ha\ 3 heard a shrewd attorney say, can 
v/ork any deed of settlement j and so the m«9n of Massachusetts 
c^uid, I believe, wor,; any const itut ^ on. •» It is not iieeegr?ary 
+ '- assent to Mr. Bagehot ' s strictures: but it is not possible 
t'-* deny the cl ear- signt ed ^ustic^ of this critjclsn. In ord^r 
^ '* be fair to the memory of our great const itut ioii-makers , how- 
ever, it is necessary to remember that vvhezi they sat in conven- 
tion in Philadelphia the English constitution, which they eop- 
•^i^agehot. "Eng. Const." , p . ^96 . 



I i - «^- 



"U 



(in 

i'Jd, v/ag iio t thT silinpis system v.'hieh was before Mr. Ba^jeho+'s 
eyes v.hen he wrot, ■?. Its siiijjie sovereign authority was not 
then a tv/iee- re formed H'^'use of C-ranions truly repr^seixtat iv e of 
the nation and readily obeyed by a responsible Ministry. Tha 
sovereignty v/as at see- saw between the throne and the Parliament,— 
and the throne-en<^ of the bean v/as generally u.'pennost. Our 
devise, of separated, Individualized powers, was very m\ich bet- 
ter than a no/ninal sovereignty of th^ CoiiTrnons which was suffer- 
ed t-^ be overridden by foree, fraud, or oraft, by the real sov- 
ereignty of th=^ icing. The English constitution \/as at that 
time In reality muoii worse than our ov/n; and, if it is now su- 
perior, it is so because its growth has not beeu ninder"?c' or 
destroyed by the too tight ligaments of a \/ritt3ii fundamental 
1 aw . 

The natural, the Inevitable, t'»ndenGy of every system of 
sei f-govirnm.ent like our own and the British is to exalt the 
representative body, the people's parlJament, to a position of 
absolute supremacy. That tendency has, I think, be^n quite as 
marked in '■•ur own constitutional history as in that of any oth- 
er country, though its power has been to some extejit neutralia- 
ed, and its- progress in great part stayed, by those denials of 
that supremacy v/hich v;e respect beeaiise they are writtei. in our 
lav;. The political lav/ written in our hearts is here at vari- 



^ riJr 



t ff 



(18} 

aiicft with that which th?? Constitution soue^t to establish. A 

writf^n constitution raay and often v.ill 'H'? violated in hoth Jat 

political tal'Jnts 
ter and spirit by a people of energetic h >. ->'n i t o and a k'^'^n in- 
stinct for progressive practical davel opment ; but so lont as 
they adher=? to th"? forms of such a constitution, so lont as the 
i.iachinery of government supplied by it is the only machinery 
which th'^ legal and moral sense of such a people permits it' to 
use. its political devei '-^pment must be In many directions nar- 
rowly r'jstricti^d because of an insuperable lad: of opezi or ade- 
quat-? channels. Cur Constitution, like every other constitu- 
tion -which puts the authority to make laws aiid the duty of con- 
troll ine the puM ic expenditure into the hands of a popular- as- 
sembly, practically seti that assembly to rule the affairs of 
the nation as supreme overlord. But, by separating it entirely 
from its executive agencies, it deprives it of tne opportunity 
and meaxis for making its authority complete and convenient. 
The constitutional machinery is left of such a pattern that 
other fr.rces less than that of Congress may cross and compete 
with Congress, though they are too small to overcome or long 
offset it; and the result is simply an unpleasant, wearing frlc 
tion which, with other ad justraont s , more felicit->us and equally 
sa'e, might riadiiy be avoided. 

Congress, consequently, is still lingering and chafing un- 




der just sueh einbar rassmant s as mad^ tne tngiish CoMnons a 
nuisance both to themselves and to everybody elsffl imrnadiately 
after the Revolution GettJernent had given them their fir^t sur^ 
promise of supreriaey. Th5.,-p^rei 1 el is atartlintiy exact. "In 
outer seeming the Favolution of I6'?3 had only transferred the 
sovereignty over England from James to William axid Mary, In 
actual fact It had given a powerful and decisive impulse to the 
great constitutional progress which was transferring the sover- 
eignty from the King to the House of (Jommons. From the moment 
when its sole right to tax the nation was established by the 
Bil i of Rights, and when its ov... resolve settled the practice 
of granting aiOiie but annual supplies to th? Crov/n, the House of 

Commons became the supreme power iii the State. 

But though the const itut if^nal change was complete the mach- 
inery of government v.as far from having adapted itself to the 
ne\.' eoiiditions of jjolitieal life which sueh a change brc-ught a- 
bout. However powerful the v;lli of the (Jori^.ions might be it had 
no means of bringing its will directly to bear on the control 
of public affairs. The Ministers who hid charge of them v/ere 
not its servants, but the servants of the (Jrown; It was from 
the King that looked for direction, and to the King that th»y 
held themselves responsible. By impeachment or mor=? indirect 
means the Comjnons coiild force a King to remove a Minister who 



(20) 

contradicted their willj but they had no constitutional power 
to replace th> fallen statesnan hy a Minister who \.ould carry 
out their will. 

*Tho result was th? gr-.wth of a ter.iper in the Lower House 
which drove William and his Ministers t- despair. It became as 
c-rrupt. as iiealous <■ f power, as fickle in its resolves and fae^ 
tious in its spirit as bodies always become v/hose coiisc iousness 
of the posaission of power is untempered by a corresponding con 
sciousness of th? practical difficulties or the moral responsi- 
bilities of the po\/?r v/hleh they possess. It grumbled -- 

and it blaraed the Crowii and its Ministers for all at which 

it grumbi^d. But it v;as hard to fini out what policy '"•r mea- 
sures it would have preferred. Its mood changed, as V'iliiam. 

^it tarry aomplalned. with every hour. - -- The 

Houses were in fact without the guidance of recognized leaders, 
without adequate information, and destitute of that organiza- 
tion out of which alone a definite policy can come."' 

The eur? for this state of things which Sunderland had the 
satacity to suggest, and 7*^11 liam. the wisdom tr apply, was the 
mediation betv/een king and (Jor.im.ons of a Cabinet re,^ resent at ivo 
of the majority of the popular chamber,-- a first but. long and 
decisive step towards responsible Cabinet government. V/n^tner 
■^- Green. "Hist, of the Eng. Peopl e" (iiarpe rs » ed.) IV, pp. 53. 59. 



f:\S Sti^ , 



-f ♦i ;■ 



t'i. 



lu*^ »,.0i .' 



4 ,f 4 rf 



(21) 

a sirallar remedy would b? possible or desirable in our o\/n caso 
it is altogeth3r aside from my present purpose to inquire. I 
am pointing out facts,-- diagnosing, not p r esc ri bint remedies. 
My only point "ust now is, that iio one can help '^eliig struck 
by the elosenf^ss of the likeness between the incipient distem- 
pers of the first Parliaments of V'illiam and Mary and the devel- 
oped disrrders nov/ so plainly diseernibie in the eoiist itution 
of CJonereoS. Though honest and dilij^ent, it is meddlesome and 
inefficient: and it is meddlesome and ineffieieait for exactly 
tne same reasons that made It natural that the post-Revolution- 
ary Parliaments should exhibit like clumsiness and like temper: 
namely, because it is "without the guidance of recognized load- 
ers, without adequate inforraat 1 on, an' destitute of that organJ' 
zatlon out of which al '-■ne a definite policy can come.'' 

The dangers of this serious imperfection in o\ir governrjicii- 
tai maehin jry have not bee>; clearly demonstrated in our experi- 
ence hitherto; but now their delayed f ul f ili.iei.t seem.s to be 
ciosT at hand. The plain tendency is towards a ce..t ral izat ion 
of all the greater powers of government in the haruls of the fed- 
eral authorities and towards the practical confirmation of those 
prerogatives of supreme overlordship which Congress has been 
gradually arrogating to itself. The central government is con- 
stantly becom.lng stronger anu more active: aiid Congress is es- 



tahlishlng its?iif as the on-^ 'iov3reit;n authority in that govern 
meiit. In constitutional theory and in ths broader featur--)s of 
past praetiee, ours has b'^^en \/hat. Mr. Ba^ehot has eallf^i a "oon- 
posite" govsrninent. Besides 3tat^ and federal authoritjos to 
dispute as tr< sovereignty, there ha"\e been Wi^-rtin t m federal 
system itself rival and irreconcilable powers. But gradually 
the strong: are overcoming the v/eak. If the signs of the timers 
are to be erelited, v;e ar? fast approaching an adjustment of 
sover ligjiity quite as "simple" a.s need be. Congress is not only 
to retain the authority it already possesses, but is to be 
' rought again and again f ae ^ to face v;ith still greater d eraands 
upon its energy, its \.'isdOTn, and its coixseienee, is to have 
ev e r- vv i deninf duties and responsibilities thrust upon it, with- 
out being granted a moment's opportunity to looK baeit from the 

pio\, to v;hich it has set its hands. 

and influence 
The sphere ^of national administration and national legisla- 
tion are widening rapi Uy. Cur populations ar? growing at such 
a rate that one's reckoning staggers at counting the possible 
:. ill ions that may have a home and a wotk on this continent ere 
fifty m.ore years\have filled their short span. The East will 
not alv/ays be the centre of nat T'onal life. The S'uth is fast 
accumulating wealth, and will faster recover influence. The 
^'est has alr?,).dy achieved a greatness which no man ca^; gainsay, 
and has in store a po^.er o^ futur-; grov/th which no man enn ^s- 



(23) 

tlmatG. Whether these seeti-'as ar 3 t'- be hanaoxiious '- r dissen- 
tient depends alrnOs* entirely upon the methods and policy of 
th^ federal governiiient . If that eovjrnrnent h?? nr t ear3ful to 
k3';p \v'ithin its o\/n proper sphere and prudent to square its 
'Ol iey by rules of national v>/3lfare, seotionai lines rmst aiid 
will be known; citizens of one part of the country nay look. 
\.ith j-jalousy and even with hatred upon their f ell o\/- e it izons 
of amother partj and faction must tear and dissension distract 
a country v.hieh Providence would bless, but which man may eur^o. 
The eoverniaent of a country ?!0 vast and \-arious must be strong, 
prompt, v,'ieldy, and efficient. Its strength must consist- in 
the certainty an:' u..ifornity of its purposes, in its ac^^ord 
\,'ith national sentiment, in its unhesitating action, and in It^ 
honest alms. It must be steadied and approved by open adminis- 
tration diligently obedient to the more per; anent judgments of 
public opinion; and its only active ageiicy, its representative 
chambers, must be equipped with something besides abundant pow- 
ers of legislation. 

As at present constituted, the federal govTrrJnent iacus 
strength because Its po\/3rs ar^ divid=5d; lacks prom.ptne -^ss be- 
cause its authorities are multiplied; lacks wieldiness because 
its proeesses are roundabout; lacks efficiency because its re- 
sponsibility is indistinct and its aotion without compit.^nt di- 



t - \t> I i ' , .-*> 



-*rf ■ r 



"^ -» f t 






(24) 

net ion. It is a govarnrxient in \/hlch every offie^r may talk 
about gve ry oth^r officer's duty without havinc to render 
strict account for not doinc hi?? o\/n, and in v/hicli the inasteBa 
aro held in cheek and off?red contradict iou by the servaiits. Mr. 
Lowell has called it "tov ^rxu-eiit by decl araat iou" . Talk is not 
sobered by any naeessity imposed upon th^se wno uttar it to 
suit thiir actions to their 'words. There is no day of c-i^r.oa- 
i no for words spokan. The speakers of a Congressional majority 
iiay, without risk of incurriri^ ridicule or discredit, condai^n 
what, their ov/n Cormnitt ees are doing; and th"; spokesmen of a min- 
ority may urge what contrary edurses they please with a \i3ll- 
trounde-^ assurance that what they say will be forgotten before 
they can be called upon to put it into practice. Nobody stands 
sponsor for the policy of the eov^rnment. A doiien men ori^in- 
at-3 it; a dozen compromisis twist and alter it; a dozen offices 
\.'hose nau-ies are scarcely known outside of '."'ashii^t^ f'^^ P'^^- i ^- ^ '"'" 
to execution. 

This is the defect to which, it will be observe", ' au con- 
stantly returning j to which T retJ+^itt- a^ain and again because 

-^very examination of the system, at whatsoever point be^un, 

to 
leads inevitabiy to it as a central secret. It is the defect 

\.hich interprets all the rest, because it is tneir coi.iiaon pro- 
duct. It is exernra if ierl in + *^ -^ extraordinary fact that the ut- 



*-~ . A 



1 ••k y.. i. 



-..£ ft 



.trv* 






(25) 

taraiices of the Pr?iss hav? greator w^it;ht and ara aeoord'i-'! 
greater credit, though the Prass speaks ^ntJraly vi/ithout author- 
ity, than the ut t'^ ran^jos of Coixgr^ss, though Congress poss'^ssoa 
all authority. Thfj gossip of th^ streot is listened to rather 
than the words of the law-makers. The editor directs public 
opiiiiou, the Coxig re ssmaii obeys it. V,''hen a presidential elac- 
tion is at hand, iiideed, the words of the polHieai orator ga.ii\ 
temporary heed. Ho is reeoyniaad as an autnority in the arena, 
as a professional critic competent to discuss the good and bad 
points and t '"> forecast the fortunes of the contestants. Tner-J 

L 

is something definite in hand, and hi is known to have studied 
all its bearings. He is one of ^'^e r-.anaters, or is thought to 
be well acquainted with the nanagernaxit . H'^ speaks "from the 
card*. But let hiru talk, not a'lout candidates, but about mea- 
sures or about the policy of the government, axid his observa- 
tions siiik at once to the levai of a mere individual expression 
of opinion, to \.hieh his political occupations seem to add very 
little Y/eight. It is universally recognized that he speaks \/ith 
out authority,-- about things \/hich his vote iiay help to set- 
tle, but about which several hundred other men have votes quite 
as influential as his ov/n. Legislation is not a thine + '^ '■■^^' 
knov/n before}iand. It dape^.ds upon the conclusions of sundry 
St ai. ding Committees. It is an aggregate, not a sim..ie. .-roduc- 



(26} 

tion. It is impossible to t^ill hov/ many persons' cninlons and 
influone^s hav=? Tiitsr^d Int o its eoiaposition. It is even ir,)- 

praeticable to det •^nnin'? frori this yoar's 1 a\;-rjakiiit^ v/i;at n^xt 
yoar ' s wil 1 be 1 ike , 

Sp'gakint, ther=;rore, without authority, tho political ora- 
tor spaaks to little purpose wh^n he spaaks about legislation. 
The papers do not r=;port hirn earefullyj and their editorials 
seldom take any eolour from his arguments. The Prass, being 
anonymous and representing a large fore? of inquisitve ne~^ hun- 
ters, is much more po\,-erfUi than he chiefly because it i_s im- 
personal and seems to repr'jsent a wider and more thorough range 
of information. At the worst, it can easily compete vvitn any 
ordinary in 'i-^-idual . Its individual opinioi; is quite sura to 
be esteemed as vvorthy of attention as any other individual o- 
pinion. And, besides, it is almost everywhere strong enough to 
deny currency to the speeches of individuals v/hom it does not 
care to report. It gOTs to its audieiice; the orator m.ust de- 
pend upon his audience coming to him. It can be heard at every 
fireside; the orator can be heard only on the platfona or the 
hustings. There is no Imperative demand on the part of the 
reading pu •-'1 ic in this couiitry that tne newspapers should re- 
port political speeches in full. On the contrary, most readers 
would be disglitsted at finding their favourite columns so filled 



r ♦ 



-^.l 



(27) 

up. By giving even a net. iee of irion than an iteii's leaetn to 
sueh a speech, an Gditor ruiiS the risk '^f o^int:' 'lejiouiio id as 
dull. And I bel i(5V9 that the position of the American Pr^ss J3 
in this re^^ard quita siiiguiar. "Th'^i Ent^iish ne\,gpaper .s are so 
far from beine thus in^'ependent and sei f - suf f ic i5nt p ov."? r s ^ 4*- 
— a lav/ unto themsalves, — in the politics of the empire that 
they are constrained to do hcsiiage to the political orator v/hsth- 
er they will or no. Conservative editors must spred before 
their readers \e rbat im reports not only of the speeches of the 
leaders of their ov/n party but also of the priiicipal speeches 
of the leading Liberal r.rat.or^: anil Liberal Journals have no 
choice but to priiit every syllable of ths more important public 
utterances of the Cr,nse rvat i\e leaders. The n<itioii insists up- 
on knowing v/hat its public men have to say, eve^i when it is not 
so v/eil said as the newspapers which report them could ha\e 
said it. 

There are only two things which can £ive aiiy maxi a right 
to expect that when he speaks the v/hole country will listen: 
namely, genius and authority. Pr'-.bably no on© will ever con- 
tend that oir Stafford IJor+hcote was an orator, or even a good 
speaker. But by proof <■ f unblemished character, and by assidu- 
ous, conscientious, and able [;ubl ic service he r-^se to be the 
recognized leader of his party in the House of commons: and it 



(23) 

is simply "because he speaks as on^ haviiit autnority, — and nr.t 
as ths serihss of th^ Pr-Jss, — that h^ is as sur=j of a he uiful 
h-iarine as is Mr. Gladstone, v/hn adds genius and nobi3 oratory 
to the authority of established leadership. The leaders of Lnp- 
lish publ ie life have something besides v/elght of character, 
prestige of personal service and experience, and authority of 
individual opinion to exalt them a'^ove the anonymous Press. 
They have definite authority and po\/er in the actual control of 
gove rnnfint . They are directly commissioned to control the poll 
ev of the administration. They stand before the country, in 
Parliament and out of it, as the re sponsible chiefs of tneir 
parties. It is their business to lead thos« parties, and it is 
the matter-of-course custom of t.h^ constituencies to visit up- 
on the parties the punishment due for the mistakes made by 
these chiefs. They are at once the servants an' the scapegoats 
of their parties. 

Tt i5 these v/e 1 i -est abl ishe 1 privii3fe.es axiJ resi^on^ ibi i i- 




ties of theirs v/hlch make th^ir littera^ces considered v.orth 
hearing, — nay, necessary to be he ;i/d and pondered. Their I'ub- 
lie speeches are th«?lr parties* platform^, What the leader 
promises his party *%ands ready to do. should it be entrusted 
with office. T- is certainty of audience a.iid of credit cives 
spice to wh-at such 1 eade rs ,,have to say and lends elevation to 



(29) 

the tone of all their public utt a ranees. They for the most 
part avoid buncombe, which would be difficult, to trariRia^te into 
Acts of Pari iarr.ent . It is easy to see hov^ treat an advaiitage 
their station and influence eive then nver our own public men. 
We have no such responsible party leadership on this side the 
sea: v/e are very shy about conferring much authority on anybody: 
and the consequence is that it requires something very like 
genius to secure for anyone of our state smeii a unive r sal 1 y- ro- 
coenized right to be heard, and to create an ever- act iv"* desire 
to hear him whenever he talks, not about candidates, but about 
measures. An extraordinary gift of eloquence, such as not ev- 
ery generation may hope to see, will always hold, because it 
will always paptivate, th-5 attention of the people. But genius 
anr' eloquence are too rare to be depended upon for the instruc- 
tion and i^uidance of th-" masnes; and since our politician.'^ lac'.: 
the credit of authority and responsibil.Uy , they must give place 
except at elect ion- 1 irae , to the Press which is everywhere, een- 
erally well-informed, and always talking. It is necessarily 
" governmexit by declamation" and editorial -\.'r it iii^. 

It is probably also this lack of leadership which gives to 
our national parties their curious conglomerate character. It 
\/ould seem tr be scare -ly an exajige rat inn to say that they are 
homogeneous only in name. Neither of the two principal parties 



t-c 



V .r 



I , ♦ 



w < 



t s 



•l ' : ' 1 



t ;t' 



(30J 

is of one mine' with itself, Eaeh tolerates a^ i sorts of dif- 
farenea of crf^ad and variety of aim v/ithin its ov/n ranks. Each 
pr?tends to the same purposes and permits amonfc its partisans 
the sam.e contradictions to thosi purposes. They are gr'^uped 
around no legislative leaders whose eapaei+y has beer ^-^sted 
and to \/hose opinions they loyally adhere. Th©y are like ar- 
ries withf^ut officers, engaged upOii a eampaicn \/hich has no 
great cause at its back. Their names and traditions, not their 
hopes and policy, keep th-^m together. 

It is to this fact, as well as tr. short teri.is \/nicn allow 
littl-- time for differences to come to a head, that tne easy 
agreeip.ent of Congressional m.ajor it. ies should be attributed. In 
other like assemblies the harmony of ma-orities is constantly 
liable to disturbance. I'inisters lose their following and find 
their friends falling away in the midst of a session. But not 
so in Congress. There, although the ma>;ority is frequently 
simply conglomerate, made up of factions not a few, and bearing 
in its elements every seed of discord, the harmony of party vo- 
ting seldom, If ever, suffers aa interruption. So far as out- 
siders can see. legislation generally flows placidly on, and 
the majority easily has its o\.n \/ay , acting with a sort nf mat- 
ter-of-course unanim.ity, with no suspicion of individual frs3- 
doi.i of action. V-'hatever revolts may be threatened or aecom- 



(31) 

plished in th-i rank> of the party outside the Houst at th? polls 
its pov;er is never broken inside th« House. This is doubtless 
duo in part to th^ faet that ther^ is no freedom of ds'->ate in 
the Hous^i -mt there can be no question that it is principally 
dUT to the fact that debate is \,ithout aim, just heeausT loeis- 
lation is ^/ithout consistency. Legislation is contlornerate. 
The ahsexiee of any e^neert of action arnont^t t ne Cor^Tnit t ees 
leaves legislation with scarcely any trace of determinate party 
courses. No two schemes pull together. If there is a coinci- 
dence of principle hetv/aen several bills of the saiae session, 
it is generally accidental: and the confusion of poiiey which 
prevents intellitent cooperation also, of course, prevents in- 
telligent differences and divisions. There is never a transfer 
of power from one party to the other during a s'^ssion because 
such a transfer would mean almost nothing. The ma-ority re- 
mains of one mind so long as a (Jonfcress 1 iv^ s because its mind 
is very vaguely ascertained and its power of planning a split, 
consequeiitly very limited. It has n<'' cor.unon m.ind, and if it 
had, has not the machinery for changing it. It is led by a 
score or t\/o of Gom.mittees v/hose composition raust remain the 
same tr, the end: and who are too numerous, as v/oll as too dis- 
connected, to fight against. Its stays on on-5 side because it 
hardly knows where the boundaries of that side ar^ or how to 



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(32) 

cross th^m. 

Moreovjr, ther'? is a a^rt-ajn WJl 1 - knoy/n pJTCT r.f U'^nr r-? r^.-s- 
ionaJ maehinery i one a.£;o inventod and applied for th'^ special 
P'lrpnso of ks'^ping both majority and rriinnrit y compact. Tha lof- 
islative caucus has almost as important a pg,rt in our systen a3 
i ^ a\"Ci the StaiidinB Cor"jn3 1 1 =?^s , and dassrv-^s as clnge study as 
thi'iy. Its f tine ti Oils ar^ much m.ore fiasily und'3r stood in all 
tb.'^ir boarings than those of ths Committees, hovvsver, because 
they are much simpler. 'rt\3 caucus is meant as an antidote to 
the Committees. It is d^siciied to supply the cohesive princi- 
ple v/h3ch the multiplicity and i^.u+ual independence of the Com- 
mittees so powerfully tend to destroy. Havin£ no Prime Minis- 
ter to confer with about the policy o-f th'? C'vement, as they 
see members of Parliament doing, our Contressmexi confer \.ith 
•^aeh r.ther in caucus. Rather than imprudeiitly expose to the 
.,orld the differenc-is of opinion threatened or dev sloped ai^ong 
its members, each party hastens to remove disruptine de'->at9 
from the floor "of coneress, where the speakers n.ight too has- 
tily commit themselves to insubo r<!inat ion, to quiat conferencss 
'•^ehind closed doors, wh^re frithtened scruples may ha reassured 
and every disagreement healed v/ith a salve of compromise or 
subdued with the whip of political expediency. The caucus is 
the dril 1 ing- ground of the party. There its Jiscipiim is re- 



C33] 

nev/ad arii", st rencthausd , its uniformity of st^,.' and gestun n- 
(. aiiisd. Th-? >otine and spgaking In the Houso ar'? generally 
merely th^ movements of a s'^rt of dress parade, fnr v/hien the 
exercises of the caucus are designed tr, prepare. It is easy to 
se'» ho\/ difficult it v/ould be for the party to Keep its nead 
amidst the confused c ross-nf^vernent s of the Joruiittees v.itnout 
thus now and again pulling Itself together in caucus, v/here it 
can ask Jtself its ov/n mind and pledge itself anev. t a '^t^rnal 
agreement . 

The credit of inventing this device is probably due to the 
Democrats. They appear to have used it so early as the second 

session of the eighth Congress. Speaking of that session, a 

±h I's 
reliable authority says: "During < T ho session of Congrass thera 

fvras far l-iss of frei and independent discussion on the measures 
propose ' bv friends- '^f the adriinist, rat i^n than had been i>re\i- 
'^usly practiced in both branches of the national legislature. 
Tt appeared that on the most important subjects,the course adop- 
ted by the majority was the effect of #■ caucus arrangem.ent , or, 
in other v/ords, had been previously agreed upon at meetings of 
t.ne Democratic members held in private. Thus tne legislation!^^ 
v/as constantly sv.ayed by a party following pledges ratti'^r tnan 



^cording to sound reason or personal coir iet i on. " ' The censure 
■*■ Statesman' s Manual, I: p . -3 3 ». Z-^-V-. 



mi' 



(34) 

implied in this last sont=^nee may ha\'e seamed righteous at th3 
time wh^n sueh eau^ius plsdges v/'?r2 in disfavour as new-fanLl^d 
shackles, ^ut it v.ould hardly ^e aeeeptsd as ^ust by thfj in- 
tensely practical politicians of to-day. They \.'Oul d pr|L>>ably 
prefer to put it thus: That the silv-ern s/S'^oh sp«!nt in caucus 
s'^curefi the £0ld3ii silsiic^ maintained on the floor of Uoxigress, 
making: each i>arty rich in eoxacord and happy in cooperation. 

The fact that raakes tnis defence of th-j caucus not altoge- 
ther eoxieluoive is that it is shielded from all responsibility 
by its sneaking privacy, lit has great power without any bax- 
anc in£ v/eight of accountability. Probably its d'^'^ates v/oul d 
constitute izit erdst ing and instructive reading f'^r the public, 
were they published; but they never get ou+ except in rumours 
often rehearsed and as of ton amended. They are, one nay taka 
it for gr.anted, much more candid and go much nearer the poii+lc 
al heafrt of the questions discussed than anythiaig tnat is evsr 
said openly iii O'ongress to the reporters' gallery. They ap- 
proach m.atters without masks and handles them without glox-es. It 
might hurt, '->ut it v.ould snlighten, us to hear tnem. As it is, 
however, there is unhappily no groun(? for denying their power 
^^«^o override sound reason and personal eoiwiction. The caucus 
cannot always silence or. subdue a large and influential minoTi- 
ty of dissentients, but its v/hip seidoT.i fails to reduce indiv- 



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(35) 

idual r.ial eont -Tnt. s and rnutlnifjrs into suhnission. Thers i s no 
plac? iii Uongr^jss ional jousts for thT fre? Janae. The mar. v;ho 
dlsob-^ys his party eaueus i^ unr?'? rst '-■od to disavow his party 
allegiaueo altogether and to assume that dangerous neutrality 
whjeh Is so apt to degsnerat^ into mer? eapriee and whieh is 
almost sure to destroy his influence by brinei^c him under tha 
suspicion of being unreliable, — a suspicion always eonelusivo- 
ly damnine in practical liffi. Any inc'ividuai, or any min'"'rity 
of w^ak numbers or snail influence, v^ho has the temerity to neg- 
lect the decisions -^f the caucus is sure, if the offence be of- 
t.Tn npeated, or even once committed upon an important issue, 
to be read out of the party, alm^-'St v/ithout chance of reinstate- 
ment . And everyone knows that nothing can be accomplished in 
politics by mere disagreem.ent . The only privilege such recal- 
citrants gain is t>^e nrj\ilege of disagreem.ent; they ari for- 
ever shut out from the privilege of confidential cooperation. 
They have chosen the helplessness of a faction. 

It must be adm.it ted, hoy^ever, that, unf ortunat. e as the ne- 
cessity is for the existence of such po\vers as th'-'se of tne 
eaueus, that necessity actually exists and eai-not be neglected. 
Against the fatal action of so many elements of disintegration 
it would seem to be im.pe rat ivel y needful that .some energetic 
element of cohesion should b -; proA'-ided. It is doubtful whether 



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(36) 

in any oth^r nation, \.'ith a shorter inh'? r it ane=; of pojltioal 
instinct, part i«»s eould long suee 3ssf ul i y r=>sist tm eentrifu- 
gal forces of th«? Conunittn^j system v/ith onJy th3 varyint attrae- 
tiou of the eaueus to detain thar.i. Th ? v/ondor ia that, despite 
the foreihl^ and unnatural divorcement of legislation and admin- 
istration and th-T consequent (Ustraction f^f legislation from 
ail attentioii t '• anything 1 ik--? an intelligent planning and sup- 
erintendence of i^olicy, we are not cursed v/ith as many factions 
as nov almost hopelessly confuse French politics. That \<e ha\o 
r.ad, and continue tn have, only two national parties of nation- 
al im.portanee or real po\<er is fortunate rather than natural. 
Their names stand for a fact, but scarcely for a reason. 

An inteliigeiit observer of '■ur polities'' has declared that 
there is in the ^Jnited States "a class, includiiit thousands and 
tens of thousands of the best r-e- in the country, wno think it 
possible to enjoy the fruits of goo.' gov ernirisnt witnout \vor;-;ing 
for them.." Everyone v/ho has seen beyond the outside r.f our j^m- 
^riean life must recognize the truth of this: to expjain it is 
to state the sum of all the most valid criticisms of Cc<i,i^r is- 
sional government. Public opinion has no easy \ehicle for its 
judgments, no quick channels for its action. Nothing about the 
system is direct and simple. Authority Is perplexingiy su^di- 
•^•Mr. Dale, of Birmingham.. 



vided and distributed, and responsibility ha^ to "ba hunted dovm 
ii"! out- of- the- Y/ay corners. So that th*^ sum of tho v/hol'? nattor 
is that the means of working for th-3 fruits of good fcioveriaiient 
ar^ not r-iadJiy to h-> found. The averag"? ejtizen may bT excus- 
ed for esteernint government at. best 'nit a haphazard affair, up- 
on v/hieh his A-ot ^ and all of his inf lueneeean have but littlo 
effect. Ho\.' Is his choice of a representative in Congress to 
affect the poleiy of the country as ref^^^s tae ^;Ut?stions m 
\,hicn he is ii'-st interested, if the man for t/hom h^ votes has 
no chance r>f getting on the Standing Committee v/hich has virtu- 
al charge of those questions? How is it to make any differei:ic3 
who is chosen President? Has the President any very great au- 
thority in matters of vital pojiey? It seems al:/''st a thixig of 
despair to get any assurance that any vote he may east will e- 
veii in an infinitesimal J-jgree affect the esse^.tial courses of 
administration. There are so many cooks mixing their ingredi- 
ents in the national "broth that it seems hopeless, this thJng 
of changing one cooi; at a time. 

The Chan.! "f "^ur const it. ut i Oxiai ideal has now been long o- 
noigh wound up to enable sober men who do not believe in pollt- 
icai witchcraft to ^,.udge what it has aecoi-.pi ished and is likeiy 
still to accomplish \/ithout further winding. Tne constitution 



(33^ 

is w^t honoucfid by blind v;orship. The mo n opoii-eyed we becomn 

as a nation to its .lefeets an.' the pror.ii't^r \r~i tm,. in appiyint 

,, ith th'=J unh-^sitat ini eoura^e of conviction all thorouthl y- tes- 

t-^d or wel 1- eonsidi^r^d ex,'edi9nt3 necessary to make sei f - ^ove r:i- 

Ment among us a st ralght f orwar I thing of simple method, singla, 

unstinted power, and clear responsibility, w<»- liear?? r will wo 

A 

approach to the sounc! sens'? and practical genius of the great 
and honourable statesmeai of 1737. And the first step towards 
e;.;ane ipat ion from the timidity and false prid'? which nav -> led 
us to seeii to thrive despite tn^ defects of our national systOT-' 
rather than seem, to deny its perfection is a f-^ariess critici3;i 
of that system. V'hen we shall have examined al i its parts with- 
out sentiment and guaged all its functions by the standards of 
practical comjoonsense , we shall have established an«?w our right 
to tne claim of political sagacity; and it v^ili rem.ain only to 
act intelligently upon what our opsiied eyes have seen in order 
to prove again the justice of our claim to political genius. 

THE END. 



Cj